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Volume 4 (2011): Edition 4 (December 2011)

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Volume 3 (2010): Edition 4 (December 2010)

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Volume 2 (2009): Edition 4 (December 2009)

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-9569
Première publication
19 Jun 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 8 (2015): Edition 2 (June 2015)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1337-9569
Première publication
19 Jun 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

8 Articles
Accès libre

Lead toxicity: a review

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 55 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates.

Mots clés

  • lead toxicity
  • lead poisoning
  • heavy metals
  • environmental health
Accès libre

Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 65 - 67

Résumé

Abstract

Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

Mots clés

  • aluminium phosphide
  • phosphine
  • poisoning
  • suicide
Accès libre

Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 68 - 76

Résumé

Abstract

A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD) or cerebral degeneration (CD) (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure) in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991–2000) within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, p<0.00001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001), and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001). Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001), and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05), where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05). By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.

Mots clés

  • ethylmercury
  • merthiolate
  • thiomersal
  • tic
  • tourette
  • vaccine
Accès libre

Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 77 - 83

Résumé

Abstract

Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061). Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432), Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009). It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

Mots clés

  • cadmium
  • zinc
  • anthropogenic activities
  • pollutant
  • heavy metal toxicity
Accès libre

Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 84 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate.

Mots clés

  • Acephate
  • plasmatocytes
  • lamellocytes
  • crystal cells
Accès libre

Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 89 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250–4 000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as >4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution.

Mots clés

  • hematology
  • biochemistry
  • oxidative stress
  • sperm count
Accès libre

Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 99 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies.

Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components.

Mots clés

  • nephroprotection
  • blood urea nitrogen
  • creatinine
  • serum urea
Accès libre

Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 103 - 111

Résumé

Abstract

Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

Mots clés

  • nicotine
  • islet cell
  • oxidative stress
  • folic acid
  • vitamin B12
8 Articles
Accès libre

Lead toxicity: a review

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 55 - 64

Résumé

Abstract

Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body are devastating. There is almost no function in the human body which is not affected by lead toxicity. Though in countries like US and Canada the use of lead has been controlled up to a certain extent, it is still used vehemently in the developing countries. This is primarily because lead bears unique physical and chemical properties that make it suitable for a large number of applications for which humans have exploited its benefits from historical times and thus it has become a common environmental pollutant. Lead is highly persistent in the environment and because of its continuous use its levels rise in almost every country, posing serious threats. This article reviews the works listed in the literature with recent updates regarding the toxicity of lead. Focus is also on toxic effects of lead on the renal, reproductive and nervous system. Finally the techniques available for treating lead toxicity are presented with some recent updates.

Mots clés

  • lead toxicity
  • lead poisoning
  • heavy metals
  • environmental health
Accès libre

Fatal aluminium phosphide poisoning

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 65 - 67

Résumé

Abstract

Aluminium phosphide (AlP) is a cheap solid fumigant and a highly toxic pesticide which is commonly used for grain preservation. AlP has currently aroused interest with a rising number of cases in the past four decades due to increased use for agricultural and non-agricultural purposes. Its easy availability in the markets has increased also its misuse for committing suicide. Phosphine inhibits cellular oxygen utilization and can induce lipid peroxidation. Poisoning with AlP has often occurred in attempts to commit suicide, and that more often in adults than in teenagers. This is a case of suicidal consumption of aluminium phosphide by a 32-year-old young medical anesthetist. Toxicological analyses detected aluminium phosphide. We believe that free access of celphos tablets in grain markets should be prohibited by law.

Mots clés

  • aluminium phosphide
  • phosphine
  • poisoning
  • suicide
Accès libre

Thimerosal exposure and increased risk for diagnosed tic disorder in the United States: a case-control study

