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Volume 72 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 71 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 70 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 69 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 68 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 67 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 66 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 65 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 64 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 72 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
access type Open Access

The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Moderate Heat on Rat Pituitary ACTH Cells: Histological and Hormonal Study

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Global warming causes an increased ambient temperature and prolonged heatwaves during the summer, which represent stressogenic factors affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term (7-60 days) exposure to moderately elevated ambient temperature (35 ± 1°C) on the histological aspect and secretory ability of pituitary adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, as well as on the corticosterone output, in adult rats. Stereological parameters of ACTH cells were estimated upon immunohistochemistry. The blood concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were determined by immunoassays. The volume of ACTH cells in rats exposed to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 18.1%, 14.5%, 13.5%, 8.6% and 14.2% respectively, compared to the same parameter in the controls. The volume density of ACTH cells in the groups exposed to elevated temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 40.0%, 33.3%, 26.7%, 13.3% and 26.7% respectively, in comparison with control rats. The plasma concentration of ACTH varied differently (p<0.05) with the duration of exposure to the elevated temperature. The serum concentration of corticosterone was decreased (p<0.05) by 54.9%, 24.4%, 29.9%, 21.1% and 24.4% in groups subjected to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days respectively, all compared to the control value. Despite some signs of functional recovery of ACTH cells during the treatment, the impression is that the long-term character of this stressor overcomes the capacity of the HPA axis for resistance.

Keywords

  • ACTH cells
  • elevated temperature
  • pituitary
  • rats
  • stereology
access type Open Access

Moxidectin: A Viable Alternative for the Control of Ivermectin-Resistant Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Beef Cattle

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cattle especially for avermectins, is a challenge for controlling parasites in some herds. Thus, field studies demonstrating the increase in productivity by the use of anthelmintic formulations, even when a suboptimal treatment (efficacy below 95%), can contribute to the development of gastrointestinal nematodes control programs in beef cattle. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and productive performance in pasture-raised beef calves, treated with macrocyclic lactones. A Split plot in time randomized block design was used to assess weight gain and reduction in fecal egg count (FECs) of treatments: 1% moxidectin (1% MOX), ivermectin (IVM) and abamectin (ABM) (2.25% IVM+1.25% ABM), 4% IVM, 3.15% IVM and placebo. For the evaluation of FECs and weight gain of the animals, individual samples were collected seven days before treatment and, +14, +30, +56, +91 and +118 days post-treatment (DPT). The efficacies in the 14th DPT were: 72.3% (1% MOX), 22.1% (4% IVM), 22% (2.25% IVM + 1.25% ABM) and 0% (3.15% ivermectin). 1% MOX was the only treatment that resulted in a significant increase in weight gain of the animals compared to the placebo group after 118 days of treatment, with a difference of 7.6 kg. Therefore, MOX remains a viable alternative for the control of helminths resistant to avermectins and still capable of resulting in significant productive gains, even with an efficacy below 95%.

Keywords

  • Anthelmintic
  • macrocyclic lactones
  • resistance
  • ruminants
access type Open Access

Environmental Contamination by Parasites in Public Parks in Belgrade in the Context of One Health Approach

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 30 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

This paper studies the presence of developmental forms of gastrointestinal parasites in soil and sand samples, as well as in dog feces collected from public green spaces in Belgrade. The paper incorporates the spread analysis of contamination over different segments of parks. Four public green spaces in Belgrade were chosen, all containing an open-spaced children’s playground and a fenced dog park. Sample analysis of soil/sand was examined using qualitative methods without concentration (native slide) and with concentration (passive sedimentation and gravitational centrifugal flotation). In total, 106 samples have been collected out of which 60 samples of soil, 36 of dog faeces and ten samples of sand. Seven different agents have been detected, out of which five nematodes - Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and two protozoa - Isospora spp. and Giardia intestinalis. The overall prevalence of contamination of soil samples was 31.67% and a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ancylostoma eggs was found between different locations. The most common agent detected in the dog’s faeces was Isospora spp., with a prevalence of 5.56%, followed by Giardia intestinalis and ancylostomatids with a prevalence of 2.78% each. The sand samples had no parasitic elements found. The contamination by parasites and by dogs’ faeces was equally dispersed in all segments of the examined locations.

