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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2454-0358
Première publication
14 Dec 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 65 (2019): Edition 2 (June 2019)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2454-0358
Première publication
14 Dec 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
Accès libre

A comparison of different methods for assessing leaf area index in four canopy types

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 67 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

The agreement of Leaf Area Index (LAI) assessments from three indirect methods, i.e. the LAI–2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer, the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System and Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) was evaluated for four canopy types, i.e. a short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) with poplar, a Scots pine stand, a Pedunculate oak stand and a maize field. In the SRC and in the maize field, the indirect measurements were compared with direct measurements (litter fall and harvesting). In the low LAI range (0 to 2) the discrepancies of the SS1 were partly explained by the inability to properly account for clumping and the uncertainty of the ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution parameter. The higher values for SS1 in the medium (2 to 6) to high (6 to 8) ranges might be explained by gap fraction saturation for LAI–2200 and DHP above certain values. Wood area index –understood as the woody light-blocking elements from the canopy with respect to diameter growth– accounted for overestimation by all indirect methods when compared to direct methods in the SRC. The inter-comparison of the three indirect methods in the four canopy types showed a general agreement for all methods in the medium LAI range (2 to 6). LAI–2200 and DHP revealed the best agreement among the indirect methods along the entire range of LAI (0 to 8) in all canopy types. SS1 showed some discrepancies with the LAI–2200 and DHP at low (0 to 2) and high ranges of LAI (6 to 8).

Mots clés

  • LAI–2200
  • SunScan
  • DHP
  • indirect methods
  • direct methods
  • Wood Area Index
Accès libre

Analysis of natural-production conditions for timber harvesting in European North of Russia

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 81 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

Natural-production conditions determine operational efficiency of logging machines. This influence needs to be taken into account at different levels of forest management. It is necessary to allocate areas with similar natural-production conditions for effective forest management. It allows simplifying the decision making process for selecting logging technology and machines. The purpose of this study was to establish areas with similar natural and production conditions in the European North of Russia (ENR). In addition, for small enterprises, we recommend logging technologies and logging machines that can be used in established areas. We determined the indicators of the natural-production conditions of ENR regions and compared them. Cluster analysis was used to compare the indicators. We found that ENR can be divided into three main zones A, B, C and two subzones B1 and B2 with similar natural-production conditions. In the zones A, B and the subzones B1 and B2, small logging enterprises should use a harvester and a forwarder. In the zone C, the enterprises can use a logging system including a harvester and a forwarder or a logging system including a feller buncher, a skidder and a processor. The logging system should be based on the light class of logging machines for the zone A, the medium class or the heavy class for the zones B, C and the subzones B1, B2, the heavy class of machines for the zone C.

Mots clés

  • natural-production conditions
  • tree size
  • relief
  • soil conditions
  • timber volume
  • forest species composition, logging machines, cluster analysis
Accès libre

Growth variability of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) natural forests: Dendroclimatic study from Krkonoše National Park

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 92 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

Long-term temporal development of beech stands in relation to climatic conditions is well documented by dendrochronological analyses. The study aims to identify and describe growth factors affecting natural European beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on permanent research plots in the eastern Krkonoše Mountains, the Czech Republic. The paper focus on radial growth dynamics, frequency and cyclicity, and the effect of climatic factors on diameter increment of beech stands since 1850. The growth development of beech stands was significantly affected by air pollution load in 1977–1989, and increasingly frequent climate extremes in recent years (since 2010). Periodic increment events recurred in approximately 10–18 years’ periods. Stands on research plots responded differently to climatic factors, the main limiting factor being low temperatures during the growing season, frost damages and extreme droughts. The positive influence of temperatures on beech increments was recorded in winter, early spring, and especially in July and August of the current year. Conversely, precipitation in the previous year had higher impact on radial increment, with prevailing negative correlation. The plots were negatively affected by the decrease in sum of precipitation in February and March, but it was the temperature that influenced the beech increment most significantly. Dendrochronological analysis of close-to-nature beech stands provides valuable information on radial forest growth in response to changing climatic conditions.

