- Journal Details
- First Published
- 01 Jun 2007
- Publication timeframe
- 6 times per year
- Open Access
Evidence-based policy, legislation, and enforcement: a need for concerted actions toward road safetyPublished Online: 21 Mar 2018
Page range: 299 - 300
- Open Access
Page range: 301 - 314
Target-specific drug-delivery systems for the administration of pharmaceutical compounds enable the localization of drugs to diseased sites. Various types of drug-delivery systems utilize carriers, such as immunoglobulins, serum proteins, synthetic polymers, liposomes, and microspheres. The vesicular system of niosomes, with their bilayer structure assembled by nonionic surfactants, is able to enhance the bioavailability of a drug to a predetermined area for a period. The amphiphilic nature of niosomes promotes their efficiency in encapsulating lipophilic or hydrophilic drugs. Other additives, such as cholesterol, can be used to maintain the rigidity of the niosomes’ structure. This narrative review describes fundamental aspects of niosomes, including their structural components, methods of preparation, limitations, and current applications to various diseases.
- drug-delivery system
- medical applications
- methods of preparation
- Open Access
Page range: 343 - 352
Phthalates are found in products made of plastic. Because of concerns regarding the hazards of phthalate exposure, including endocrine disruption, many countries have regulations to restrict their use in products used by children. However, in Thailand, no such restrictions exist, and data relating to phthalate exposure are scarce.
To determine the level of exposure of Thai children and adolescents to phthalates, and study its associations with sociodemographic data and the exposure to potential sources of phthalates.
Healthy children aged 2–18 y were enrolled into the present cross-sectional study between January 2016 and December 2016 inclusive. Their anthropometric indices and Tanner staging were determined. Urinary concentrations of the phthalate metabolites, monomethyl phthalate (MMP) and mono-
We included 103 boys and 118 girls with a mean age of 9.4 ± 3.64 (range 2.8–17.1) y and detected MMP in 28.5% and MBP in 88.6%. The geometric means (interquartile range) of urinary MMP and MBP were 3400 (2489, 4642) and 214.4 (164, 279) μg/g creatinine (Cr), respectively. Significant associations were found between exposure to floor cleaning products and Cr-adjusted urinary MMP level (
Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were high in a proportion of Thai children and adolescents. Exposure to floor cleaning products and paint is associated with phthalate exposure, and advanced Tanner stage is negatively associated with urinary Cr-adjusted MBP.
- monomethyl phthalate
- mono-n-butyl phthalate
- Thai children and adolescents
- Open Access
Validity, reliability, and sensitivity to change of the Thai version of the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire version 2.1
Page range: 331 - 342
The Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire version 2.1 (MSQv2.1) is used to evaluate the impact of symptoms on the quality of life (QoL) of migraineurs.
To evaluate primarily the concurrent validity, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency, and secondarily the sensitivity to change of a Thai version of the MSQv2.1.
The original English version of the MSQv2.1 was translated into a Thai version. The Thai version of the MSQv2.1 was assessed for content and language equivalence. Validity of the Thai version of the MSQv2.1 was assessed using migraine characteristics in a prospective study conducted at the Chulalongkorn Comprehensive Headache Centre of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Test–retest reliability and internal consistency were tested in migraineurs. Sensitivity to change was evaluated in another group of migraineurs using an 8-week follow-up.
We recruited 30 migraineurs to test the validity, test–retest reliability, and internal consistency of the Thai version of the MSQv2.1 and 11 migraineurs to test its sensitivity to change. The Thai version of the MSQv2.1 scores were significantly correlated with migraine symptoms (inverse coefficient range from –0.62 to –0.39) except for associated symptoms, which had no correlation with any of the dimensions or overall QoL score. Spearman’s correlation coefficient for test–retest reliability was 0.56–0.83, and Cronbach’s α for internal consistency was 0.91–0.96. Headache, including average pain duration per attack, pain severity score (numeric rating scale), associated symptoms and dimensions, and overall QoL score of the Thai version of MSQv2.1 improved over time (
The Thai version of the MSQv2.1 had validity, acceptable internal consistency, moderate-to-strong test–retest reliability, and strong correlation between improvement in headache severity and overall QoL score. A future study with a larger sample size and longer follow-up is required for better estimates of internal consistency and sensitivity to change.
- health-related quality of life
- Migraine-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire version 2.1
- sensitivity to change
- Thai version of the MSQv2.1
- Open Access
Page range: 323 - 330
Antioxidant levels increase to protect cell homeostasis when oxidant generation is increased by drug or inhibitor treatment. If the oxidant–antioxidant equilibrium is disrupted, oxidative stress will occur.
To determine the effects of various potassium channel inhibitors in the disruption of oxidant–antioxidant equilibrium in breast cancer cell lines with various phenotypes.
MCF-7 or MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with tetraethylammonium chloride (5 mM; TEA), 4-aminopyridine (5 mM; 4-AP), margatoxin (25 nM; MgTX), or astemizole (200 nM; AST). After treatment, total antioxidant, oxidant, and oxidative stress levels were determined.
