- Détails du magazine
- Première publication
- 19 Jul 2012
- Période de publication
- 2 fois par an
- Accès libre
Pages: 3 - 8
The pathophysiology of sudden death during apprehension remains largely unclear. The most frequently discussed mechanisms are excited delirium, positional asphyxia, metabolic acidosis, acute and chronic drug abuse, and autonomic instability. As in most areas of forensic medicine, much of the knowledge comes from case reports, which are of little use in understanding causality. Experimental studies of some aspects have been performed, and they show somewhat divergent results and interpretations. The aim of this review is to summarize the different proposed theories, and to point out important issues for further research.
- excited delirium
- positional asphyxia
- sudden death
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Suicide in children and adolescents: A case report of the possible suicide of a 7 year old girl and presentation of data from a forensic autopsy material in Norway
Pages: 9 - 12
The present paper reports a 7 year old girl’s death by hanging. The forensic investigation disclosed death most likely to be self-inflicted, either an act of suicide, subsidiary a case of accidental asphyxia from a child’s play. A review of forensic autopsy records from southeast Norway during the years 1984-2012 was performed. Totally 116 deaths among children and adolescents < 18 years of age were classified as either suicide or as “undetermined - suicide likely” subsequent to post-mortem examination. The most common suicidal methods were hanging (46%), the use of firearms (24%), jumping in front of a train (11%) and drug intake / intoxication (8%). Though rarely observed in children < 12 years of age, suicide is a common cause of sudden death in adolescents, and there is evidence that the extent of the problem is unceasing. The paper highlights the value of forensic medical examination and crime scene reenactment in the evaluation of the manner of death in obscure cases.
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Pages: 13 - 19
Background: The anogenital colposcopic examination is not a routine procedure in the ordinary examination of children, and knowledge is sparse regarding child and parental anticipation and coping.
Methodology: The study included 60 children aged 4 - 15 years of age, examined on grounds of alleged sexual abuse, during a two year period. The physician rated the child using the Procedure Behavioral Rating Scale (PBRS). In addition, the child and parent completed a questionnaire concerning their experience.
Principal findings: Mean PBRS score was 1.3. Significant positive correlations were found between the parental expectations to the child’s anxiety regarding the examination, and the children’s anxiety, the experience of the examination being bad/ugly and the experience of pain during the examination. Significantly higher PBRS scores were found in the group with no perpetrator conviction.
Conclusions: High levels of parental and child distress emphasizes the need for better preparatory and stress reducing procedures, to avoid possible re-victimization and negative influence of parental anticipatory anxiety on the child. The finding of significantly higher PBRS scores in the group with no conviction could indicate, that lack of behavioral distress might be related to the possibility of sexual abuse.
- Child sexual abuse
- Forensic medical examination
- Anogenital colposcopic examination
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Pages: 20 - 27
Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose is to establish a mean potency, a yield estimate for professionally grown plants, and an assessment of how „professionalism” applies to domestic cultivation. We find a mean THC content in our sample normally distributed around 12% for sinsemilla (n=35) and 11.7% for resin (n=99). This is markedly higher than the assumption of THC content in sinsemilla between 6-8% as is currently applied in Norway and Sweden. It is also higher than the previous estimate of resin potency. The yield in sinsemilla plants is found to be 46 grams per plant. This is much lower than the estimate applied in criminal cases, which indicates that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum thresholds between the (various) grades of illicit drug crimes in the national legal systems. Finally, we introduce the nationality of the gardener as an indication of professionalism in combination with the equipment found on site. We conclude that proportionality in criminal sanctioning of large-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin.