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Volume 16 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

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Volume 4 (2010): Issue 2 (April 2010)

Volume 4 (2010): Issue 1 (February 2010)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1875-855X
First Published
01 Jun 2007
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 16 (2022): Issue 3 (June 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1875-855X
First Published
01 Jun 2007
Publication timeframe
6 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

Healthy collaborations are needed for mangrove land use and mosquito control

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 109 - 110

Abstract

Review

access type Open Access

Dichotomous role of autophagy in cancer

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 111 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that plays physiological and pathological roles in a cell. Its effect on cellular metabolism, the proteome, and the number and quality of organelles, diversely holds the potential to alter cellular functions. It acts paradoxically in cancer as a tumor inhibitor as well as a tumor promoter. In the early stage of tumorigenesis, it prevents tumor initiation by the so-called “quality control mechanism” and suppresses cancer progression. For late-staged tumors that are exposed to stress, it acts as a vibrant process of degradation and recycling that promotes cancer by facilitating metastasis. Despite this dichotomy, the crucial role of autophagy is evident in cancer, and associated with mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR), p53, and Ras-derived major cancer networks. Irrespective of the controversy regarding autophagic manipulation, promotion and suppression of autophagy act as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment and may provide various anticancer therapies.

Keywords

  • autophagy
  • carcinogenesis
  • neoplasms
  • pathology
  • recycling therapeutics

Original article

access type Open Access

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity and medical importance in Koh Kong mangrove forests, Cambodia

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 121 - 129

Abstract

Abstract Background

Mangroves are an ecosystem interface between land and sea, forming distinctive shallow-water marine communities in tropical and subtropical waters. The mangrove forest surface in Cambodia is being reduced due to deforestation. Because the mangrove type of ecosystem generally hosts a great diversity of mosquitoes, the urbanization of these ecosystems will increase interactions between humans and wild mosquitoes, and might thus serve as a potential source of new infectious diseases. Understanding mosquito diversity and analyzing their virome is critical to estimate the risk of emergence or future outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases.

Objective

To understand the mosquito diversity of mangrove forests of Koh Kong province (Cambodia).

Methods

In 2019, the mosquito fauna was sampled for 3 consecutive days using BG-Sentinel and light traps, in 3 locations in the mangrove forests of Koh Kong province (Cambodia) during both dry and rainy seasons.

Results

A total of 3107 samples were collected, belonging to 10 genera for 34 species. The Culex genus was the most diverse, accounting for 10 species. One species, Culex sitiens, represented over 60% of all collected mosquitoes. A total of 12 medically important species were recorded, 2 species, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Culex vishnui, were collected in all sites and during both the dry and rainy seasons, highlighting a potential risk of these species acting as bridge vectors.

Conclusions

If new arboviruses were to be recorded in this peculiar area, it would indicate that the mosquito species found have the potential to act as a bridge between sylvatic and anthropogenic arboviruses.

Keywords

  • checklist
  • disease transmission
  • infectious
  • entomology
  • mosquito vectors

Brief communication (original)

access type Open Access

Safety and efficacy of non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with well-controlled warfarin in Thai patients with atrial fibrillation

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Abstract Background

In trials of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were not inferior to warfarin for thromboembolic and bleeding events. However, there are scant data comparing the efficacy and safety of NOACs in patients with AF with that of well-controlled warfarin treatment in such patients.

Objectives

To compare total bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients with AF who received NOACs, with the same events in those who received well-controlled warfarin treatment.

Methods

We used retrospective data from patients with AF who received NOACs or well-controlled warfarin at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand from January 2017 to December 2019. The primary outcome was total bleeding or thromboembolic events or both. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality, total bleeding events including major or minor bleeding, and thromboembolic events including ischemic stroke or systemic embolization.

Results

We included data from 180 patients with AF, 90 who received NOACs and 90 who received well-controlled warfarin. The average time in the therapeutic range for those who received warfarin was 84.9% ± 9.8%. The patients who received well-controlled warfarin had more frequent thromboembolic or total bleeding events or both than those who received NOACs (odds ratio [OR] 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.27–4.07; P = 0.01). There were more minor bleeding events in those who received well-controlled warfarin (OR 3.75; 95% CI 2.79–4.71; P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in thromboembolic events, major bleeding, or all-cause mortality between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

Thai patients with AF who received NOACs had less thromboembolic or total bleeding events than those who received well-controlled warfarin treatment.

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • factor Xa inhibitors
  • hemorrhage
  • non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants
  • warfarin
access type Open Access

Ultrasonographic shear wave elastography of the thyroid in patients with sickle cell anemia

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 137 - 143

Abstract

Abstract Background

Although thyroid radiology has been conducted in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), to our knowledge, there is no report of thyroid gland assessment using ultrasonographic shear wave elastography (US-SWE).

Objectives

To determine values for ultrasonographic US-SWE of the thyroid in patients with SCA and correlations between thyroid elasticity and biochemical variables used to evaluate thyroid function.