There is a great need to raise public awareness on the issue, and by the joint action of veterinarians, medical doctors, pet owners and people using public parks for recreation - a precondition is created for the sustainability of the “One Health” concept which implies the preservation of the environment and human and animal health.

Keywords

  • Belgrade
  • contamination
  • dogs
  • One Health
  • parasites
  • parks
access type Open Access

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Two Different Essential Oils Against Mastitis Associated Pathogens

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 45 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most common and costly diseases affecting dairy cows worldwide. Since antibiotic resistance has become a global threat to both animal and human health, it is becoming more urgent to continuously search for new therapeutical alternatives for the control and treatment of bovine mastitis. Hence, our research aimed to test the therapeutic use of two essential oils (EOs) based on their chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted by collecting milk samples from the cows diagnosed with clinical or subclinical mastitis with the aim of isolating and identifying bacterial strains. The antioxidant potential of essential oils of Menthae piperitae (MP) and Melissa officinalis (MO) was evaluated in several in vitro assays. In the MP EO, a total of 38 compounds were identified, with menthol as the dominant compound, whereas in MO EO 51 compounds were identified. Furthermore, the values of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) have been used to quantitatively measure the antibacterial activity of each essential oil. In accordance with which, MP EO samples exhibited a higher degree of antibacterial activity than MO EO. Thus, EOs have been shown to be promising alternatives to antibiotics because of their availability, biodegradability, and lower risk of side effects as compared with conventional, antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, further clinical studies are needed to test the potential role of EOs in treating mastitis in dairy cows.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • antimicrobials
  • essential oil
  • mastitis
  • menthol
access type Open Access

Evaluation of Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels as Inflammatory Markers in Calves with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 59 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

Iron and ferritin have been used in human medicine for years to reveal the presence of inflammation. However, studies evaluating these parameters, especially in respiratory system diseases, are quite rare in veterinary medicine. We aimed to test the usability of serum Fe and Fe-related parameters [total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS) levels] as inflammatory and diagnostic biomarkers in calves with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). To mark inflammation, some selected acute-phase proteins including serum ferritin and transferrin levels were measured because of their close relationship with iron metabolism. The material of this study consisted of 15 calves, aged 1-3 months with BRDC (Group I) and 10 healthy calves aged 1-3 months (Group II) based on the presence of respiratory clinical findings. Serum Fe, TIBC and TS levels were low and ferritin levels were high in Group I (P ≤ 0.001). The BRDC group was separated into two subgroups based on PCR results, namely Virus+ (n=9) and Virus- (n=6). The calves in the Virus+ group had significantly lower levels of Fe (P=0.001) and significantly higher values of ferritin (P=0.002), compared to the healthy group. On the basis of inter-group comparison and ROC analysis, we concluded that Fe (primarily), ferritin, TIBC and TS levels can be used as inflammatory biomarkers and possible diagnostic markers in the BRDC as useful, practical, inexpensive substitutes. As a suggestion, these parameters which are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, can be used as potential prognostic biomarkers in studies involving treatment.

Keywords

  • calf
  • iron
  • ferritin
  • inflammatory markers
  • bovine respiratory disease complex
access type Open Access

Improvement of Hygiene Practices and Milk Hygiene Due to Systematic Implementation of Preventive and Corrective Measures

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 76 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

The Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and the Somatic Cells Count (SCC) in the milk are important indicators of its hygiene and quality. Hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures immediately after milking, have direct or indirect influences on milk hygiene indicators. Poor results of milk hygiene quality, when it comes to SCC and TBC, which are often seen in dairy cattle farms in our country, indicate numerous omissions before and during milking. To determine the possibility of improving milk hygiene quality, training of extension service professionals and farmers was conducted, corrective and preventive measures were determined and the achieved state was monitored on 128 dairy farms where SCC and TBC were observed at regular monthly intervals for 6 months. The results showed a continuous statistically very significant improvement in hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures. This has contributed to a statistically very significant improvement in the hygienic quality of milk, both in SCC and TBC indicators, continuously from month to month, with a visible improvement at the end related to the beginning of the study period. At the begining and the end of survey 19.7% and 50.0% of milk samples belong to 1st class of milk quality, respectively, indicating a significant improvement after implementation of corrective measurements.

