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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1875-855X
First Published
01 Jun 2007
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 16 (2022): Issue 4 (August 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1875-855X
First Published
01 Jun 2007
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

A One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 151 - 152

Abstract

Review

Open Access

Sialic acid: an attractive biomarker with promising biomedical applications

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 153 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

This broad, narrative review highlights the roles of sialic acids as acidic sugars found on cellular membranes. The role of sialic acids in cellular communication and development has been well established. Recently, attention has turned to the fundamental role of sialic acids in many diseases, including viral infections, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, diabetic nephropathy, and malignancies. Sialic acid may be a target for developing new drugs to treat various cancers and inflammatory processes. We recommend the routine measurement of serum sialic acid as a sensitive inflammatory marker in various diseases.

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetic nephropathies
  • molecular targeted therapy
  • neoplasms
  • neuraminic acids
  • sialic acid
  • virus diseases

Original article

Open Access

Long noncoding and micro-RNA expression in a model of articular chondrocyte degeneration induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 169 - 179

Abstract

Abstract Background

Gene regulatory network analysis has found that long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

Objectives

To determine the differential expression of lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal chondrocytes and those from a model of articular chondrocyte degeneration.

Methods

Chondrocytes were cultured from cartilage obtained from patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was used to induce their degeneration. Total RNA was extracted, analyzed, amplified, labeled, and hybridized on a chip to determine expression. The set of enriched differentially expressed miRNAs was analyzed by gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to describe the functional properties of the key biological processes and pathways. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis using Cytoscape to elucidate the interactions between miRNAs and proteins.

Results

We found that the expression of 186 lncRNAs was significantly different in the model of chondrocyte degeneration, in which 88 lncRNAs were upregulated, and 98 were downregulated. Expression of 684 miRNAs was significantly different. Analysis of the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network indicated that the genes for CXCL10, ISG15, MYC, MX1, OASL, IFIT1, RSAD2, MX2, IFI44L, and BST2 are the top 10 core genes, identifying the most important functional modules to elucidate the differential expression of miRNAs.

Conclusions

These data may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte degeneration in osteoarthritis, and the identification of lncRNAs and miRNAs may provide potential targets for the differential diagnosis and therapy of osteoarthritis.

Keywords

  • chondrocytes
  • high-throughput nucleotide sequencing
  • microRNAs
  • osteoarthritis
  • RNA
  • long noncoding
Open Access

Promoter methylation analysis of DKK2 may be a potential biomarker for early detection of cervical cancer

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 181 - 189

Abstract

Abstract Background

Dickkopf 2 (DKK2) plays an important role in multiple cancers. Its potential value in the clinical diagnosis of cervical cancer has remained unclear.

Objectives

To investigate the expression and promoter methylation levels of DKK2 in cervical cancer and their clinicopathological associations.

Methods

We used the Gene Expression Omnibus, Oncomine, Cancer Genome Atlas, and University of ALabama at Birmingham CANcer data analysis databases, reverse transcription-PCR, and methylation-specific PCR analysis to predict and examine the expression of DKK2 mRNA and DKK2 methylation levels in cell lines and cervical cancer tissues from 79 patients with cervical cancer and 63 with cervical precancerous lesions including 25 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 38 patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).

Results

DKK2 mRNA expression was downregulated in all cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues, whereas hypermethylation of DKK2 was higher in cervical cancer tissue samples. DKK2 methylation in cervical cancer was significantly higher than that in HSIL (χ2 = 8.346, P = 0.004), whereas DKK2 methylation in HSIL was significantly higher than that in normal cervical samples (χ2 = 7.934, P = 0.005) and in LSIL samples (χ2 = 4.375, P = 0.037). DKK2 silencing caused by its promoter hypermethylation was confirmed by treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-dC in cell lines. Patients with lymph node metastasis exhibited increased promoter methylation frequency (χ2 = 5.239, P = 0.022) and low DKK2 mRNA expression (χ2 = 3.958, P = 0.047) compared with patients with no lymph node metastasis. Patients with high-risk human papillomavirus infection exhibited increased promoter methylation frequency (χ2 = 6.279, P = 0.015).