Mots clés

  • dendrochronology
  • tree-ring data
  • cyclical dynamics
  • temperature
  • precipitation
  • Central Europe
Accès libre

Forest management scenarios modelling with morphological analysis – examples taken from Podpoľanie and Kysuce

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 103 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Scenarios modelling offers to forest management an option how to envision complex future associated with various natural, social, or economic uncertainties. The challenge is what modelling method to choose as many methodological approaches to scenario building exists. Morphological analysis is a basic modelling method for structuring and analysing a whole set of relationships existing in multi-dimensional, non-quantifiable, and complex topics. Especially, its application is relevant when abstract policy or market-driven challenges need to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the usefulness of the morphological analysis with an example case taken from forest management in Slovakia. The use of the method has enabled, from a number of uncertain futures, to identify three possible, plausible and consistent future scenarios of possible forest management direction in the regions of Podpoľanie and Kysuce. Additionally, the future scenario modelling as prognostic method of qualitative research supported by quantitative models or forestry DSS could introduce participation and more dimensions into forest management modelling. Thus, the future scenarios modelling offers new methodological possibilities to how to deal with increasing uncertainties associated with increasing demands for various ecosystem services or negative impacts of climate change, that forest management in Slovakia will face in the near future.

Mots clés

  • forest management
  • future variations
  • coherence of scenarios
  • consistency matrix
  • cluster map
Accès libre

Assessment of phenotypic plasticity of spruce species Picea abies (L.) Karst. and P. obovata (Ledeb.) on provenances tests in European North of Russia

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 121 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

Phenotypic plasticity of 22 spruce provenances in three test plots located in the European North of Russia was studied. Parent spruce stands are located within the Russian Plain and are represented by Picea abies (L.) Karst., P. obovata (Ledeb.) and two introgressive hybrids. In the test plots located in the middle and southern taiga subzones P. abies provenances are tested northward of its distribution area and P. obovata provenances are tested within the distribution area and nearby its boundaries. phenotypic plasticity of the spruce provenances was assessed. Straight-line regression coefficient based on survival, diameter, and height was calculated. All provenances are divided into two groups: plastic and non-plastic provenances. High plasticity is observed more often for P. abies and hybrids forms with properties of P. abies. Plastic provenances based on three parameters grow in the Leningrad, Pskov, Vologda, Kostroma and Karelia. Area of parent stands growing is quite small-size and lies between 56º30´ – 61º40´ N and 30º30´ – 42º30´ E. Adaptive provenances of P. obovata and its related hybrids forms grow in the North-Eastern part of the Russian Plain that could be consequence of its distribution in Holocene. Picea abies being the more adaptive species would be more responsive to climate changes in terms of survival and growth rate than P. obovata. Therefore, in case of sustainable climate warming in the Northern areas of the Russian Plain, the further propagation and major distribution of P. abies with further competitive replacement of P. obovata can be expected.

Mots clés

  • provenance test
  • survival
  • growth
  • phenotypic plasticity
Accès libre

Adaption of Norway spruce and European beech forests under climate change: from resistance to close-to-nature silviculture

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 129 - 144

Résumé

Abstract

In time of climate change, close-to-nature silviculture is growing in importance as a tool for future forest management. The paper study the tree layer and natural regeneration of monospecific Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), trough mixed spruce-beech to dominant European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Jizerské hory Mts., the Czech Republic. In the locality, shelterwood and selection system have been applied since 2000. The research objectives were to evaluate production parameters, structural diversity, species richness, natural regeneration dynamics and radial growth of individual tree species in relation to climatic factors and air pollution. The stand volume on permanent research plots amounted to 441 – 731 m3 ha−1 in initial stage of transformation. Natural regeneration showed high expansion of beech and decrease of spruce compared to mature tree species composition. Radial growth of spruce was in significant negative correlation with SO2 and NOX concentrations compared to no effect on beech increment. Moreover, spruce was more sensitive to significant years with extreme low radial growth. Beech was more stable in radial growth. Spruce was more resistant to air pollution and climatic stress in mixed stands. Low temperature was limiting factor of radial growth together with climate extremes (such as strong frosts and more frequent droughts) and biotic factors (bark beetle, beech scale). Close-to-nature management supporting admixed tree species should lead in future to diversification of stand structure toward higher species, spatial and age structure to mitigate negative effect of climatic change.