Keywords

  • corrective and preventive practices
  • hygiene quality
  • milking practice
  • the somatic cells count
  • the total bacterial count
access type Open Access

Comparison of Mosquito Larvicidal Formulations of Diflubenzuron on Culex Pipiens Mosquitoes in Belgrade, Serbia

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 87 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Culex mosquitos are important infectious diseases vectors in temperate and tropical regions of the World, affecting nearly 350 million people in both developed and developing countries. Our approach was to “recycle” the well-established larvicide, and by studying the tablets, pellets and granules as floating or sinking formulations, we found a method to optimise the use of diflubenzuron against Culex pipiens mosquitoes in field conditions.

A standard WHO procedure was used to test the larvicide efficacy. The combined efficacy of all floating formulations was 10.7% higher than sinking preparations (p-value =0.002) and that maximised throughout the experiment on days 14 and 21, (p-values 0.012 and 0.008, respectively). All floating formulations kept their efficacies above 70% until day 21 of the experiment, while the mortality of sinking designs dropped significantly after day 14. The lowest efficacy was observed when sinking granules were used and the highest when floating tablets were applied in the canals. Only the floating tablets showed no significant changes in efficacy from day 1 to 21, but then that efficacy drops sharp until day 35.

Since the larvae spend most of their time on the surface of the slow-moving waters to breathe, and floating pellets and tablets are made of materials that can serve as food sources, we conclude that these formulations have a higher efficacy, at least in conditions of non- or slow-moving waters. This study shows the importance of a systematic approach to reformulation of old, already proven and environmentally safe larvicides which can control the mosquito populations and their spreading of various pathogens.

Keywords

  • diflubenzuron
  • larvicide
  • mosquito
access type Open Access

Development and Validation of an Improved HPLC-UV Method for the Determination of Tildipirosin in Horse Plasma

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 100 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

A simple, rapid, low-cost, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine tildipirosin in horse plasma. Plasma samples were extracted with diethyl ether, and after evaporation, tildipirosin was determined by reverse-phase chromatography with an ultraviolet detector set at a wavelength of 289 nm. Tildipirosin was separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, 150 x 3.0 mm, 5 μm with gradient chromatographic elution. The retention times were 3.0 min and 6.4 min for tildipirosin and tylosin tartrate, respectively. The total run time was 9 minutes in this method.

Calibration curves ranged from 0.1 to 3 μg/mL. The lower limit of detection for plasma was0.035μg/mL, and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μg/mL. Both accuracy and precision were always < 12% exce pt for LLOQ < 20%. Mean recovery was 99.5 %. This procedure can be applied to determine tildipirosin concentrations in plasma and be useful to perform pharmacokinetic studies.

Keywords

  • horses
  • HPLC
  • plasma
  • Tildipirosin
  • validation
access type Open Access

Orthosis in the Conservative Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Dogs – Clinical Observations

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

Orthoses are increasingly frequently applied orthopedic devices in veterinary medicine. Injury to the knee joint with a rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is one of the main indications for the use of orthoses in dogs. This study aimed to present the results of treatment of 30 dogs with injured cranial cruciate ligaments using a knee orthosis and describe the reasons for the conservative treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The study was conducted between 2017 and 2019 and involved 30 dogs of various breeds aged 7 to 15, weighing from 2.5 kg to 45 kg, diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In the study, a stifle knee orthosis by the Polish manufacturer Admirał (Pl) was used in 29 dogs and, in one case, an orthosis by Balto (USA) was applied. In each case, the orthosis was selected individually, based on the measurements taken. In the twelfth week of treatment using orthoses, the owners of 25 dogs were satisfied with the results of conservative treatment with the application of orthoses. The caretakers of four dogs observed difficulties in the form of slight lameness at rest after prolonged exertion on the previous day. Running difficulty was observed in one dog. In the conducted study, the knee orthosis demonstrated good therapeutic effects in dogs up to 25 kg. In the majority of dogs, a slight increase in the flexion angle of the treated knee joints was observed, X-ray examinations did not show the degenerative disease progress during the studied period.

