- Détails du magazine
- Première publication
- 19 Jun 2009
- Période de publication
- 4 fois par an
- Accès libre
Protective efficacy of various carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients against acute toxicity of some cyanogens in rats: biochemical and physiological studies
Pages: 1 - 10
Cyanogens are widely used in industries and their toxicity is mainly due to cyanogenesis. The antidotes for cyanide are usually instituted for the management of cyanogen poisoning. The present study reports the protective efficacy of 14 carbonyl compounds and their metabolites, and nutrients (1.0 g/kg; oral; +5 min) against acute oral toxicity of acetonitrile (ATCN), acrylonitrile (ACN), malononitrile (MCN), propionitrile (PCN), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), succinonitrile (SCN), and potassium ferricyanide (PFCN) in rats. Maximum protection index was observed for alpha-ketoglutarate (A-KG) against MCN and PCN (5.60), followed by dihydroxyacetone (DHA) against MCN (2.79). Further, MCN (0.75 LD50) caused significant increase in cyanide concentration in brain, liver and kidney and inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity in brain and liver, which favorably responded to A-KG and DHA treatment. Up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase by MCN, PCN and SNP, and uncoupling protein by PCN and SNP observed in the brain was abolished by A-KG administration. However, no DNA damage was detected in the brain. MCN and SNP significantly decreased the mean arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory rate and neuromuscular transmission, which were resolved by A-KG. The study suggests a beneficial effect of A-KG in the treatment of acute cyanogen poisoning.
- acute toxicity
- Accès libre
Pages: 11 - 19
Synthetic pyridoindole-type substances derived from the lead compound stobadine represent promising agents in treatment of a range of pathologies including neurological disorders. The beneficial biological effects were suggested to be likely associated with their capacity to ameliorate oxidative damage.
In our study, the effect of supplementation with the derivative of stobadine, SMe1EC2, on ageing-related cognitive decline in rats was investigated. The 20-months-old male Wistar rats were administered SMe1EC2 at a low dose, 0.5 mg/kg, daily during eight weeks. Morris water maze test was performed to assess the spatial memory performances. The cell-based assays of capacity of SMe1EC2 to modulate proinflammatory generation of oxidants by microglia were also performed.
The rats treated with SMe1EC2 showed significantly increased path efficiency, significantly shorter time interval of successful trials and exerted also notably lower frequencies of clockwise rotations in the pool compared to non-supplemented aged animals. Mildly improved parameters included test durations, distances to reach the platform, time in periphery of the pool and overall rotations in the water maze. However, the pyridoindole SMe1EC2 did not show profound inhibitory effect on production of nitric oxide and superoxide by activated microglial cells.
In conclusion, our study suggests that pyridoindole SMe1EC2, at low doses administered chronically, can act as cognition enhancing agent in aged rats. The protective mechanism less likely involves direct modulation of proinflammatory and prooxidant state of microglia, the prominent mediators of neurotoxicity in brain ageing and neurodegeneration.
- brain ageing
- cognitive decline
- Accès libre
Melatonin protects against chromium (VI) induced hepatic oxidative stress and toxicity: Duration dependent study with realistic dosage
Pages: 20 - 29
The present study was undertaken to assess the degree of oxidative stress and toxic effects induced by chromium on hepatic tissue in male Wistar rats exposed to a realistic dosage of Cr(VI) (20 mg/kg/b.w./day) through drinking water, based on the levels of these metals found in the environment, for a duration of 15, 30 and 60 days. The protective effect of melatonin (10 mg/kg) was also studied by simultaneous administration with the metal. Levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as lipid peroxidation were assessed. There was a significant decrease in enzymatic as well as non-enzymatic antioxidants and an increase in the lipid peroxidation level, which were prevented and maintained at near-normal levels by the administration of melatonin in all treatment periods. Metal accumulation was maximal at 15 days, with gradual decreases till 60 days. Histopathological observations also demonstrated the fact that Cr (VI) exposure leads to cytological lesions in the hepatic tissue promoting cellular necrotic/apoptotic changes, while melatonin was able to counteract insults induced by Cr (VI) at all treatment periods. It also prevented alterations in insulin and glucose levels. Overall, the present study suggests a duration-dependent effect of Cr on hepatic oxidative stress and cytotoxicity and shows the potent activity of melatonin in preventing the negative effects of Cr (VI).
- oxidative stress
- toxicity, chromium (VI)
- Accès libre
Pages: 30 - 34
At present, affective disorders are among the most commonly diagnosed mental diseases. In pregnancy, they can occur as pre-delivery depression, recurrent depressive disorder or postnatal depression. The estimated prevalence of depressive disorders in pregnancy is approximately 9–16%, with some statistics reporting up to 20%. Approximately 2–3% of pregnant women take antidepressants during pregnancy, and the number of mothers treated increases by birth to 5–7%. Treatment of depression during pregnancy and breastfeeding is a controversial issue, as antidepressants can negatively affect the developing fetus. According to epidemiological studies, the effects of treated depression in pregnancy are related to premature birth, decreased body weight of the child, intrauterine growth retardation, neonatal adaptive syndrome, and persistent pulmonary hypertension. However, untreated depression can adversely affect maternal health and increase the risk of preeclampsia and eclampsia, as well as of subsequent postnatal depression, which can lead to disruption of the mother-child relationship. Based on the above mentioned facts, the basic question arises as to whether or not to treat depression during pregnancy and lactation.
- behavioral disorders
- Accès libre
Animal models of maternal depression for monitoring neurodevelopmental changes occurring in dams and offspring
Pages: 35 - 39
Depression is one of the most prevalent and life-threatening forms of mental illness affecting about 20% of the population. Depressive disorder as a biochemical phenomenon, was first recognized in the mid-20th century of research, however the etiology of this disease is still not well understood. Although the need to investigate depressive disorders has emerged from the needs of clinical practice, there are many preclinical studies, which brought new insights into this field of research. During experimental work it was crucial to develop appropriate animal models, where the neurohumoral mechanism was similar to humans. In the past decades, several animal models of maternal depression have been developed. We describe the three most popular rodent models of maternal depression which are based on 1. stress prior to gestation, 2. prenatal stress and 3. early life stress. The above-mentioned animal models appear to fulfill many criteria for a relevant animal model of depression; they alter the regulation of the HPA, induce signs of depression-like behavior and several antidepressant treatments can reverse the state induced by maternal stress. Although, they are not able to model all aspects of maternal depression, they are useful models for monitoring neurodevelopmental changes occurring in dams and offspring.
- animal model
- Accès libre
Pages: 40 - 43
An animal model of human behavior represents a complex of cognitive and/or emotional processess, which are translated from animals to humans. A behavioral test is developed primarily and specifically to verify and support a theory of cognition or emotion; it can also be used to verify a theory of a psychopathology, but it is not developed for a particular type of psychopathology. The paper reviews tests commonly used in novel drug discovery research. Focus is especially on tests which can evaluate anxiety-like (open-field test, novelty suppressed feeding, elevated plus maze, light/dark box, stressinduced hyperthermia) and depression-like behaviors (forced swim test, tail suspension test, sucrose preference test) as they represent an important methodological tool in pre-clinical as well as in behavioral toxicology studies.