Conclusions

DKK2 epigenetic changes of DKK2 may play a key role in the development of cervical cancer, suggesting that DKK2 hypermethylation could be used as a triage test for screening, early diagnosis, or risk prediction of cervical cancer.

Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • data mining
  • DKK2 protein
  • human
  • DNA methylation
  • human papillomavirus
  • uterine cervical neoplasms

Brief communication (original)

Open Access

Antibiotic resistance, biofilm forming ability, and clonal profiling of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from southern and northeastern India

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 191 - 199

Abstract

Abstract Background

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen endemic in India and sometimes deadly for patients in intensive care units.

Objectives

To determine the antibiotic-resistance pattern, biofilm forming ability, and clonal type of S. aureus from isolates collected in Tamil Nadu (south) and the Mizoram (northeast) regions of India.

Methods

We collected S. aureus isolates from diagnostic laboratories in Tamil Nadu and Mizoram. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute methods. Antibiotic-resistant determinants such as mecA, mecC, blaZ, vanA, vanB, and vanC were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All isolates were further studied for biofilm forming ability. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was used for clonal analysis.

Results

A study of 206 clinical isolates showed 52.9% prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Tamil Nadu and 49.4% in Mizoram. Minimum inhibitory concentration tests showed a high prevalence of 67% oxacillin resistance in isolates from Tamil Nadu and 49% in isolates from Mizoram. PCR showed 53% mecA in Tamil Nadu and 49% mecA in Mizoram. Vancomycin-intermediate resistance S. aureus (VISA) prevalence was lower in isolates from Tamil Nadu (4%) and Mizoram (5%). All methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates formed biofilms. Clonal analysis revealed a genetic relatedness between the isolates.

Conclusions

The prevalence of MRSA is high in the regions studied, with most of the clinical isolates being multidrug resistant. Adopting appropriate community-based preventive measures and establishing antimicrobial stewardship is highly recommended to minimize the dissemination in antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

  • biofilms
  • drug resistance
  • bacterial
  • enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction
  • methicillin-resistant
  • Mizoram
  • Tamil Nadu
Open Access

An 85-amino-acid polypeptide from Myrmeleon bore larvae (antlions) homologous to heat shock factor binding protein 1 with antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells in vitro

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 201 - 211

Abstract

Abstract Background

Venomous arthropods have substances in their venom with antiproliferative potential for neoplastic cells.

Objectives

To identify a polypeptide from Myrmeleon bore (antlion) with antiproliferative activity against neoplastic cells, and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the activity.

Methods

We used gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography to purify a polypeptide with antiproliferative activity against MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells from a proteinaceous extract of antlion. The polypeptide was sequenced and the stability of its antiproliferative activity was tested under a range of conditions in vitro. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the polypeptide against the MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial osteoblasts, which were used as a non-neoplastic control. We used western blotting to compare the levels of expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and protein kinase B alpha (ATK1) in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and their mouse homologs in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts after their treatment with the antlion antiproliferative polypeptide (ALAPP).

Results

The 85-amino-acid ALAPP has a 56% sequence identity with the human heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1). The antiproliferative activity of the polypeptide is relatively insensitive to temperature, pH, and metal ions. ALAPP has a strong concentration-dependent antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells compared with its effect on MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. ALAPP significantly upregulates the expression of HSF1 in MC3T3-EL osteoblasts, but not in MG-63 osteosarcoma. ALAPP significantly downregulated the expression of HSP90, CDK4, and AKT1 expression in MG-63 osteosarcoma, but not in the osteoblasts.

Conclusions

ALAPP has significant antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, but not nonneoplastic MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We speculate that non-neoplastic cells may evade the antiproliferative effect of ALAPP by upregulating HSF1 to maintain their HSP90, CDK4, and AKT1 expression at a relatively constant level.

Keywords

  • antiproliferative agent
  • arthropod venoms
  • HSBP1 protein
  • osteosarcoma
  • polypeptide
6 Articles

Editorial

Open Access

A One Health approach to antimicrobial resistance

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 151 - 152

Abstract

Review

Open Access

Sialic acid: an attractive biomarker with promising biomedical applications

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 153 - 167

Abstract

Abstract

This broad, narrative review highlights the roles of sialic acids as acidic sugars found on cellular membranes. The role of sialic acids in cellular communication and development has been well established. Recently, attention has turned to the fundamental role of sialic acids in many diseases, including viral infections, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, diabetic nephropathy, and malignancies. Sialic acid may be a target for developing new drugs to treat various cancers and inflammatory processes. We recommend the routine measurement of serum sialic acid as a sensitive inflammatory marker in various diseases.

