- Journal Details
- First Published
- 25 Mar 2014
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
The Investigation of DNA Damage Induced by Adrenaline in Human Lymphocytes in Vitro/Ispitivanja Oštećenja DNK Izazvanih Adrenalinom U Limfocitima Čoveka in Vitro
Page range: 281 - 292
Adrenaline is a neurotransmitter and hormone that plays an important role in physiological regulatory mechanisms. The objective of this study was to assess primary DNA damage in isolated human lymphocytes exposed to adrenaline using the in vitro comet assay. Dose-response of human lymphocytes was determined at concentration range of adrenaline from 0.01 μM to 300 μM for various treatment times (1h, 2h, 4h and 24h). The obtained results showed that adrenaline induced DNA damage at concentration range from 5 μM to 300 μM after 1h, 2h and 4h of treatment. The slightest DNA damage was observed after 24 h of adrenaline treatment - only the highest concentrations of adrenaline (150 μM and 300 μM) caused increased level of DNA damage. In order to evaluate the potential contribution of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in adrenaline-induced DNA damage we used antioxidants catalase (100 IU/mL and 500 IU/mL) and quercetin (100 μM and 500 μM). Co-treatment of lymphocytes with adrenaline (300 μM) and antioxidants for 1 h, significantly reduced the quantity of DNA in the comet tails. Therefore, it can be concluded that adrenaline exhibits genotoxic effects mainly through induction of reactive oxygen species and that some of the DNA damage is repaired during the first four hours following the treatment with adrenaline.
- comet assay
- human lymphocytes
- Open Access
Creation Nerves of the Lumbar and Sacral Plexus in California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) and Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga Angustirostris)/Formiranje Nerava Iz Lumbalnog I Sakralnog Pleksusa Kod Kalifornijskog Morskog Lava (Zalophus Californianus) I Severnomorskog Slona (Mirounga Angustirostris)
Page range: 293 - 306
The lumbosacral plexus was investigated in the California sea lion and Northern elephant seal. In 9 California sea lions and 2 Northern elephant seals the femoral nerve rises from the ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves, whilst in one male and two specimens of the Northern elephant seal the 5th lumbar nerve was also involved. Ventral branches of the 3rd and 4th lumbar nerves comprised the obturatorius nerve in 7 specimens; in 3 specimens the 5th lumbar nerve additionally supplements the obturatorius nerve. In Northern elephant seals the obturatorius nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 3rd, 4th and 5th lumbar nerves. The ischiadic nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 4th, 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in 8 specimens California sea lions and in 2 North elephant seals. In 2 specimens of both species the 2nd sacral nerve also participates. The gluteal nerve created ventral branches of the 5th lumbar and 1st sacral nerves in three specimens; however in one specimen the 4th and 5th lumbar nerves gave rise to the same nerve in the Northern elephant seal. In California sea lions the gluteal nerve originates from the ventral branches of the 5th lumbar nerve in seven specimens, nonetheless in 3 specimens the 4th lumbar nerve also participates in its formation.
- elephant seal
- Mirounga angustirostris
- sea lion
- sea mammals
- Zalophus californianus
- Open Access
Effects of a Combination of Prone Positioning and High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation on Blood Gas Exchange in an Experimental Pig Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Efekti Kombinacije Ležećeg Položaja I Oscilatorne Plućne Ventilacije Visoke Frekvencije Na Razmenu Gasova U Krvi Na Modelu Sindroma Akutnog Respiratornog Šoka Kod Svinja
Page range: 307 - 318
This animal study was conducted in order to verify the effects of combining highfrequency oscillatory ventilation and prone positioning and the order of application of both methods on blood gas exchange in an experimental model of acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Forty domestic pigs were used for the study. Saline solution washout was produced by bilateral lung lavage. The lavage process was repeated until adequate impairment of gas exchange (defined as PaO2 < 100 mmHg) 60 min following the last lavage was achieved. Subsequently, lung injury was established and each model was randomized to one of five groups, with differences in the type of mechanical ventilation used (conventional mechanical ventilation in accordance with the principles of protective lung ventilation or high-frequency oscillatory ventilation) and also in the positioning of the experimental model (supine position or mode changing prone and supine positions in a ratio 18:6 hours).