Keywords

  • stifle orthosis
  • dog
  • knee injury
access type Open Access

A Case of Leporine Dysautonomia from Croatia

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 118 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

Leporine dysautonomia (or dysautonomia of hares) is an idiopathic disorder associated with degeneration of neurons of the peripheral nervous system with loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve function. The disease has so far been described in rabbits and hares from Great Britain, and a similar disorder has also been described in horses (grass sickness), dogs and cats (Key-Gaskell syndrome) throughout the world.

We describe a case of leporine dysautonomia in a rabbit from Croatia, characterized by gross findings of cachexia, dehydration, dilated intestines and urinary bladder. Histologic findings included severe vacuolation of neurons of the submucous and myenteric plexus in the intestinal tract.

This disease presents a rare disorder of rabbits, and based on current report, it should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis is rabbits with neurologic clinical signs and mild gross findings including cachexia and distension of intestine and urinary bladder.

Keywords

  • Croatia
  • histology
  • leporine dysautonomia
  • pathology
  • rabbit
access type Open Access

Purulent Renal Papillitis Due to Streptococcus Infantarius Subsp. Infantarius in a Horse

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 124 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

A 6-year-old, male Arabian crossbred horse was necropsied after a 10 day history of loss of appetite, debility and weight loss. Gross and histologic examination was consistent with purulent papillitis due to Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius. The isolate was sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.

Keywords

  • Horse
  • equine
  • pyelitis
  • early hepatic cirrhosis
11 Articles
access type Open Access

The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Moderate Heat on Rat Pituitary ACTH Cells: Histological and Hormonal Study

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Global warming causes an increased ambient temperature and prolonged heatwaves during the summer, which represent stressogenic factors affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term (7-60 days) exposure to moderately elevated ambient temperature (35 ± 1°C) on the histological aspect and secretory ability of pituitary adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, as well as on the corticosterone output, in adult rats. Stereological parameters of ACTH cells were estimated upon immunohistochemistry. The blood concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were determined by immunoassays. The volume of ACTH cells in rats exposed to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 18.1%, 14.5%, 13.5%, 8.6% and 14.2% respectively, compared to the same parameter in the controls. The volume density of ACTH cells in the groups exposed to elevated temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p<0.05) by 40.0%, 33.3%, 26.7%, 13.3% and 26.7% respectively, in comparison with control rats. The plasma concentration of ACTH varied differently (p<0.05) with the duration of exposure to the elevated temperature. The serum concentration of corticosterone was decreased (p<0.05) by 54.9%, 24.4%, 29.9%, 21.1% and 24.4% in groups subjected to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days respectively, all compared to the control value. Despite some signs of functional recovery of ACTH cells during the treatment, the impression is that the long-term character of this stressor overcomes the capacity of the HPA axis for resistance.

Keywords

  • ACTH cells
  • elevated temperature
  • pituitary
  • rats
  • stereology
access type Open Access

Moxidectin: A Viable Alternative for the Control of Ivermectin-Resistant Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Beef Cattle

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cattle especially for avermectins, is a challenge for controlling parasites in some herds. Thus, field studies demonstrating the increase in productivity by the use of anthelmintic formulations, even when a suboptimal treatment (efficacy below 95%), can contribute to the development of gastrointestinal nematodes control programs in beef cattle. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and productive performance in pasture-raised beef calves, treated with macrocyclic lactones. A Split plot in time randomized block design was used to assess weight gain and reduction in fecal egg count (FECs) of treatments: 1% moxidectin (1% MOX), ivermectin (IVM) and abamectin (ABM) (2.25% IVM+1.25% ABM), 4% IVM, 3.15% IVM and placebo. For the evaluation of FECs and weight gain of the animals, individual samples were collected seven days before treatment and, +14, +30, +56, +91 and +118 days post-treatment (DPT). The efficacies in the 14th DPT were: 72.3% (1% MOX), 22.1% (4% IVM), 22% (2.25% IVM + 1.25% ABM) and 0% (3.15% ivermectin). 1% MOX was the only treatment that resulted in a significant increase in weight gain of the animals compared to the placebo group after 118 days of treatment, with a difference of 7.6 kg. Therefore, MOX remains a viable alternative for the control of helminths resistant to avermectins and still capable of resulting in significant productive gains, even with an efficacy below 95%.

