- Journal Details
- First Published
- 25 Mar 2014
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Morphological Characteristics and Expression of Estrogen and Progesterone Receptors in the Canine Endometrium During the Estrus Cycle, Cystic Endometrial Hyperplasia and Pyometra
Page range: 239 - 250
The estrus cycle of bitches is divided into four phases: proestrus, estrus, diestrus and anestrus, during which different morphological changes, and also cyclic changes of estrogen and progesterone receptors are present. Several pathological changes can be differentiated on the endometrium, but one of these is the most important - cystic endometrial hyperplasia, which frequently develops into pyometra. The aim of the present study was to describe morphological characteristics, and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors on the endometrium of mixedbreed bitches during the different phases of the estrus cycle, cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra. The uterus and ovaries of 36 mixed breed bitches in different phases of the estrus cycle and also with cystic endometrial hyperplasia (CEH) and chronic purulent endometritis - pyometra were examined macroscopically, histopathologically, and immunohistochemically for estrogen receptors (ΕR) and progesterone receptors (PR). During proestrus uterine cells showed a weak reaction for both estrogen and progesterone receptors, but during estrus a large number of uterine cells showed a strong reaction on estrogen receptors and moderate reaction on progesterone receptors. On the contrary, during diestrus the scores for the estrogen receptors decreased, while the progesterone receptors level increased - uterine cells expressed strong reaction for progesterone receptors, and moderate reaction for estrogen receptors. Uterine cells in cystic endometrial hyperplasia expressed a strong reaction for estrogen receptors, and moderate reaction for progesterone receptors, but on the other hand the uterine cells in the uterus with pyometra expressed a moderate to strong reaction for progesterone receptors, and a weak reaction for estrogen receptors. In further investigations it would be interesting to perform quantitative analysis for both estrogen and progesterone receptors during different phases of the estrus cycle and also in the uterus with cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra.
- cystic endometrial hyperplasia
- estrogen receptors
- progesterone receptors
- Open Access
Quantitative Morphology as a Prognostic Factor in Feline Spontaneous Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas
Page range: 251 - 256
In a study on cytological specimens from 30 cats with histologically confi rmed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, the morphometric variables mean nuclear area (MNA, μm2), mean nuclear perimeter (MNP, μm), mean nuclear diameter (D mean, μm), minimum nuclear diameter (D min, μm) and maximum nuclear diameter (D max, μm) were studied and compared to metastases in regional lymph nodes. The mean values of these parameters were signifi cantly greater in cats with lymph node metastases compared to parameters of tumour cells from cats which were lymph node-negative. A signifi cant positive correlation was observed between all studied morphometric parameters and metastases in the regional lymph nodes. In conclusion, computer -assisted nuclear morphometry could be used as a prognostic method in the diagnosis of spontaneous feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.
- nuclear morphometry
- feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas
- Open Access
Molecular Evidence of Q Fever Agent Coxiella Burnetii in Ixodid Ticks Collected from Stray Dogs in Belgrade (Serbia)
Page range: 257 - 268
Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, a gram-negative coccobacillus, which has been detected in a wide range of animal species, mostly domestic ruminants, but also in wild mammals, pets, birds, reptiles, arthropods (especially ticks), as well as in humans. Although the exposure to domestic animals in rural areas is regarded as the most common cause of the disease in humans, recent studies have shown that the role of pets in the epidemiology of Q fever has been increasingly growing. Although the primary route of infection is inhalation, it is presumed that among animals the infection circulates through ticks and that they are responsible for heterospecifi c transmission, as well as spatial dispersion among vertebrates. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and prevalence of C. burnetii in ticks removed from stray dogs, as well as to examine the distribution of tick species parasitizing dogs on the territory of Belgrade city. A PCR protocol targeting IS1111 repetitive transposon-like region of C. burnetii was used for the detection of C. burnetii DNA in ticks and the results were confi rmed by sequence analysis. In total, 316 ticks were collected from 51 stray dogs - 40 females (78.43%) and 11 males (21.57%). Three species of ticks were identifi ed: Rhipicephalus s anguineus (72.15%), Ixodes ricinus (27.53%) and Dermacentor reticulatus (0.32%). Out of 316 examined ticks, C. burnetii DNA was detected only in the brown dog tick R. sanguineus, with a total prevalence of 10.53% (24/228) . The high prevalence of C. burnetii in R. sanguineus, which is primarily a dog tick, indicates the importance of dogs in the epidemiology of Q fever in the territory of Belgrade.