Mots clés

  • natural regeneration
  • forest transformation
  • stand structure
  • forest dynamics
  • air pollution
  • Czech Republic
6 Articles
Accès libre

A comparison of different methods for assessing leaf area index in four canopy types

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 67 - 80

Résumé

Abstract

The agreement of Leaf Area Index (LAI) assessments from three indirect methods, i.e. the LAI–2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer, the SS1 SunScan Canopy Analysis System and Digital Hemispherical Photography (DHP) was evaluated for four canopy types, i.e. a short rotation coppice plantation (SRC) with poplar, a Scots pine stand, a Pedunculate oak stand and a maize field. In the SRC and in the maize field, the indirect measurements were compared with direct measurements (litter fall and harvesting). In the low LAI range (0 to 2) the discrepancies of the SS1 were partly explained by the inability to properly account for clumping and the uncertainty of the ellipsoidal leaf angle distribution parameter. The higher values for SS1 in the medium (2 to 6) to high (6 to 8) ranges might be explained by gap fraction saturation for LAI–2200 and DHP above certain values. Wood area index –understood as the woody light-blocking elements from the canopy with respect to diameter growth– accounted for overestimation by all indirect methods when compared to direct methods in the SRC. The inter-comparison of the three indirect methods in the four canopy types showed a general agreement for all methods in the medium LAI range (2 to 6). LAI–2200 and DHP revealed the best agreement among the indirect methods along the entire range of LAI (0 to 8) in all canopy types. SS1 showed some discrepancies with the LAI–2200 and DHP at low (0 to 2) and high ranges of LAI (6 to 8).

Mots clés

  • LAI–2200
  • SunScan
  • DHP
  • indirect methods
  • direct methods
  • Wood Area Index
Accès libre

Analysis of natural-production conditions for timber harvesting in European North of Russia

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 81 - 91

Résumé

Abstract

Natural-production conditions determine operational efficiency of logging machines. This influence needs to be taken into account at different levels of forest management. It is necessary to allocate areas with similar natural-production conditions for effective forest management. It allows simplifying the decision making process for selecting logging technology and machines. The purpose of this study was to establish areas with similar natural and production conditions in the European North of Russia (ENR). In addition, for small enterprises, we recommend logging technologies and logging machines that can be used in established areas. We determined the indicators of the natural-production conditions of ENR regions and compared them. Cluster analysis was used to compare the indicators. We found that ENR can be divided into three main zones A, B, C and two subzones B1 and B2 with similar natural-production conditions. In the zones A, B and the subzones B1 and B2, small logging enterprises should use a harvester and a forwarder. In the zone C, the enterprises can use a logging system including a harvester and a forwarder or a logging system including a feller buncher, a skidder and a processor. The logging system should be based on the light class of logging machines for the zone A, the medium class or the heavy class for the zones B, C and the subzones B1, B2, the heavy class of machines for the zone C.

Mots clés

  • natural-production conditions
  • tree size
  • relief
  • soil conditions
  • timber volume
  • forest species composition, logging machines, cluster analysis
Accès libre

Growth variability of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) natural forests: Dendroclimatic study from Krkonoše National Park

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 92 - 102

Résumé

Abstract

Long-term temporal development of beech stands in relation to climatic conditions is well documented by dendrochronological analyses. The study aims to identify and describe growth factors affecting natural European beech stands (Fagus sylvatica L.) on permanent research plots in the eastern Krkonoše Mountains, the Czech Republic. The paper focus on radial growth dynamics, frequency and cyclicity, and the effect of climatic factors on diameter increment of beech stands since 1850. The growth development of beech stands was significantly affected by air pollution load in 1977–1989, and increasingly frequent climate extremes in recent years (since 2010). Periodic increment events recurred in approximately 10–18 years’ periods. Stands on research plots responded differently to climatic factors, the main limiting factor being low temperatures during the growing season, frost damages and extreme droughts. The positive influence of temperatures on beech increments was recorded in winter, early spring, and especially in July and August of the current year. Conversely, precipitation in the previous year had higher impact on radial increment, with prevailing negative correlation. The plots were negatively affected by the decrease in sum of precipitation in February and March, but it was the temperature that influenced the beech increment most significantly. Dendrochronological analysis of close-to-nature beech stands provides valuable information on radial forest growth in response to changing climatic conditions.