Keywords

  • Anthelmintic
  • macrocyclic lactones
  • resistance
  • ruminants
access type Open Access

Environmental Contamination by Parasites in Public Parks in Belgrade in the Context of One Health Approach

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 30 - 44

Abstract

Abstract

This paper studies the presence of developmental forms of gastrointestinal parasites in soil and sand samples, as well as in dog feces collected from public green spaces in Belgrade. The paper incorporates the spread analysis of contamination over different segments of parks. Four public green spaces in Belgrade were chosen, all containing an open-spaced children’s playground and a fenced dog park. Sample analysis of soil/sand was examined using qualitative methods without concentration (native slide) and with concentration (passive sedimentation and gravitational centrifugal flotation). In total, 106 samples have been collected out of which 60 samples of soil, 36 of dog faeces and ten samples of sand. Seven different agents have been detected, out of which five nematodes - Ancylostoma/Uncinaria spp., Trichuris spp., Capillaria spp., Toxocara spp., Toxascaris leonina and two protozoa - Isospora spp. and Giardia intestinalis. The overall prevalence of contamination of soil samples was 31.67% and a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ancylostoma eggs was found between different locations. The most common agent detected in the dog’s faeces was Isospora spp., with a prevalence of 5.56%, followed by Giardia intestinalis and ancylostomatids with a prevalence of 2.78% each. The sand samples had no parasitic elements found. The contamination by parasites and by dogs’ faeces was equally dispersed in all segments of the examined locations.

There is a great need to raise public awareness on the issue, and by the joint action of veterinarians, medical doctors, pet owners and people using public parks for recreation - a precondition is created for the sustainability of the “One Health” concept which implies the preservation of the environment and human and animal health.

Keywords

  • Belgrade
  • contamination
  • dogs
  • One Health
  • parasites
  • parks
access type Open Access

Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Two Different Essential Oils Against Mastitis Associated Pathogens

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 45 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

Mastitis is one of the most common and costly diseases affecting dairy cows worldwide. Since antibiotic resistance has become a global threat to both animal and human health, it is becoming more urgent to continuously search for new therapeutical alternatives for the control and treatment of bovine mastitis. Hence, our research aimed to test the therapeutic use of two essential oils (EOs) based on their chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted by collecting milk samples from the cows diagnosed with clinical or subclinical mastitis with the aim of isolating and identifying bacterial strains. The antioxidant potential of essential oils of Menthae piperitae (MP) and Melissa officinalis (MO) was evaluated in several in vitro assays. In the MP EO, a total of 38 compounds were identified, with menthol as the dominant compound, whereas in MO EO 51 compounds were identified. Furthermore, the values of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) have been used to quantitatively measure the antibacterial activity of each essential oil. In accordance with which, MP EO samples exhibited a higher degree of antibacterial activity than MO EO. Thus, EOs have been shown to be promising alternatives to antibiotics because of their availability, biodegradability, and lower risk of side effects as compared with conventional, antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, further clinical studies are needed to test the potential role of EOs in treating mastitis in dairy cows.