- Coxiella burnetii
- Open Access
Simulation of the Transmission by Vectors of Bluetongue Disease and Analysis of the Control Strategy
Page range: 269 - 287
Bluetongue disease is an infectious non-contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants, transmitted by hematophagous insects of the genus Culicoides. In endemic areas the disease has a seasonal character, occurs usually in summer when the population of vectors is at its peak. Culicoides are active at temperatures in the range from 13oto 35oC. The replication of the virus stops when the environmental temperature is below 13oC. It has been reported that the temperature and humidity of the environment affect to a great extent the biology of the vector and the survival of the virus in the reservoirs. During the summer, the number of infected cattle and sheep is directly dependent on the density of the population of the vector, the length of vectors’ life-span, the temperature of the environment and by precipitation, the affi nity of the vector to different hosts, and the ability of the vector to locate the host. Bluetongue has been spreading worldwide due to climatic changes and increasing average daily temperatures. The seasonal occurrences of the disease and the climate change have conditioned the need for adopting new strategies. The stochastic SEIRD mathematical model has been developed in order to simulate the transmission of the Bluetongue virus through the susceptible ruminant population on the territory of the Republic of Serbia, as well as to investigate the effect of climatic factors on the vector population and the magnitude of a possible epizootia. Besides the effects of climatic factors, we have analyzed a number of different approaches in the control of the disease based upon the vaccination of ruminants and control of vectors.
- Bluetongue disease
- control strategy
- SEIRD model
- Open Access
Relationships between Thoroughbreds’ Contribution in the Pedigree and the Level of Fearfulness and Performance in Warmblood Stallions
Page range: 288 - 300
The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that Thoroughbred (TB) ancestors blood percentage in a pedigree is a potential factor differentiating the level of fearfulness (based on behavior and heart rate (HR)) and performance scores in warmblood stallions. A total of 267 three-year-old warmblood stallions were subjected to the novel-object based test during their participation in the performance tests’ program. The effect of ancestors percentage contribution in the pedigree was analyzed by taking into account horses of four TB (<25.01, 25.01-50.00, 50.01-75.00, >75.00%) ancestor groups. It was found that the stallions with a higher proportion (>75.00%) of TB blood revealed higher values of HR measured at the riding hall just before the start of the fearfulness test. The results showed that the higher proportions of TB ancestors blood in the stallions’ pedigree were correlated with the higher values for total time to pass novel objects when led by a handler during the fearfulness test. Negative correlations were found between the TB percentage and the scores for character and trot evaluated by the trainer as well as rideability evaluated by the test rider. The fi ndings imply that a high proportion of Thoroughbreds in the pedigree may negatively infl uence some performance traits and increase fear reactivity in warmblood stallions.
- Open Access
Effect of Subclinical and Overt Form of Rat Maternal Hypothyroidism on Offspring Endochondral Bone Formation
Page range: 301 - 320
Maternal hypothyroidism in its overt form affects skeletal development of the offspring, but these data are not available for the subclinical form which is becoming very frequent among pregnant women. We hypothesized that the subclinical form of hypothyroidism in rat dams, infl uences the process of offspring endochondral ossifi cation affecting proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, osteoclasts and osteoblasts in pups. Seven-day-old male pups (n=18) derived from control dams and dams treated with a low dose (1.5 mg/L) or high dose (150 mg/L) of propylthiouracil in drinking water during pregnancy and lactation were used. Histomorphometric analysis of pups’ tibia proximal growth plate, expression of mRNA, immunohistochemical and histochemical visualization of extracellular matrix components was performed. The length of the tibia was reduced in hypothyroid pups. Secretion of type 2 and 10 collagens in the subclinical and overt form were lower while the amount of glycosaminoglycans was higher when compared with controls. Down-regulated tartrate resistant acid phosphatase mRNA indicated altered osteoclasts function while lower expression of dentin matrix acid protein-1 mRNA and reduced synthesis of type 1 collagen accentuated a compromised bone formation in the overt form of hypothyroidism. The subclinical form of maternal hypothyroidism had a negative effect on the differentiation of hypertrophic chondrocytes and calcifi ed cartilage removal in 7-day-old pups. In addition, overt hypothyroidism had a negative effect on the proliferation of chondrocytes and deposition of osteoid. Both forms of hypothyroidism resulted in a decrease of tibia length due to changes in growth plate formation.