Keywords

  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetic nephropathies
  • molecular targeted therapy
  • neoplasms
  • neuraminic acids
  • sialic acid
  • virus diseases

Original article

Open Access

Long noncoding and micro-RNA expression in a model of articular chondrocyte degeneration induced by stromal cell-derived factor-1

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 169 - 179

Abstract

Abstract Background

Gene regulatory network analysis has found that long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are strongly associated with the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis.

Objectives

To determine the differential expression of lncRNAs and microRNAs (miRNAs) in normal chondrocytes and those from a model of articular chondrocyte degeneration.

Methods

Chondrocytes were cultured from cartilage obtained from patients diagnosed with osteoarthritis of the knee. Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) was used to induce their degeneration. Total RNA was extracted, analyzed, amplified, labeled, and hybridized on a chip to determine expression. The set of enriched differentially expressed miRNAs was analyzed by gene ontology and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes to describe the functional properties of the key biological processes and pathways. We conducted a bioinformatics analysis using Cytoscape to elucidate the interactions between miRNAs and proteins.

Results

We found that the expression of 186 lncRNAs was significantly different in the model of chondrocyte degeneration, in which 88 lncRNAs were upregulated, and 98 were downregulated. Expression of 684 miRNAs was significantly different. Analysis of the protein–protein interaction (PPI) network indicated that the genes for CXCL10, ISG15, MYC, MX1, OASL, IFIT1, RSAD2, MX2, IFI44L, and BST2 are the top 10 core genes, identifying the most important functional modules to elucidate the differential expression of miRNAs.

Conclusions

These data may provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of chondrocyte degeneration in osteoarthritis, and the identification of lncRNAs and miRNAs may provide potential targets for the differential diagnosis and therapy of osteoarthritis.

Keywords

  • chondrocytes
  • high-throughput nucleotide sequencing
  • microRNAs
  • osteoarthritis
  • RNA
  • long noncoding
Open Access

Promoter methylation analysis of DKK2 may be a potential biomarker for early detection of cervical cancer

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 181 - 189

Abstract

Abstract Background

Dickkopf 2 (DKK2) plays an important role in multiple cancers. Its potential value in the clinical diagnosis of cervical cancer has remained unclear.

Objectives

To investigate the expression and promoter methylation levels of DKK2 in cervical cancer and their clinicopathological associations.

Methods

We used the Gene Expression Omnibus, Oncomine, Cancer Genome Atlas, and University of ALabama at Birmingham CANcer data analysis databases, reverse transcription-PCR, and methylation-specific PCR analysis to predict and examine the expression of DKK2 mRNA and DKK2 methylation levels in cell lines and cervical cancer tissues from 79 patients with cervical cancer and 63 with cervical precancerous lesions including 25 with low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 38 patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL).

Results

DKK2 mRNA expression was downregulated in all cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues, whereas hypermethylation of DKK2 was higher in cervical cancer tissue samples. DKK2 methylation in cervical cancer was significantly higher than that in HSIL (χ2 = 8.346, P = 0.004), whereas DKK2 methylation in HSIL was significantly higher than that in normal cervical samples (χ2 = 7.934, P = 0.005) and in LSIL samples (χ2 = 4.375, P = 0.037). DKK2 silencing caused by its promoter hypermethylation was confirmed by treatment with the methyltransferase inhibitor 5-Aza-dC in cell lines. Patients with lymph node metastasis exhibited increased promoter methylation frequency (χ2 = 5.239, P = 0.022) and low DKK2 mRNA expression (χ2 = 3.958, P = 0.047) compared with patients with no lymph node metastasis. Patients with high-risk human papillomavirus infection exhibited increased promoter methylation frequency (χ2 = 6.279, P = 0.015).

Conclusions

DKK2 epigenetic changes of DKK2 may play a key role in the development of cervical cancer, suggesting that DKK2 hypermethylation could be used as a triage test for screening, early diagnosis, or risk prediction of cervical cancer.