The best oxygenation was achieved in the group prone position + high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. The most favorable combination in terms of carbon dioxide elimination is the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation + prone position. The best results in terms of oxygenation index value were obtained in the combination of a prone position with the high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and in the prone position.
In conclusion, by using combinations of prone positioning and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, one can achieve better blood gas parameters during acute respiratory distress syndrome.
- acute respiratory distress syndrome
- high frequency oscillatory ventilation
- prone position
- experimental model
- gas exchange
- Open Access
Histological and Histochemical Properties of M. Semitendinosus in German Landrace Pigs at Birth and Market Weight/Histološke I Histohemijske Osobine M. Semitendinosus-A Svinja Rase Nemački Landras Na Rođenju I Na Završetku Tova
Page range: 319 - 326
Current intensive pig meat production conditions impose the need to expand the knowledge about skeletal muscle characteristics, with the aim to improve both production of pig lean meat and meat quality. Histological and biochemical characteristics of the muscle highly infl uence the quality of meat, with muscle fi ber number, size and fi ber type distribution being important constituents. The objective of this study was to examine the structure of m. semitendinosus of piglets at birth, and slaughter pigs at the end of fattening. Total muscle fi ber number was 350 x 103 in newborn piglets and increased up to nearly 900 x 103 in slaughter pigs. At birth, the muscle consisted of 3.76% primary fi bers and 96.24% secondary fi bers. At slaughter, slow-twitch oxidative fi bers represented 21% of the total muscle fi ber number, fast-twitch oxidative fi bers represented 28 % while the majority of fi bers (52%) in m. semitendinosus were of fast twitch glycolitic type. Obtained results indicate that postnatal muscle growth is accomplished mainly by muscle fi ber hypertrophy.
- fiber types
- muscle fiber
- Open Access
Behavioral and Physiological Reactivity of Mares and Stallions Evaluated in Performance Tests/Procena Fizioloških Parametara I Reaktivnosti Kobila I Pastuva Na Osnovu Performans Testa
Page range: 327 - 337
In many countries completing the performance test requirements is obligatory only for stallions, but some breeders also decide for the assessment of their mares’ performance under standardized conditions. This study is aimed the evaluation of sex related effects on behavioral and physiological reactivity in fearfulness test and performance test scores in Polish warmblood horses of Małopolska breed (22 mares and 34 stallions) assessed at the training station. Equine reactivity to potentially frightening stimuli was assessed in the fearfulness test by behavior scoring and heart rate monitoring. Horses of both sexes were assessed in standardized performance tests accordingly to the rules of performance tests given in the Breeding Program for the Małopolski Horse Breed by the Polish Horse Breeders Association. The mares showed a significantly more quiet response in the fearfulness test in comparison to stallions. A relation among some reactivity and performance traits in both sexes was found. The behavior scores of the fearfulness test were positively correlated with character and temperament only in mares. However, the better the scores for temperament and character the stallions received, the lower the heart rate before testing. The present study demonstrates that temperament and character assessment, as a part of the standardized performance test, should involve not only a subjective trainer’s evaluation, but also a horse reactivity assessment based on objective behavioral tests and heart rate monitoring. The results showed that sex has an effect on behavioral reactivity of horses. Thus, it is important to consider the horses’ sex during selection for a particular type of riding, and performance assessment should be obligatory for both sexes. The assessment of the same performance traits in both, stallions and mares, significantly improves good breeding practice.