- type 1
- 2 and 10 collagens
- hypertrophic chondrocytes
- offspring hypothyroidism
- Open Access
In Vivo Investigation of Soft Tissue Response of Novel Silver/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/ Graphene and Silver/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol)/Chitosan/Graphene Hydrogels Aimed for Medical Applications – The First Experience
Page range: 321 - 339
In this paper, we have shown for the fi rst time the soft tissue response of novel silver/ poly(vinyl alcohol)/graphene (Ag/PVA/Gr) and silver/poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan/ graphene (Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr) nanocomposite hydrogels aimed for medical applications. These novel hydrogels were produced by in situ electrochemical synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the polymer matrices as described in our previously published works. Both Ag/PVA/Gr and Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr, as well as controls Ag/PVA, Ag/PVA/CHI and commercial Suprasorb©hydrogel discs, were implanted in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Implants with the surrounding tissue were dissected after post-implantation on days 7, 15, 30 and 60, and then processed for histological examination. The tissue irritation index (TIrI) score, according to ISO 10993-6, 2007, as well as the number of leukocytes in the peri-implant zone and connective tissue capsule thickness were examined. The results show that each TIrI score, the leukocyte number around the implanted materials and capsule thickness gradually decreased during the observation period. At the endpoint of follow-up, the Ag/PVA/CHI/Gr implant was surrounded with a thinner capsule, while both the TIrI score and the number of leukocytes of the peri-implant zone were greater compared to the Ag/PVA/Gr implant. Despite the observed differences, we can conclude that our in vivo experiment suggested that both novel hydrogels were biocompatible and suitable for medical use.
- nanocomposite hydrogels
- soft tissue response
- Open Access
Thermal Vision Examination of Vasoconstriction and Vasodilatation of Blood Vessels under the Influence of Local Anesthetic Solutions
Page range: 340 - 352
A quality local anesthesia is one of the imperatives of performing dental interventions, and especially oral-surgical interventions, where the success of the oral-surgical intervention is seen through the success of local anesthesia. There is a high number of different local anesthetic solutions (LAS) on the market, holding different levels of vasoconstrictors which are attributed with causing numerous complications during the local anesthesia. The aim of this research is to point out the temperature changes caused by different LAS, depending on the strength and the concentration of LAS, using thermal vision camera. Testing was performed on 70 experimental Wistar rats, aged 4.5 months, with an average weight of 250 grams, male, and divided into seven groups of 10 animals each, depending on the applied anesthetic. After injecting the anesthetic solution into the haunch area, a stopwatch was turned on and control measurements were conducted for a period of two hours. All footage from the thermal camera was later transferred to a computer unit. Occurrence of multiple temperatures in the rats’ examined regions, compared to the control region, was noticed only when applying 2% pure lidocaine (without vasoconstrictors). The highest temperature drop, compared to the control region, was noticed with 2% mepivacaine with adrenaline (1 : 100 000), and 2% mepivacaine with noradrenaline (1 : 100 000), fi ve minutes after applying the local anesthetic. In conclusion: vasoconstricting effects are most expressed in the fi fth minute after applying LAS, and there are minimal differences between the effects of adrenaline and noradrenaline, in the examined combinations together with LAS.
- thermal camera
- Open Access
Phacoemulsification for Cataract Secondary to Persistent Hyperplastic Tunica Vasculosa Lentis and Peristent Hyperplastic Primary Vitreous in a Welsh Corgi
Page range: 353 - 360
A 7-month-old Cardigan Welsh Corgi was presented with rapid cataract formation. Slit lamp biomicroscopy revealed mature cataract in the left eye. Ultrasonography revealed a microphakic lens and the presence of a cord-like structure extending from the posterior lens to the optic disc. On the basis of ophthalmological examinations, a diagnosis of cataract secondary to persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous was made. Routine phacoemulsifi cation with a capsular tension ring and intraocular lens implantation were performed. Although a blood-fi lled vasculature with focal hemorrhage was observed during surgery, we did not fenestrate the posterior capsule or cut the hyaloid artery. We only polished the posterior capsule carefully for 2 min. At 22 days after surgery, Doppler ultrasonography did not detect blood fl ow within the cord-like structure, and the implanted intraocular lens appeared clear without fi brin formation or posterior capsule opacifi cation. The fi ndings from this case suggest that routine cataract surgery is an optimal surgical treatment for persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. To the best of our knowledge, this is the fi rst case report of phacoemulsifi cation with intraocular lens implantation for persistent hyperplastic tunica vasculosa lentis and persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous in a Welsh Corgi.
- lens implantation
- phacoemulsifi cation
- Open Access
Page range: 361 - 372
Hippopotamidae family is nowadays represented by two species within two different genera: pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) and common hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius). The common hippopotamus has a very unique anatomy, and the shape of the body, especially the head is adapted for a semi-aquatic life style. The morphological examination and description of the gross anatomical features of the hippopotamus skull is described in this paper. The shape of the skull is adapted for the amphibian way of life. Their eyes, ears and nostrils are placed high on the roof of the skull which allows these organs to remain above the surface of the water while the animal is being submerged underwater. The skull is massive, but the brain case (neurocranium) is extremely small compared with the splanchnocranium and complete head. The dental formula of the common hippopotamus is: incisors (I) 2/2, canines (C) 1/1, premolars (P) 3-4/3-4 and molars (M) 3/3. Incisors and canine teeth are formed in the shape of tusks and are used for threat or “demonstration of power” among animals when vigorously fi ghting. Incisor teeth grow continuously and are twice bigger in males than in females.