Methods

Prospective case–control observational study of 36 patients with SCA and 33 healthy volunteer controls. US-SWE measurements of thyroid gland parenchyma and biochemical parameters of the participants were obtained and compared, and the diagnostic accuracy of elasticity was determined.

Results

The thyroid volume was smaller in patients with SCA than that in controls (P = 0.001). Compared with the controls, the patients with SCA had significantly lower serum levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3) (P = 0.004) and thyroglobulin (Tg) (P = 0.001) and significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P = 0.028). Thyroid stiffness was significantly higher in the left lobe (LL) of the patients with SCA than in the controls (P = 0.003). In the patients with SCA, we found a significant correlation between right lobe (RL) and LL stiffness and serum levels of Tg (RL [r = −0.439] and LL [r = −0.484]; P = 0.021) and fT3 (RL [r = −0.463] and LL [r = −0.386]; P = 0.012). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of thyroid elasticity that represented a diagnosis of SCA found a cutoff of >7.31 kPa, a sensitivity of 52.0%, and a specificity of 72.0% for the RL (P = 0.316, area under the curve [AUC] 0.570), and a cutoff of >8.06 kPa, a sensitivity of 58.0%, and a specificity of 84.0% for the LL (P = 0.011, AUC 0.680).

Conclusions

US-SWE can be used to follow up thyroid changes in patients with SCA.

Keywords

  • anemia, sickle cell
  • anti-thyroid autoantibodies
  • elasticity imaging techniques
  • thyroid gland

Clinical report

access type Open Access

Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: case report and review of the literature

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 145 - 150

Abstract

Abstract Background

We report the clinicopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features, ultrastructure, tissue source, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a patient with a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT).

Case report

A 40-year-old woman had a uterine myoma with enlargement for 2.5 years. An ultrasound examination showed a mixed echogenic mass at the posterior wall of the uterus and a dark cyst in the right adnexal area, which suggested a suspected uterine myoma with liquefaction and a suspected chocolate cyst. The patient underwent transabdominal tumor resection with removal of the right adnexal mass. Through postoperative pathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with UTROSCT. No recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 1 year.

Conclusion

Although UTROSCT is usually benign, it can relapse or metastasize, and patients with UTROSCT need comprehensive diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords

  • case reports
  • fertility preservation
  • immunohistochemistry
  • surgery
  • uterine neoplasms
6 Articles

Editorial

access type Open Access

Healthy collaborations are needed for mangrove land use and mosquito control

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 109 - 110

Abstract

Review

access type Open Access

Dichotomous role of autophagy in cancer

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 111 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

Autophagy is an evolutionary conserved catabolic process that plays physiological and pathological roles in a cell. Its effect on cellular metabolism, the proteome, and the number and quality of organelles, diversely holds the potential to alter cellular functions. It acts paradoxically in cancer as a tumor inhibitor as well as a tumor promoter. In the early stage of tumorigenesis, it prevents tumor initiation by the so-called “quality control mechanism” and suppresses cancer progression. For late-staged tumors that are exposed to stress, it acts as a vibrant process of degradation and recycling that promotes cancer by facilitating metastasis. Despite this dichotomy, the crucial role of autophagy is evident in cancer, and associated with mammalian targets of rapamycin (mTOR), p53, and Ras-derived major cancer networks. Irrespective of the controversy regarding autophagic manipulation, promotion and suppression of autophagy act as potential therapeutic targets in cancer treatment and may provide various anticancer therapies.

Keywords

  • autophagy
  • carcinogenesis
  • neoplasms
  • pathology
  • recycling therapeutics

Original article

access type Open Access

Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity and medical importance in Koh Kong mangrove forests, Cambodia

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 121 - 129

Abstract

Abstract Background

Mangroves are an ecosystem interface between land and sea, forming distinctive shallow-water marine communities in tropical and subtropical waters. The mangrove forest surface in Cambodia is being reduced due to deforestation. Because the mangrove type of ecosystem generally hosts a great diversity of mosquitoes, the urbanization of these ecosystems will increase interactions between humans and wild mosquitoes, and might thus serve as a potential source of new infectious diseases. Understanding mosquito diversity and analyzing their virome is critical to estimate the risk of emergence or future outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases.

Objective

To understand the mosquito diversity of mangrove forests of Koh Kong province (Cambodia).

Methods

In 2019, the mosquito fauna was sampled for 3 consecutive days using BG-Sentinel and light traps, in 3 locations in the mangrove forests of Koh Kong province (Cambodia) during both dry and rainy seasons.

Results

A total of 3107 samples were collected, belonging to 10 genera for 34 species. The Culex genus was the most diverse, accounting for 10 species. One species, Culex sitiens, represented over 60% of all collected mosquitoes. A total of 12 medically important species were recorded, 2 species, Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus and Culex vishnui, were collected in all sites and during both the dry and rainy seasons, highlighting a potential risk of these species acting as bridge vectors.