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 68 - 76

Résumé

Abstract

A hypothesis testing, case-control study evaluated automated medical records for exposure to organic-Hg from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines (TM-HepB) administered at specific intervals in the first six-months-of-life among cases diagnosed with a tic disorder (TD) or cerebral degeneration (CD) (an outcome not biologically plausibly linked to TM exposure) in comparison to controls; both cases and controls were continuously enrolled from birth (born from 1991–2000) within the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) database. TD cases were significantly more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (odds ratio (OR)=1.59, p<0.00001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.59, p<0.00001), and first six-months-of-life (OR=2.97, p<0.00001). Male TD cases were significantly more likely than male controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first month-of-life (OR =1.65, p<0.0001), first two-months-of-life (OR=1.64, p<0.0001), and first six months-of-life (OR=2.47, p<0.05), where as female TD were significantly more likely than female controls to have received increased organic-Hg from TM-HepB administered within the first six-months-of-life (OR=4.97, p<0.05). By contrast, CD cases were no more likely than controls to have received increased organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB administered at any period studied within the first six-months-of-life. Although routine childhood vaccination is considered an important public health tool to combat infectious diseases, the present study associates increasing organic-Hg exposure from TM-HepB and the subsequent risk of a TD diagnosis.

Mots clés

  • ethylmercury
  • merthiolate
  • thiomersal
  • tic
  • tourette
  • vaccine
Accès libre

Plasma cadmium and zinc and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians: potential health implications

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 77 - 83

Résumé

Abstract

Zinc (an essential trace element) and cadmium (a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with acclaimed toxicity) have been found to occur together in nature, with reported antagonism between the two elements. The present study aimed at determination of plasma levels of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) and their interrelationship in adult Nigerians. The series comprised adults (n=443) aged ≥18 yrs (mean ± SD 38.4±13.7 yrs), consisting of 117 males, 184 non-pregnant and 140 pregnant females. Sociodemographic data were collected by questionnaire while anthropometrics were determined using standard methods. Plasma Cd and Zn were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean plasma zinc and cadmium were 94.7±18.1 μg/dl and 0.150±0.548 μg/dl, respectively. Age, sex, pregnancy, and parity had no effect on either plasma Zn or Cd. Although educational level had no effect on plasma Zn, it had a significant effect on Cd; subjects possessing either secondary or tertiary education had significantly lower plasma Cd than subjects without formal education. Moreover, there seemed to be an inverse relationship between Cd and Zn, but this was not statistically significant (r=–0.089; p=0.061). Although plasma Zn was not related to BMI (r=0.037; p=0.432), Cd was significantly negatively correlated with BMI (r=–0.124; p=0.009). It may be concluded that adult Nigerians in Ebonyi State have elevated plasma levels of Cd, with apparent impact on the levels of plasma Zn. This has important public health implications considering the essential roles of Zn in the protection of Cd mediated adverse health effects. While food diversification is recommended to improve plasma Zn, efforts should be made to reduce exposure to Cd to mitigate partially its possible adverse effects.

Mots clés

  • cadmium
  • zinc
  • anthropogenic activities
  • pollutant
  • heavy metal toxicity
Accès libre

Altered differential hemocyte count in 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster as a response to chronic exposure of Acephate

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 84 - 88

Résumé

Abstract

Acephate, an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, was used to investigate the effects of its chronic exposure on hemocyte abundance in a non-target dipteran insect Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, six graded concentrations ranging from 1 to 6 μg/ml were selected, which are below the reported residual values (up to 14 μg/ml) of the chemical. 1st instar larvae were fed with these concentrations up to the 3rd instar stage and accordingly hemolymph smears from these larvae were prepared for differential hemocyte count. Three types of cells are found in Drosophila hemolymph, namely, plasmatocytes, lamellocytes and crystal cells. Plasmatocyte count was found to decrease with successive increase in treatment concentrations. Crystal cells showed an increasing trend in their number. Though the number of lamellocytes was very low, a bimodal response was noticed. Lamellocyte number was found to increase with the initial three concentrations, followed by a dose dependent reduction in their number. As hemocytes are directly linked to the immune system of fruit flies, fluctuations in normal titer of these cells may affect insect immunity. Hemocytes share homologies in their origin and mode of action with the immune cells of higher organisms including man. Thus the present findings suggest that immune cells of humans and other organisms may be affected adversely under chronic exposure to Acephate.

