- Journal Details
- First Published
- 01 Jun 2007
- Publication timeframe
- 6 times per year
- Open Access
Assessing the burden of dengue: an important step toward committing resources to address this global disease
Page range: 197 - 198
- Open Access
Page range: 199 - 212
The corneal epithelium (CE) forms the outermost layer of the cornea. Despite its thickness of only 50 μm, the CE plays a key role as an initial barrier against any insults to the eye and contributes to the light refraction onto the retina required for clear vision. In the event of an injury, the cornea is equipped with many strategies contributing to competent wound healing, including angiogenic and immune privileges, and mechanotransduction. Various factors, including growth factors, keratin, cytokines, integrins, crystallins, basement membrane, and gap junction proteins are involved in CE wound healing and serve as markers in the healing process. Studies of CE wound healing are advancing rapidly in tandem with the rise of corneal bioengineering, which employs limbal epithelial stem cells as the primary source of cells utilizing various types of biomaterials as substrates.
- wound healing
- Open Access
Assessing the burden of dengue among household members in Alaminos, Laguna, the Philippines: a prospective cohort study
Page range: 213 - 222
The incidence of dengue is increasing rapidly and is a challenging health issue in the Philippines. Epidemiological data are largely based on a passive-surveillance reporting system, which leads to substantial under-reporting of cases.
To estimate dengue infection and disease incidence prospectively at the community level in an endemic area of the Philippines using an active surveillance strategy.
We implemented active surveillance in the highly endemic community of Alaminos, Laguna. The study consisted of a 1-year follow-up with 2 visits scheduled at the start and end of the study, as well as regular active surveillance in between and unscheduled visits for suspected cases. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to detect dengue during the first scheduled visit and all unscheduled visits, and clinical examination was performed at all visits (registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766088).
We enrolled 500 participants, aged from 6 months to 50 years; 76.2% were found positive for immunoglobulin G (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9–80.0), with 92.0% among those aged 9–17 years. Active (weekly) surveillance identified 4 virologically confirmed cases of dengue (incidence proportion 0.8; 95% CI 0.3–2.1); all in participants aged ≤14 years.
Routine surveillance programs such as sentinel sites are needed to characterize the entire clinical spectrum of symptomatic dengue, disease incidence, and transmission in the community.
- sentinel surveillance
- reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
- Open Access
Hydraulic expansion facilitates remodeling of arteriovenous fistulas without increasing venous intimal hyperplasia in rabbits
Page range: 223 - 232
An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered essential for chronic hemodialysis.
To determine the effects of hydraulic expansion on the intimal hyperplasia of an AVF.
We divided 12 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits into a control group (vein without special handling and direct anastomosis with an artery, n = 6) and a hydraulic expansion group (vein dilated by hydraulic pressure before anastomosis, n = 6). Histopathomorphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the data between the groups.
Immediately and 1 day after surgery, the diameter of the fistula vein in rabbits in the hydraulic expansion group was significantly larger than it was in the control group (
Hydraulic expansion did not increase intimal hyperplasia of an AVF, but facilitates remodeling of AVFs in rabbits.
- arteriovenous fistula
- transforming growth factor beta1
- tunica intima
- Open Access
Page range: 233 - 243
Neurological damage from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a result of primary mechanical injury and secondary damage from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Although genistein has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in studies of brain injury, its effect on secondary damage in SCI has remained unknown.
To determine effects of genistein in a model of SCI in rats.
We divided 21 rats evenly into 3 groups, a control group, in which only a laminectomy was performed; a trauma group in which SCI was induced; and a genistein group in which genistein was administered subcutaneously after SCI. The rats were assessed using a Basso–Beattie and Bresnahan functional score at the 12th hour and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. Biochemical analyses were conducted at the same time points to determine the serum levels of catalase, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), disulfide (SS), total thiol (TT), native thiol (NT), disulfide/total thiol (SS/TT), and native thiol/total thiol (NT/TT). Total oxidant and antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress index were determined in spinal cord tissue obtained on the 7th day together with immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 levels.
Catalase activity on the 7th day was significantly (
Genistein has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects in a model of SCI in rats and warrants further study.
- oxidative stress
- spinal cord injuries
- sulfhydryl compounds
- Open Access
Low bone mineral density in Thai children with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and risk factors
Page range: 245 - 250
Improvement of disease recognition and management has increased the survival of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but has shifted the morbidity focus toward long-term complications, such as low bone mass and osteoporosis. Studies in adults with SLE show older age, chronic inflammation, and corticosteroid therapy are risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis.
To determine the prevalence of and identify risk factors associated with low BMD in Thai children with SLE.
We conducted a retrospective review of demographic data and clinical variables for a cohort of 60 Thai children with SLE who underwent 2 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at their initial examination and later follow-up. We considered a BMD
The prevalence of low BMD at the first visit was 40% and increased to 55% over follow-up. We found a significantly decreased hip BMD
Low BMD has a 40% prevalence in Thai children newly diagnosed with SLE and progresses significantly over time. Higher cumulative corticosteroid dose tended to be associated with a low BMD, but we did not find a significant risk in this small sample.
- lupus erythematosus, systemic