- fearfulness test
- heart rate
- performance test
- Open Access
Effects of Various Meal Compositions on Production Results, Economic Performance and Fish Meat Quality/Uticaj Različitog Sastava Obroka Na Proizvodnoekonomske Rezultate I Kvalitet Mesa Ribe
Page range: 338 - 348
The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of various dietary meal compositions on production, economic performance and meat quality of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Experimental group (0-I) was fed with a mixture containing 30% fish meal, 35% soybean meal, 30% sardines and 5% fish oil. Experimental group 0-II was fed with a combined meal consisting of 75% of fish food pellets and 25% of sardines. The control group (C) was fed with a standard complete pelleted feed. The best result was obtained in group 0-II, while group C achieved results common for local food quality and farming conditions in Serbia. Group 0-I had less productive results compared to group C and group 0-II. Feed used in group 0-II has its own nutritional, biological and economic justification.
Use of different fish meals had no significant influence on trout meat chemical composition, except the fat content which was significantly higher in group 0-II. Considering current market prices of fish feed and fish as a final product, the best economic results were achieved by using the combined feed in group 0-II.
- rainbow trout
- meat quality
- Open Access
Nosema Ceranae DNA in Honey Bee Haemolymph and Honey Bee Mite Varroa Destructor/DNK Nosema Ceranae U Hemolimfi Pčela I Pčelinjem Krpelju Varroa Destructor
Page range: 349 - 357
Honey bee mite Varroa destructor and microsporidium Nosema ceranae are currently considered the most important threats to honey bees and beekeeping. It has been believed that both N. apis and N. ceranae invade exclusively epithelial cells of the honey bee ventriculus. However, some fi ndings suggest that these microsporidia may infect other tissues of honey bees. There are indications that these pathogens could be found in honey bee haemolymph, as the medium for its distribution to anatomically distant tissues. Knowing that V. destructor being an ectoparasitic mite feeds on the honey bee’s haemolymph, the aim of this study was to investigate if DNA of Nosema spp. microsporidia could be found in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor.
The study was conducted on bee haemolymph and V. destructor mites from 44 Apis mellifera colonies. From each hive five mite individuals and 10 μL of haemolymph (from 4-5 bees) were used as samples for DNA isolation and PCR detection of Nosema spp.
The DNA of N. ceranae was confi rmed in 61.36% of V. destructor mites and 68.18% of haemolymph samples. This is the first report of N. ceranae DNA in honey bee haemolymph and in V. destructor mites. The finding of DNA of N. ceranae in V. destructor could be interpreted as the result of mite feeding on N. ceranae infected bee haemolymph. However, for a full confi rmation of the vector role of V. destructor in spreading of nosemosis, further microscopy investigations are required for the detection of spores in both investigated matrices (haemolymph and V. destructor internal tissues).
- Keywords Nosema ceranae
- Varroa destructor
- Apis mellifera
- Open Access
SNP Genetic Diversity Within a Fragment of the Gene Myo15a Responsible for the Hearing Process in a Population of Farmed and Free-Living Animals of the Canidae Family/SNP Genetski Deverzitet U Okviru Fragmenta Gena Myo15a, Odgovornog Za Sluh U Populaciji Životinja Familije Canidae U Uslovima Farmskog I Slobodnog Uzgoja
Page range: 358 - 366
The gene MYO15A is involved in the production of a protein included in the group of motor proteins known as myosins. Myosin XVA is located in the inner ear, the pituitary gland and other tissues, and has a substantial influence on the hearing process. Mutations in this gene cause amino acid substitutions in the conserved motor domain of the myosin chain, leading to shortening of the stereocilia in the hair cells, so that the function of myosin XVA is impaired. A research hypothesis was put forth that mutations in the gene responsible for the hearing process in animals of the Canidae family can cause hypoacusis, as well as substantial behavioural changes in dogs (ranging from timidity to aggressive behaviour). The study determined SNP polymorphism in a fragment of the gene MYO15A, which can cause hearing disorders or hypoacusis, in wild and farmed individuals of the Canidae family.