Conclusions

If new arboviruses were to be recorded in this peculiar area, it would indicate that the mosquito species found have the potential to act as a bridge between sylvatic and anthropogenic arboviruses.

Keywords

  • checklist
  • disease transmission
  • infectious
  • entomology
  • mosquito vectors

Brief communication (original)

access type Open Access

Safety and efficacy of non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants compared with well-controlled warfarin in Thai patients with atrial fibrillation

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 131 - 136

Abstract

Abstract Background

In trials of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) were not inferior to warfarin for thromboembolic and bleeding events. However, there are scant data comparing the efficacy and safety of NOACs in patients with AF with that of well-controlled warfarin treatment in such patients.

Objectives

To compare total bleeding and thromboembolic events in patients with AF who received NOACs, with the same events in those who received well-controlled warfarin treatment.

Methods

We used retrospective data from patients with AF who received NOACs or well-controlled warfarin at the Central Chest Institute of Thailand from January 2017 to December 2019. The primary outcome was total bleeding or thromboembolic events or both. The secondary outcome was all-cause mortality, total bleeding events including major or minor bleeding, and thromboembolic events including ischemic stroke or systemic embolization.

Results

We included data from 180 patients with AF, 90 who received NOACs and 90 who received well-controlled warfarin. The average time in the therapeutic range for those who received warfarin was 84.9% ± 9.8%. The patients who received well-controlled warfarin had more frequent thromboembolic or total bleeding events or both than those who received NOACs (odds ratio [OR] 3.17; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.27–4.07; P = 0.01). There were more minor bleeding events in those who received well-controlled warfarin (OR 3.75; 95% CI 2.79–4.71; P = 0.01). However, there was no significant difference in thromboembolic events, major bleeding, or all-cause mortality between the 2 groups.

Conclusions

Thai patients with AF who received NOACs had less thromboembolic or total bleeding events than those who received well-controlled warfarin treatment.

Keywords

  • atrial fibrillation
  • factor Xa inhibitors
  • hemorrhage
  • non–vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants
  • warfarin
access type Open Access

Ultrasonographic shear wave elastography of the thyroid in patients with sickle cell anemia

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 137 - 143

Abstract

Abstract Background

Although thyroid radiology has been conducted in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA), to our knowledge, there is no report of thyroid gland assessment using ultrasonographic shear wave elastography (US-SWE).

Objectives

To determine values for ultrasonographic US-SWE of the thyroid in patients with SCA and correlations between thyroid elasticity and biochemical variables used to evaluate thyroid function.

Methods

Prospective case–control observational study of 36 patients with SCA and 33 healthy volunteer controls. US-SWE measurements of thyroid gland parenchyma and biochemical parameters of the participants were obtained and compared, and the diagnostic accuracy of elasticity was determined.

Results

The thyroid volume was smaller in patients with SCA than that in controls (P = 0.001). Compared with the controls, the patients with SCA had significantly lower serum levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3) (P = 0.004) and thyroglobulin (Tg) (P = 0.001) and significantly higher levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (P = 0.028). Thyroid stiffness was significantly higher in the left lobe (LL) of the patients with SCA than in the controls (P = 0.003). In the patients with SCA, we found a significant correlation between right lobe (RL) and LL stiffness and serum levels of Tg (RL [r = −0.439] and LL [r = −0.484]; P = 0.021) and fT3 (RL [r = −0.463] and LL [r = −0.386]; P = 0.012). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of thyroid elasticity that represented a diagnosis of SCA found a cutoff of >7.31 kPa, a sensitivity of 52.0%, and a specificity of 72.0% for the RL (P = 0.316, area under the curve [AUC] 0.570), and a cutoff of >8.06 kPa, a sensitivity of 58.0%, and a specificity of 84.0% for the LL (P = 0.011, AUC 0.680).

Conclusions

US-SWE can be used to follow up thyroid changes in patients with SCA.

Keywords

  • anemia, sickle cell
  • anti-thyroid autoantibodies
  • elasticity imaging techniques
  • thyroid gland

Clinical report

access type Open Access

Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor: case report and review of the literature

Published Online: 30 Jun 2022
Page range: 145 - 150

Abstract

Abstract Background

We report the clinicopathological characteristics, immunohistochemical features, ultrastructure, tissue source, differential diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of a patient with a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor (UTROSCT).

Case report

A 40-year-old woman had a uterine myoma with enlargement for 2.5 years. An ultrasound examination showed a mixed echogenic mass at the posterior wall of the uterus and a dark cyst in the right adnexal area, which suggested a suspected uterine myoma with liquefaction and a suspected chocolate cyst. The patient underwent transabdominal tumor resection with removal of the right adnexal mass. Through postoperative pathological examination, the patient was diagnosed with UTROSCT. No recurrence was observed after a follow-up of 1 year.

Conclusion

Although UTROSCT is usually benign, it can relapse or metastasize, and patients with UTROSCT need comprehensive diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords

  • case reports
  • fertility preservation
  • immunohistochemistry
  • surgery
  • uterine neoplasms

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