Keywords

  • antibacterial activity
  • antimicrobials
  • essential oil
  • mastitis
  • menthol
access type Open Access

Evaluation of Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels as Inflammatory Markers in Calves with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 59 - 75

Abstract

Abstract

Iron and ferritin have been used in human medicine for years to reveal the presence of inflammation. However, studies evaluating these parameters, especially in respiratory system diseases, are quite rare in veterinary medicine. We aimed to test the usability of serum Fe and Fe-related parameters [total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS) levels] as inflammatory and diagnostic biomarkers in calves with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). To mark inflammation, some selected acute-phase proteins including serum ferritin and transferrin levels were measured because of their close relationship with iron metabolism. The material of this study consisted of 15 calves, aged 1-3 months with BRDC (Group I) and 10 healthy calves aged 1-3 months (Group II) based on the presence of respiratory clinical findings. Serum Fe, TIBC and TS levels were low and ferritin levels were high in Group I (P ≤ 0.001). The BRDC group was separated into two subgroups based on PCR results, namely Virus+ (n=9) and Virus- (n=6). The calves in the Virus+ group had significantly lower levels of Fe (P=0.001) and significantly higher values of ferritin (P=0.002), compared to the healthy group. On the basis of inter-group comparison and ROC analysis, we concluded that Fe (primarily), ferritin, TIBC and TS levels can be used as inflammatory biomarkers and possible diagnostic markers in the BRDC as useful, practical, inexpensive substitutes. As a suggestion, these parameters which are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, can be used as potential prognostic biomarkers in studies involving treatment.

Keywords

  • calf
  • iron
  • ferritin
  • inflammatory markers
  • bovine respiratory disease complex
access type Open Access

Improvement of Hygiene Practices and Milk Hygiene Due to Systematic Implementation of Preventive and Corrective Measures

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 76 - 86

Abstract

Abstract

The Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and the Somatic Cells Count (SCC) in the milk are important indicators of its hygiene and quality. Hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures immediately after milking, have direct or indirect influences on milk hygiene indicators. Poor results of milk hygiene quality, when it comes to SCC and TBC, which are often seen in dairy cattle farms in our country, indicate numerous omissions before and during milking. To determine the possibility of improving milk hygiene quality, training of extension service professionals and farmers was conducted, corrective and preventive measures were determined and the achieved state was monitored on 128 dairy farms where SCC and TBC were observed at regular monthly intervals for 6 months. The results showed a continuous statistically very significant improvement in hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures. This has contributed to a statistically very significant improvement in the hygienic quality of milk, both in SCC and TBC indicators, continuously from month to month, with a visible improvement at the end related to the beginning of the study period. At the begining and the end of survey 19.7% and 50.0% of milk samples belong to 1st class of milk quality, respectively, indicating a significant improvement after implementation of corrective measurements.

Keywords

  • corrective and preventive practices
  • hygiene quality
  • milking practice
  • the somatic cells count
  • the total bacterial count
access type Open Access

Comparison of Mosquito Larvicidal Formulations of Diflubenzuron on Culex Pipiens Mosquitoes in Belgrade, Serbia

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 87 - 99

Abstract

Abstract

Culex mosquitos are important infectious diseases vectors in temperate and tropical regions of the World, affecting nearly 350 million people in both developed and developing countries. Our approach was to “recycle” the well-established larvicide, and by studying the tablets, pellets and granules as floating or sinking formulations, we found a method to optimise the use of diflubenzuron against Culex pipiens mosquitoes in field conditions.

A standard WHO procedure was used to test the larvicide efficacy. The combined efficacy of all floating formulations was 10.7% higher than sinking preparations (p-value =0.002) and that maximised throughout the experiment on days 14 and 21, (p-values 0.012 and 0.008, respectively). All floating formulations kept their efficacies above 70% until day 21 of the experiment, while the mortality of sinking designs dropped significantly after day 14. The lowest efficacy was observed when sinking granules were used and the highest when floating tablets were applied in the canals. Only the floating tablets showed no significant changes in efficacy from day 1 to 21, but then that efficacy drops sharp until day 35.

Since the larvae spend most of their time on the surface of the slow-moving waters to breathe, and floating pellets and tablets are made of materials that can serve as food sources, we conclude that these formulations have a higher efficacy, at least in conditions of non- or slow-moving waters. This study shows the importance of a systematic approach to reformulation of old, already proven and environmentally safe larvicides which can control the mosquito populations and their spreading of various pathogens.