Keywords

  • biomarkers
  • data mining
  • DKK2 protein
  • human
  • DNA methylation
  • human papillomavirus
  • uterine cervical neoplasms

Brief communication (original)

Open Access

Antibiotic resistance, biofilm forming ability, and clonal profiling of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from southern and northeastern India

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 191 - 199

Abstract

Abstract Background

Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen endemic in India and sometimes deadly for patients in intensive care units.

Objectives

To determine the antibiotic-resistance pattern, biofilm forming ability, and clonal type of S. aureus from isolates collected in Tamil Nadu (south) and the Mizoram (northeast) regions of India.

Methods

We collected S. aureus isolates from diagnostic laboratories in Tamil Nadu and Mizoram. An antibiotic susceptibility test was performed according to Clinical Laboratory and Standards Institute methods. Antibiotic-resistant determinants such as mecA, mecC, blaZ, vanA, vanB, and vanC were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All isolates were further studied for biofilm forming ability. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR was used for clonal analysis.

Results

A study of 206 clinical isolates showed 52.9% prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus in Tamil Nadu and 49.4% in Mizoram. Minimum inhibitory concentration tests showed a high prevalence of 67% oxacillin resistance in isolates from Tamil Nadu and 49% in isolates from Mizoram. PCR showed 53% mecA in Tamil Nadu and 49% mecA in Mizoram. Vancomycin-intermediate resistance S. aureus (VISA) prevalence was lower in isolates from Tamil Nadu (4%) and Mizoram (5%). All methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates formed biofilms. Clonal analysis revealed a genetic relatedness between the isolates.

Conclusions

The prevalence of MRSA is high in the regions studied, with most of the clinical isolates being multidrug resistant. Adopting appropriate community-based preventive measures and establishing antimicrobial stewardship is highly recommended to minimize the dissemination in antibiotic resistance.

Keywords

  • biofilms
  • drug resistance
  • bacterial
  • enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerase chain reaction
  • methicillin-resistant
  • Mizoram
  • Tamil Nadu
Open Access

An 85-amino-acid polypeptide from Myrmeleon bore larvae (antlions) homologous to heat shock factor binding protein 1 with antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells in vitro

Published Online: 31 Aug 2022
Page range: 201 - 211

Abstract

Abstract Background

Venomous arthropods have substances in their venom with antiproliferative potential for neoplastic cells.

Objectives

To identify a polypeptide from Myrmeleon bore (antlion) with antiproliferative activity against neoplastic cells, and to elucidate the molecular mechanism of the activity.

Methods

We used gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography to purify a polypeptide with antiproliferative activity against MG-63 human osteosarcoma cells from a proteinaceous extract of antlion. The polypeptide was sequenced and the stability of its antiproliferative activity was tested under a range of conditions in vitro. An 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine the antiproliferative activity of the polypeptide against the MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and MC3T3-E1 mouse calvarial osteoblasts, which were used as a non-neoplastic control. We used western blotting to compare the levels of expression of heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1), heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4), and protein kinase B alpha (ATK1) in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells and their mouse homologs in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts after their treatment with the antlion antiproliferative polypeptide (ALAPP).

Results

The 85-amino-acid ALAPP has a 56% sequence identity with the human heat shock factor binding protein 1 (HSBP1). The antiproliferative activity of the polypeptide is relatively insensitive to temperature, pH, and metal ions. ALAPP has a strong concentration-dependent antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells compared with its effect on MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. ALAPP significantly upregulates the expression of HSF1 in MC3T3-EL osteoblasts, but not in MG-63 osteosarcoma. ALAPP significantly downregulated the expression of HSP90, CDK4, and AKT1 expression in MG-63 osteosarcoma, but not in the osteoblasts.

Conclusions

ALAPP has significant antiproliferative activity against MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, but not nonneoplastic MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. We speculate that non-neoplastic cells may evade the antiproliferative effect of ALAPP by upregulating HSF1 to maintain their HSP90, CDK4, and AKT1 expression at a relatively constant level.

Keywords

  • antiproliferative agent
  • arthropod venoms
  • HSBP1 protein
  • osteosarcoma
  • polypeptide

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