- MYO15A gene
- raccoon dog
- SNP haplotype
- Open Access
Detection of Listeria Spp. During Production and Ripening of Petrovská Klobása/Detekcija Listeria Spp. U Toku Proizvodnje I Zrenja Petrovačke Kobasice
Page range: 367 - 377
The aim of this study was to determine the survival of Listeria spp. during the preparation and ripening of an artisan Serbian sausage (Petrovská klobása) and to characterize the isolates by amplification of the hlyA gene. Results obtained by standard microbiological and molecular methods showed that during fermentation, drying, ripening and storage of Petrovská klobása, 17 out of 99 samples were positive for the presence of Listeria spp. Among them we detected a hemolytic, atypical, non pathogenic L. innocua strain FSL J1-023, whose genome sequence is important in understanding the role of horizontal gene transfer and recombination in the evolution of pathogenicity of Listeria. The most important product characteristics influencing the survival and growth of Listeria spp. during production and ripening of Petrovská klobása were: pH, water activity, temperature and starter culture.
- Listeria spp.
- L. monocytogenes
- Petrovská klobása
- Open Access
Occurrence of Bartonella Henselae, Felv and Fiv Infection in 60 Stray Cats from Serbia/Pojava Bartonella Henselae, Felv I Fiv Infekcije Kod 60 Uličnih Mačaka U Srbiji
Page range: 378 - 385
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coinfection with pathogens Bartonella henselae, feline immunodeficiency virus, and feline leukemia virus in stray cats from the area of Novi Sad and Belgrade, Serbia. Each of 60 individual cats was clinically examined and the blood sampled. Therewithal an epidemiological survey was made. Blood sera were separated by centrifugation and serologically tested in order to determine the presence of Bartonella henselae specific antibodies (by direct immunofluorescence assay), feline immunodeficiency virus specific antibodies (by rapid test SNAP Combo) and feline leukemia virus antigens (by rapid test SNAP Combo). Of the 60 cat sera, serologically examined using IFA test, 33 (55%) were positive for the presence of IgG specifi c to B. henselae antigens. A total of 13 (27%) of the 60 tested cat sera were positive for the presence of specific antibodies to FIV antigens. None of the 60 tested cat sera were positive for the presence of FeLV antigen. Of the 33 cat sera which contained IgG antibodies to B. henselae, 6 cat sera also gave a positive reaction to the presence of specific IgG antibodies to FIV; this was a coinfection seroprevalence of 10% in the total population of studied cats. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of B. henselae and FIV coinfection in cats from Serbia, without FeLV positive cats. An increase in the manifestations of clinical symptoms in cats in which the serological tests determined coinfection with B. henselae and FIV is evident compared to those seropositive only to B. henselae.
- Bartonella henselae
- feline immunodeficiency virus
- feline leukaemia virus
- Open Access
Genetic Parameters for Somatic Cell Count, Logscc and Somatic Cell Score of Breeds: Improved Valachian, Tsigai, Lacaune and their Crosses/Genetski Parametri Za Broj Somatskih Ćelija, Logscc I Skor Somatskih Ćelija Kod Rasa: Poboljšana Vlaška, Cigaja, Lakon I Njihovih Meleza
Page range: 386 - 396
In the last few years there has been increasing emphasis on reducing milk somatic cell count to improve the milk quality in dairy ruminants. Genetic parameters for somatic cell count (SCC), LOGSCC and somatic cell score (SCS) were estimated. About 1193 measurements were included in the analysis for each character of 358 ewes of 9 genotypes. Nine breeds and genotypes were included in these experiments: purebred Improved Valachian (IV), Tsigai (T), Lacaune (LC) ewes, and IV and T crosses with a genetic portion of Lacaune and East Friesian (EF) - 25 %, 50 % and 75 %. Primary data were processed using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology and the multi-trait animal model, using programs REMLF90 and VCE 4.0. Heritability coefficients for somatic cell count were low: h2=0.03, for LOGSCC h2= 0.08 and for somatic cell score h2=0.06. Somatic cell score can be considered for inclusion in a breeding program aimed at reducing somatic cell count and frequency of clinical mastitis in dairy sheep.
- genetic and phenotypic correlations
- somatic cell count
- somatic cell score