Incubation with TEA, 4-AP, MgTX, and AST increased oxidative stress in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells (
Potassium channel inhibitors used in our study disrupted the antioxidant–oxidant equilibrium and increased oxidative stress in the cancer cell lines. Although all of the channel inhibitors increased oxidative stress in cells, TEA and AST were the most effective inhibitors in MCF-7 cells. 4-AP was the most effective inhibitor in MDA-MB-231 cells. Voltage-gated potassium channels are attractive targets for anticancer therapy, and their inhibitors may enhance the effects of anticancer drugs.
- breast cancer
- oxidative stress
- tetraethylammonium chloride
- Open Access
Page range: 315 - 322
Driving performance is influenced by human, vehicular, and environmental factors.
To investigate the effects of distraction tasks, such as sending a text message (STM) and searching a navigation device (SN), on the driving performance of experienced taxi drivers.
Twelve male taxi drivers (age: 56.3 ± 4.4 y; experience: 28.4 ± 6.4 y) and 14 female taxi drivers (age: 55.5 ± 3.5 y; experience: 19.4 ± 5.0 y) drove in a simulator at a constant speed (90 km/h) for 2 min while maintaining a gap of 30 m from the car in front, also traveling at 90 km/h. Participants were instructed to drive only for the first 1 min (control phase). For an additional 1 min (task phase), they were instructed to drive only, drive + STM, or drive + SN.
Compared with driving only, during driving + STM or driving + SN, the drivers’ skin conductance level was relatively increased, suggesting that the distraction task increased the drivers’ workload and sympathetic nervous system activity. Compared with driving only, during driving + STM or driving + SN, the average distance from the car in front, speed deviation, and anterior–posterior and medial–lateral coefficients of variation increased, suggesting that maintaining the instructed gap and speed, and the longitudinal and transverse control of the car, was more difficult because of the distraction task.
Even for highly experienced taxi drivers, distraction tasks increased workload, increased the difficulty of vehicle control, and detracted from safe driving.
- distraction task
- driving performance
- experienced drivers
- sympathetic nervous system
- Open Access
The use of Monte Carlo simulation to predict vancomycin dosage for methicillin-resistant
Staphylococcus aureus in Thai patients of various ages and with varying degrees of renal function
Page range: 379 - 386
To our knowledge, no study reported so far has investigated appropriate vancomycin dosing, which is important for treatment of methicillin-resistant
To predict vancomycin dosing for MRSA in Thai patients of various ages and with varying degrees of renal functions.
Monte Carlo simulation and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) distribution of MRSA from a hospital in Thailand were used to predict the area under the curve in 24 h/MIC >400 and trough concentration (
Vancomycin dosing at least 2.5 g per day can attain cumulative fraction of response (CFR) of ≥90% in every age group. Vancomycin dosage achieving CFR of ≥90% for simulated patients with creatinine clearance (CLcr) was calculated using the Cockcroft–Gault equation. Appropriate vancomycin doses for Thai patients infected with MRSA with CLcr of <40, 40–60, >60–80, and >80 mL/min were 1.5 g every 24 h, 1.25 g every 12 h, 1 g every 8 h, and 1.75 g every 12 h, respectively. However, more than a half of patients simulated using these regimens have a vancomycin
Although vancomycin doses attaining a CFR of ≥90% can treat MRSA infection effectively, the regimens may cause kidney injury. The regimens have a probability of target attainment of 100%, and most patients can attain
- Monte Carlo simulation
- Thai patients
- vancomycin dosing
- Open Access
Screening antibiotics using an Hoechst 33342 dye-accumulation assay to detect efflux activity in
Acinetobacter baumannii clinical isolates
Page range: 371 - 378
Understanding the contribution of efflux pumps to the resistance of antibiotics is useful when considering strategies for antimicrobial therapy.
To assess the role of efflux activity on the resistance of antibiotics commonly used in hospitals.
We analyzed the efflux activity of 120 clinical isolates of
The evaluation suggests that efflux activity contributed to resistance to the following 11 antibiotics: cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, meropenem, piperacillin, piperacillin/tazobactam, ticarcillin/ clavulanic acid, and tigecycline. However, ampicillin/sulbactam, minocycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole did not meet the criteria, suggesting resistance may not be mediated by efflux activity. A significant difference in efflux activity was observed between bacteria belonging to the multidrug-resistant
Efflux activity may contribute to multidrug resistance and particularly resistance to numerous antibiotics used in hospitals. These antibiotics would be good candidates for combination therapeutic regimens consisting of an antibiotic and an efflux pump inhibitor as an adjuvant to combat drug efflux.
- antibacterial agents
- drug resistance
- Hoechst 33342
- Open Access
Exploring the association between glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and color blindness in Southeast Asia
Page range: 365 - 370
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency poses problems for the treatment of
To determine the association between G6PD deficiency and color blindness in a Karen population that lives in an area endemic for
We examined the phenotypic association between G6PD deficiency and color blindness.
