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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2353-0707
Première publication
19 Jul 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 21 (2015): Edition 2 (December 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2353-0707
Première publication
19 Jul 2012
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

3 Articles
Accès libre

Series of Nine Cases of Axial Displacement of Distal Tibial and/or Fibular Shafts from Aircraft Crashes with Proposal of Potential Mechanisms

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 91 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Previously, a pair of aircraft crash fatalities was reported by Byard and Tsokos involving extreme trauma to the lower legs with avulsion of the musculature and extrusion of the distal tibial shaft through the inferior aspect of the feet and shoes. This report was important to both the forensics and the injury prevention fields because it demonstrates a finding that may help to indicate not only the severity and nature/direction of an impact but also the position of the extremities at the time of collision with the terrain. Thus, here are reported an additional nine cases out of a larger series of 1182 aircraft fatalities (0.7%) with similar findings and discuss the biomechanical origins of such injuries.

Mots clés

  • fracture
  • talus
  • aircraft crash
  • tibia
  • trauma
Accès libre

An explanation of the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 99 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To demonstrate that an epidemiologic probability model of a hypothesized X-linkage for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) that predicted its 50% male excess, also predicts the 25% male excess of all child mortality for ages under 5 years.

METHODS: Neglecting trauma, infants die naturally from either respiratory causes R (breathing stops first) or cardiac causes C (heart stops beating first). An hypothesized dominant X-linked allele with frequency p = 1/3, that is protective against acute anoxic encephalopathy, predicted the 50% male excess of R. Given the ~ 0% male excess for cardiac deaths C, and assuming equal death risk for females by R and C, their average predicts a 25% male excess for equal numbers of infant males and females at risk. Thus, 5 males would die for each 4 females dying from all causes, predicting a male fraction of 5/9 = 0.55556.

RESULTS: Vital statistics for gender of children under 5 years at risk of dying and their corresponding mortality are obtained from the U.S.A. and multiple European countries. For 17 data sets from 15 countries, we total over 1.2 Billion child-years at risk and over 2.6 million child deaths. The observed total under 5 year male fraction, correcting for the nominal 5% male livebirth excess, is 0.55633, virtually as predicted.

CONCLUSIONS: An X-linked dominant allele protective against respiratory failure, predicts accurately the 5/9 male fraction of all child mortality under 5 years. DNA study of SIDS can identify the candidate X-linked gene locus.

Mots clés

  • SIDS
  • Respiratory Arrest
  • Cardiac Arrest
  • X-linkage
Accès libre

Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 103 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Mots clés

  • Risk assessment
  • violence
  • multidisciplinary survey
  • forensic psychiatry
  • HCR-20
  • START
  • PCL-R
  • PCL-SV
3 Articles
Accès libre

Series of Nine Cases of Axial Displacement of Distal Tibial and/or Fibular Shafts from Aircraft Crashes with Proposal of Potential Mechanisms

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 91 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Previously, a pair of aircraft crash fatalities was reported by Byard and Tsokos involving extreme trauma to the lower legs with avulsion of the musculature and extrusion of the distal tibial shaft through the inferior aspect of the feet and shoes. This report was important to both the forensics and the injury prevention fields because it demonstrates a finding that may help to indicate not only the severity and nature/direction of an impact but also the position of the extremities at the time of collision with the terrain. Thus, here are reported an additional nine cases out of a larger series of 1182 aircraft fatalities (0.7%) with similar findings and discuss the biomechanical origins of such injuries.

Mots clés

  • fracture
  • talus
  • aircraft crash
  • tibia
  • trauma
Accès libre

An explanation of the 25% male excess mortality for all children under 5

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 99 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

BACKGROUND: To demonstrate that an epidemiologic probability model of a hypothesized X-linkage for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) that predicted its 50% male excess, also predicts the 25% male excess of all child mortality for ages under 5 years.

METHODS: Neglecting trauma, infants die naturally from either respiratory causes R (breathing stops first) or cardiac causes C (heart stops beating first). An hypothesized dominant X-linked allele with frequency p = 1/3, that is protective against acute anoxic encephalopathy, predicted the 50% male excess of R. Given the ~ 0% male excess for cardiac deaths C, and assuming equal death risk for females by R and C, their average predicts a 25% male excess for equal numbers of infant males and females at risk. Thus, 5 males would die for each 4 females dying from all causes, predicting a male fraction of 5/9 = 0.55556.

RESULTS: Vital statistics for gender of children under 5 years at risk of dying and their corresponding mortality are obtained from the U.S.A. and multiple European countries. For 17 data sets from 15 countries, we total over 1.2 Billion child-years at risk and over 2.6 million child deaths. The observed total under 5 year male fraction, correcting for the nominal 5% male livebirth excess, is 0.55633, virtually as predicted.

CONCLUSIONS: An X-linked dominant allele protective against respiratory failure, predicts accurately the 5/9 male fraction of all child mortality under 5 years. DNA study of SIDS can identify the candidate X-linked gene locus.

Mots clés

  • SIDS
  • Respiratory Arrest
  • Cardiac Arrest
  • X-linkage
Accès libre

Violence Risk Assessment Practices in Denmark: A Multidisciplinary National Survey

Publié en ligne: 17 Dec 2015
Pages: 103 - 110

Résumé

Abstract

With a quadrupling of forensic psychiatric patients in Denmark over the past 20 years, focus on violence risk assessment practices across the country has increased. However, information is lacking regarding Danish risk assessment practice across professional disciplines and clinical settings; little is known about how violence risk assessments are conducted, which instruments are used for what purposes, and how mental health professionals rate their utility and costs. As part of a global survey exploring the application of violence risk assessment across 44 countries, the current study investigated Danish practice across several professional disciplines and settings in which forensic and high-risk mental health patients are assessed and treated. In total, 125 mental health professionals across the country completed the survey. The five instruments that respondents reported most commonly using for risk assessment, risk management planning and risk monitoring were Broset, HCR-20, the START, the PCL-R, and the PCL:SV. Whereas the HCR-20 was rated highest in usefulness for risk assessment, the START was rated most useful for risk management and risk monitoring. No significant differences in utility were observed across professional groups. Unstructured clinical judgments were reported to be faster but more expensive to conduct than using a risk assessment instrument. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.

Mots clés

  • Risk assessment
  • violence
  • multidisciplinary survey
  • forensic psychiatry
  • HCR-20
  • START
  • PCL-R
  • PCL-SV

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