Keywords

  • diflubenzuron
  • larvicide
  • mosquito
access type Open Access

Development and Validation of an Improved HPLC-UV Method for the Determination of Tildipirosin in Horse Plasma

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 100 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

A simple, rapid, low-cost, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine tildipirosin in horse plasma. Plasma samples were extracted with diethyl ether, and after evaporation, tildipirosin was determined by reverse-phase chromatography with an ultraviolet detector set at a wavelength of 289 nm. Tildipirosin was separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, 150 x 3.0 mm, 5 μm with gradient chromatographic elution. The retention times were 3.0 min and 6.4 min for tildipirosin and tylosin tartrate, respectively. The total run time was 9 minutes in this method.

Calibration curves ranged from 0.1 to 3 μg/mL. The lower limit of detection for plasma was0.035μg/mL, and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μg/mL. Both accuracy and precision were always < 12% exce pt for LLOQ < 20%. Mean recovery was 99.5 %. This procedure can be applied to determine tildipirosin concentrations in plasma and be useful to perform pharmacokinetic studies.

Keywords

  • horses
  • HPLC
  • plasma
  • Tildipirosin
  • validation
access type Open Access

Orthosis in the Conservative Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Dogs – Clinical Observations

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 111 - 117

Abstract

Abstract

Orthoses are increasingly frequently applied orthopedic devices in veterinary medicine. Injury to the knee joint with a rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is one of the main indications for the use of orthoses in dogs. This study aimed to present the results of treatment of 30 dogs with injured cranial cruciate ligaments using a knee orthosis and describe the reasons for the conservative treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The study was conducted between 2017 and 2019 and involved 30 dogs of various breeds aged 7 to 15, weighing from 2.5 kg to 45 kg, diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In the study, a stifle knee orthosis by the Polish manufacturer Admirał (Pl) was used in 29 dogs and, in one case, an orthosis by Balto (USA) was applied. In each case, the orthosis was selected individually, based on the measurements taken. In the twelfth week of treatment using orthoses, the owners of 25 dogs were satisfied with the results of conservative treatment with the application of orthoses. The caretakers of four dogs observed difficulties in the form of slight lameness at rest after prolonged exertion on the previous day. Running difficulty was observed in one dog. In the conducted study, the knee orthosis demonstrated good therapeutic effects in dogs up to 25 kg. In the majority of dogs, a slight increase in the flexion angle of the treated knee joints was observed, X-ray examinations did not show the degenerative disease progress during the studied period.

Keywords

  • stifle orthosis
  • dog
  • knee injury
access type Open Access

A Case of Leporine Dysautonomia from Croatia

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 118 - 123

Abstract

Abstract

Leporine dysautonomia (or dysautonomia of hares) is an idiopathic disorder associated with degeneration of neurons of the peripheral nervous system with loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve function. The disease has so far been described in rabbits and hares from Great Britain, and a similar disorder has also been described in horses (grass sickness), dogs and cats (Key-Gaskell syndrome) throughout the world.

We describe a case of leporine dysautonomia in a rabbit from Croatia, characterized by gross findings of cachexia, dehydration, dilated intestines and urinary bladder. Histologic findings included severe vacuolation of neurons of the submucous and myenteric plexus in the intestinal tract.

This disease presents a rare disorder of rabbits, and based on current report, it should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis is rabbits with neurologic clinical signs and mild gross findings including cachexia and distension of intestine and urinary bladder.

Keywords

  • Croatia
  • histology
  • leporine dysautonomia
  • pathology
  • rabbit
access type Open Access

Purulent Renal Papillitis Due to Streptococcus Infantarius Subsp. Infantarius in a Horse

Published Online: 05 Apr 2022
Page range: 124 - 130

Abstract

Abstract

A 6-year-old, male Arabian crossbred horse was necropsied after a 10 day history of loss of appetite, debility and weight loss. Gross and histologic examination was consistent with purulent papillitis due to Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius. The isolate was sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.

Keywords

  • Horse
  • equine
  • pyelitis
  • early hepatic cirrhosis

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