Mots clés

  • dendrochronology
  • tree-ring data
  • cyclical dynamics
  • temperature
  • precipitation
  • Central Europe
Accès libre

Forest management scenarios modelling with morphological analysis – examples taken from Podpoľanie and Kysuce

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 103 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Scenarios modelling offers to forest management an option how to envision complex future associated with various natural, social, or economic uncertainties. The challenge is what modelling method to choose as many methodological approaches to scenario building exists. Morphological analysis is a basic modelling method for structuring and analysing a whole set of relationships existing in multi-dimensional, non-quantifiable, and complex topics. Especially, its application is relevant when abstract policy or market-driven challenges need to be investigated. In this study, we demonstrated the usefulness of the morphological analysis with an example case taken from forest management in Slovakia. The use of the method has enabled, from a number of uncertain futures, to identify three possible, plausible and consistent future scenarios of possible forest management direction in the regions of Podpoľanie and Kysuce. Additionally, the future scenario modelling as prognostic method of qualitative research supported by quantitative models or forestry DSS could introduce participation and more dimensions into forest management modelling. Thus, the future scenarios modelling offers new methodological possibilities to how to deal with increasing uncertainties associated with increasing demands for various ecosystem services or negative impacts of climate change, that forest management in Slovakia will face in the near future.

Mots clés

  • forest management
  • future variations
  • coherence of scenarios
  • consistency matrix
  • cluster map
Accès libre

Assessment of phenotypic plasticity of spruce species Picea abies (L.) Karst. and P. obovata (Ledeb.) on provenances tests in European North of Russia

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 121 - 128

Résumé

Abstract

Phenotypic plasticity of 22 spruce provenances in three test plots located in the European North of Russia was studied. Parent spruce stands are located within the Russian Plain and are represented by Picea abies (L.) Karst., P. obovata (Ledeb.) and two introgressive hybrids. In the test plots located in the middle and southern taiga subzones P. abies provenances are tested northward of its distribution area and P. obovata provenances are tested within the distribution area and nearby its boundaries. phenotypic plasticity of the spruce provenances was assessed. Straight-line regression coefficient based on survival, diameter, and height was calculated. All provenances are divided into two groups: plastic and non-plastic provenances. High plasticity is observed more often for P. abies and hybrids forms with properties of P. abies. Plastic provenances based on three parameters grow in the Leningrad, Pskov, Vologda, Kostroma and Karelia. Area of parent stands growing is quite small-size and lies between 56º30´ – 61º40´ N and 30º30´ – 42º30´ E. Adaptive provenances of P. obovata and its related hybrids forms grow in the North-Eastern part of the Russian Plain that could be consequence of its distribution in Holocene. Picea abies being the more adaptive species would be more responsive to climate changes in terms of survival and growth rate than P. obovata. Therefore, in case of sustainable climate warming in the Northern areas of the Russian Plain, the further propagation and major distribution of P. abies with further competitive replacement of P. obovata can be expected.

Mots clés

  • provenance test
  • survival
  • growth
  • phenotypic plasticity
Accès libre

Adaption of Norway spruce and European beech forests under climate change: from resistance to close-to-nature silviculture

Publié en ligne: 09 May 2019
Pages: 129 - 144

Résumé

Abstract

In time of climate change, close-to-nature silviculture is growing in importance as a tool for future forest management. The paper study the tree layer and natural regeneration of monospecific Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), trough mixed spruce-beech to dominant European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in Jizerské hory Mts., the Czech Republic. In the locality, shelterwood and selection system have been applied since 2000. The research objectives were to evaluate production parameters, structural diversity, species richness, natural regeneration dynamics and radial growth of individual tree species in relation to climatic factors and air pollution. The stand volume on permanent research plots amounted to 441 – 731 m3 ha−1 in initial stage of transformation. Natural regeneration showed high expansion of beech and decrease of spruce compared to mature tree species composition. Radial growth of spruce was in significant negative correlation with SO2 and NOX concentrations compared to no effect on beech increment. Moreover, spruce was more sensitive to significant years with extreme low radial growth. Beech was more stable in radial growth. Spruce was more resistant to air pollution and climatic stress in mixed stands. Low temperature was limiting factor of radial growth together with climate extremes (such as strong frosts and more frequent droughts) and biotic factors (bark beetle, beech scale). Close-to-nature management supporting admixed tree species should lead in future to diversification of stand structure toward higher species, spatial and age structure to mitigate negative effect of climatic change.

Mots clés

  • natural regeneration
  • forest transformation
  • stand structure
  • forest dynamics
  • air pollution
  • Czech Republic

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