Mots clés

  • Acephate
  • plasmatocytes
  • lamellocytes
  • crystal cells
Accès libre

Toxicological evaluation of the aqueous stem bark extract of Bridelia ferruginea (Euphorbiaceae) in rodents

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 89 - 98

Résumé

Abstract

Bridelia ferruginea is a woody shrub that grows in the Savannah or rain forests of Africa and has traditionally been used to treat diabetes, arthritis and boils. Despite all these uses, extensive toxicological evaluation has not been carried out. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicological effects of the stem bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea in rats. The lethal dose (LD50) was determined using probit analysis and graded doses of the extract (250–4 000 mg/kg) were administered to the animals via oral and intraperitoneal routes and observed for mortality, behavioral changes and signs of toxicity. Sub-chronic toxicity study was carried out at doses of 1 000, 2 000 and 4 000 mg/kg administered daily for 60 days. The animals were sacrificed after 60 days. Blood was collected for biochemical (renal and hepatic), hematological, oxidative stress, sperm and histopathological examinations, using standard methods. LD50 of the extract was estimated as >4 000 mg/kg orally; neither significant visible signs of toxicity nor mortality were observed. There were no significant differences in the animals and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters in the treated groups compared to the control group. However, a significant increase (p<0.05) in the level of lipid peroxidation and a significant (p<0.05) decrease in sperm count were observed in the treated animals compared with the control group. The stem-bark aqueous extract of Bridelia ferruginea was found to be relatively safe, though it has the potential to cause lipid peroxidation and damage sperm quality and should thus be used with caution.

Mots clés

  • hematology
  • biochemistry
  • oxidative stress
  • sperm count
Accès libre

Chemopreventive role of Coriandrum sativum against gentamicin-induced renal histopathological damage in rats

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 99 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

Drug induced nephrotoxicity is one of the most common causes of renal failure. Gentamicin belongs to aminoglycosides, which elicit nephrotoxic potential. Natural antioxidants from plants demonstrate a number of biotherapeutic activities. Coriander is an important medicinal plant known for its hepatoprotective, diuretic, carminative, digestive and antihelminthic potential. This study was designed to investigate whether the extract of Coriandrum sativum ameliorates the nephrotoxicity induced by gentamicin in rats. Dried coriander powder was coarsely grinded and subjected to defatting by petroleum ether and further with ethyl acetate. The extract was filtered and subjected to phytochemical and phytoanalytical studies.

Acute toxicity in Wistar rats was determined by the OECD Guideline (423). Animals were divided into four groups. The first group served as positive control, while the second group was toxic control (gentamicin treated). The third and fourth group were treated with the extract (200 and 400 mg/kg gentamicin). After 8 days, the animals were sacrificed and biochemical and histopathological studies were carried out. Phytochemical screening of the extract demonstrated Coriandrum sativum to be rich in flavonoids, polyphenolics and alkaloids. Results of acute toxicity suggested the use of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg for Coriandrum sativum in the study. Coriandrum sativum extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased creatinine levels in the animals, along with a decrease in serum urea and blood urea nitrogen. Treatment with Coriandrum sativum extract ameliorated renal histological lesions. It is concluded that Coriandrum sativum is a potential source of nephroprotective phytochemical activity, with flavonoids and polyphenols as the major components.

Mots clés

  • nephroprotection
  • blood urea nitrogen
  • creatinine
  • serum urea
Accès libre

Protective efficacy of folic acid and vitamin B12 against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat

Publié en ligne: 07 Mar 2016
Pages: 103 - 111

Résumé

Abstract

Although cigarette smoking is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes, few studies have examined the effect of nicotine on the adult endocrine pancreas. In this study, male Wister rats were treated with nicotine (3 mg/kg body weight/day) with or without supplementation of folic acid (36 μg/kg body weight/day) or vitamin B12 (0.63 μg/kg body weight/day) alone or in combination. Fasting blood glucose, insulin and HBA1C level and different oxidative and anti-oxidative stress parameters were measured and pancreatic tissue sections were stained with eosin-haematoxylene. Data were analysed by nonparametric statistics. The results revealed that nicotine induced prediabetes condition with subsequent damage to pancreatic islets in rats. Nicotine also caused oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue as evidenced by increased nitric oxide and malondialdehyde level and decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and reduced glutathione level. Compared to vitamin B12 supplementation, folic acid blunted the nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets with higher efficacy. Further, folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination were able to confer significant protection on pancreatic islets against nicotine induced toxicity. These results suggest that supplementation of folic acid and vitamin B12 in combination may be a possible strategy of detoxification against nicotine-induced toxicity in pancreatic islets of the rat.

Mots clés

  • nicotine
  • islet cell
  • oxidative stress
  • folic acid
  • vitamin B12

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