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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-9569
Première publication
19 Jun 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 9 (2016): Edition 3-4 (December 2016)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-9569
Première publication
19 Jun 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

5 Articles
Accès libre

Letter to the Editor. Questionable information on poisonings by alcohol surrogates

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 83 - 84

Résumé

Mots clés

  • ethanol
  • methanol
  • polyhexamethylene guanidine
  • PHMG
  • toxic hepatitis
Accès libre

Review Article. Technical aspects of oxygen level regulation in primary cell cultures: A review

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 85 - 89

Résumé

Abstract

Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology) and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators) have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium.

Mots clés

  • O2 level adjustment
  • pericellular O2 gradients regulation
  • culture medium effects
  • primary cell cultures
Accès libre

Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 90 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

Mots clés

  • LD50
  • pesticide persistence
  • biochemical toxicity
  • organochlorine (OC) pesticides
Accès libre

Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP) in Swiss albino mice

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 101 - 105

Résumé

Abstract

The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI) and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50) was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure). AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI) as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05) as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

Mots clés

  • DDVP
  • HNK Oximes
  • AChE reactivation
  • 2-PAM
Accès libre

Original Article. Study of the cytotoxic/toxic potential of the novel anticancer selenodiazoloquinolone on fibroblast cells and 3D skin model

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 106 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

The new synthetically prepared quinolone derivative 7-ethyl 9-ethyl-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro[1,2,5]selenadiazolo [3,4-h]quinoline-7-carboxylate (E2h) showed in our previous study cytotoxic effects towards tumor cells and immunomodulatory activities on RAW 264.7 cell line murine macrophages. E2h may have a potential use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent with immunomodulatory properties and the ability to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities of E2h on human non-cancer fibroblast BHNF-1 cells and reconstructed human epidermis EpiDerm™. Further the effects of E2h on tissue structure and morphology were examined. Cytotoxic/toxic studies showed that selenadiazoloquinolone is not toxic on normal human fibroblast cells BHNF-1 and dimensional skin constructs EpiDerm™. Evaluation of morphological changes in EpiDerm™ showed no change in the construction and morphology of skin tissue treated by E2h compared to control.

Mots clés

  • quinolones
  • cytotoxicity
  • fibroblast BHNF-1 cells
  • EpiDerm™ viability
  • tissue morphology
5 Articles
Accès libre

Letter to the Editor. Questionable information on poisonings by alcohol surrogates

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 83 - 84

Résumé

Mots clés

  • ethanol
  • methanol
  • polyhexamethylene guanidine
  • PHMG
  • toxic hepatitis
Accès libre

Review Article. Technical aspects of oxygen level regulation in primary cell cultures: A review

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 85 - 89

Résumé

Abstract

Oxygen (O2) is an essential element for aerobic respiration. Atmospheric concentration of O2 is approximately 21%. Mammalian cells, however, are generally adapted to O2 levels much lower than atmospheric conditions. The pericellular levels of O2 must also be maintained within a fairly narrow range to meet the demands of cells. This applies equally to cells in vivo and cells in primary cultures. There has been growing interest in the performance of cell culture experiments under various O2 levels to study molecular and cellular responses. To this end, a range of technologies (e.g. gas-permeable technology) and instruments (e.g. gas-tight boxes and gas-controlled incubators) have been developed. It should be noted, however, that some of these have limitations and they are still undergoing refinement. Nevertheless, better results should be possible when technical concerns are taken into account. This paper aims to review various aspects of O2 level adjustment in primary cell cultures, regulation of pericellular O2 gradients and possible effects of the cell culture medium.

Mots clés

  • O2 level adjustment
  • pericellular O2 gradients regulation
  • culture medium effects
  • primary cell cultures
Accès libre

Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 90 - 100

Résumé

Abstract

Organochlorine (OC) pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

Mots clés

  • LD50
  • pesticide persistence
  • biochemical toxicity
  • organochlorine (OC) pesticides
Accès libre

Original Article. Protection studies of new bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes against acute poisoning by dichlorvos (DDVP) in Swiss albino mice

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 101 - 105

Résumé

Abstract

The available antidotal therapy against acute poisoning by organophosphates involves the use of atropine alone or in combination with one of the oximes, e.g. 2-PAM, Obidoxime, TMB-4 or HI-6. Each of these oximes has some limitation, raising the question of the universal antidotal efficacy against poisoning by all OPs/nerve agents. In the present study, newly synthesized bis quaternary 2-(hydroxyimino)-N-(pyridin-3yl) acetamide derivatives (HNK-series) oximes were evaluated for their antidotal efficacy against DDVP intoxicated Swiss mice, in terms of the Protection Index (PI) and AChE reactivation in brain and serum. The inhibition concentration (IC50) was determined in brain and serum after optimizing the time point for maximum inhibition (60 min post DDVP exposure). AChE reactivation efficacy of the HNK series was evaluated at IC50 and compared with 2-PAM. HNK-102 showed a ~2 times better Protection Index (PI) as compared to 2-PAM against DDVP toxicity. IC50 at 60 min DDVP post exposure was found to be approximately one fifth and one half of the LD50 dose for brain and serum AChE, respectively. Out of three HNK oximes, HNK-102 & 106 at 0.20 LD50 dose significantly reactivated DDVP intoxicated brain AChE (p<0.05) as compared to 2-PAM at double IC50 dose of DDVP. In light of double PI and higher AChE reactivation, HNK 102 was found to be a better oxime than 2-PAM in the treatment of acute poisoning by DDVP.

Mots clés

  • DDVP
  • HNK Oximes
  • AChE reactivation
  • 2-PAM
Accès libre

Original Article. Study of the cytotoxic/toxic potential of the novel anticancer selenodiazoloquinolone on fibroblast cells and 3D skin model

Publié en ligne: 17 May 2017
Pages: 106 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

The new synthetically prepared quinolone derivative 7-ethyl 9-ethyl-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro[1,2,5]selenadiazolo [3,4-h]quinoline-7-carboxylate (E2h) showed in our previous study cytotoxic effects towards tumor cells and immunomodulatory activities on RAW 264.7 cell line murine macrophages. E2h may have a potential use as a novel chemotherapeutic agent with immunomodulatory properties and the ability to induce apoptotic death of cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to examine the antiproliferative/cytotoxic activities of E2h on human non-cancer fibroblast BHNF-1 cells and reconstructed human epidermis EpiDerm™. Further the effects of E2h on tissue structure and morphology were examined. Cytotoxic/toxic studies showed that selenadiazoloquinolone is not toxic on normal human fibroblast cells BHNF-1 and dimensional skin constructs EpiDerm™. Evaluation of morphological changes in EpiDerm™ showed no change in the construction and morphology of skin tissue treated by E2h compared to control.

Mots clés

  • quinolones
  • cytotoxicity
  • fibroblast BHNF-1 cells
  • EpiDerm™ viability
  • tissue morphology

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