Of 186 male participants successfully assessed for color blindness using the Ishihara 38 plates test, 10 (5.4%) were red–green color blind, while 1 individual was totally color blind. There was a nonsignificant trend toward negative association (repulsion) between G6PD deficiency and red–green color blindness; 34/35 individuals with the Mahidol variant of G6PD deficiency had normal vision, while 9 of the 10 red–green color blind individuals were G6PD normal. A single individual had both conditions.
Despite the long-range haplotype associated with G6PD deficiency in this population, color blindness is not informative in terms of predicting G6PD deficiency in this population. The most likely explanation is that there are multiple genetic causes of red–green color blindness.
- chromosome Xq28
- color blindness
- linkage disequilibrium
- Open Access
Reactogenicity and safety of AS03B-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccine in children: an open-label, one-way, crossover trial
Page range: 359 - 364
Human cases of highly pathogenic avian-origin influenza A/H5N1 infection continue to be reported to the World Health Organization, and recent outbreaks of human cases of other zoonotic influenza strains highlight the continued need for strategies to mitigate influenza pandemic potential.
A Phase II–III randomized, placebo-controlled, observer-blind trial was conducted to assess the immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of two 1.9 μg hemagglutinin doses of AS03B-adjuvanted H5N1 (AS03B-H5N1; A/Indonesia) vaccine in children (6 months to <18 years old) of Thailand, the United States, and Canada (Year 1, published elsewhere). After database lock in Year 1, the trial was unblinded, and children who had been randomized to receive placebo and continued to fulfill the eligibility criteria were invited to participate in an open-label, one-way, crossover safety extension phase, in which they received AS03B-H5N1 vaccine. Here we report the safety analysis in Year 2.
A total of 155 children were vaccinated in Year 2. The most frequent solicited adverse event (AE) during 7 days post vaccination was injection site pain. Irritability or fussiness was reported in about one-third of younger children (aged <6 years) during 7 days post vaccination and was the most common solicited general AE in this age group. Postvaccination temperature (≥38°C) was reported in 4 (5.1%) children. The most common solicited general AEs in older children (aged ≥6 years) were muscle aches, headache, and fatigue. The AS03B-H5N1 vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile up to 385 days post vaccination.
Safety in the crossover phase was acceptable and consistent with that observed in vaccine recipients in the randomized, blinded phase of the study.
- AS03 adjuvanted
- Open Access
Incidence and etiology of maxillofacial trauma: a retrospective analysis of King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital in the past decade
Page range: 353 - 358
Maxillofacial injury is a common injury in trauma patients. The incidence, associated injuries and causes have been never reported for King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital (KCMH).
To report the incidence, associated injuries, age groups, treatments, and behavioral risks in maxillofacial patients who were admitted to KCMH in the past decade.
We conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis of patients from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, to evaluate the age groups, causes, sites of facial bone fracture, associated injuries, treatments, and behavioral risks.
There were 1,275 patients (79% male and 21% female). The most common age group was 21–30 years (30.6%), followed by 11–20 years (19.5%) and 31–40 years (18.8%). The most common cause of injury was motorcycle accident (39.7%), and the most common associated injury was head injury (58%). The total number of fractures were 1,526, with the most common fracture site being the zygomaticomaxillary complex (38.6%), followed by mandible (21.8%) and nasal bone (17.8%). Most fractures were treated using open reduction and internal fixation with plates and screws.
The main cause of maxillofacial injury is motorcycle accident even though the government launched a policy named “Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020” to reduce road traffic deaths. Thailand continues to need stronger law enforcement to reduce risky motorcycle driving behavior.
- maxillofacial fracture
- maxillofacial injury
History of Asian biomedicine
- Open Access
Two decades’ contribution of occupational medicine training in Thailand: experience from the foundation with a view toward the future
Page range: 387 - 392
For 2 decades, the Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, has served the Occupational Medicine Residency training program in Thailand. Graduates of this program undertake to work in occupational medicine to promote health and prevent morbidity and mortality in the workplace and provide occupational medical services for the working population in Thailand. Qualifying for a Postgraduate Diploma in Occupational Medicine in Thailand can be achieved in 2 ways: through a 3-year residency training or 5 years of working experience in the field of occupational medicine combined with an elective 2-month short course. There are currently 159 Thai board-certified occupational medicine physicians. Occupational medicine physicians in Thailand work in both public and private healthcare facilities. A number of certified occupational physicians occupy leading national health positions in various government and academic organizations. Knowledge of occupational medicine is currently essential for undergraduate medical students as specified in the medical competency assessment criteria of the Thai Medical Council. Updating content and incorporating needs of employers are keys to success for Thailand, as a country with an occupational medicine training program in its initial stages. In Thailand, the supply of occupational medicine physicians is still less than the increasing demand. Advancement of health research schemes would contribute to the curriculum. Occupational medicine development in Thailand needs to address challenges in local issues including work in the informal sector, particularly in agriculture, and incorporate standardization and international consistency into the training curriculum and qualifying management.
- occupational medicine