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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2454-0358
Première publication
14 Dec 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 63 (2017): Edition 2-3 (June 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2454-0358
Première publication
14 Dec 2009
Période de publication
4 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

12 Articles

Editorial

Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 57 - 58

Résumé

Review Paper

Accès libre

Soil biodiversity and environmental change in European forests

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 59 - 65

Résumé

Abstract

Biodiversity not only responds to environmental change, but has been shown to be one of the key drivers of ecosystem function and service delivery. Forest soil biodiversity is also governed by these principles, the structure of soil biological communities is clearly determined by spatial, temporal and hierarchical factors. Global environmental change, together with land-use change and forest ecosystem management, impacts the aboveground structure and composition of European forests. Due to the close link between the above- and belowground parts of forest ecosystems, we know that soil biodiversity is also impacted. However, very little is known about the nature of these impacts; effects they have on the overall level of biodiversity, the functions it fulfills, and on the future stability of forests and forest soils. Even though much remains to be learned about the relationships between soil biodiversity and forest ecosystem functionality, it is clear that better effort needs to be made to preserve existing soil biodiversity and forest conservation strategies taking soils into account must be considered.

Keywords

  • forest soils
  • community structure
  • ecosystem function
  • conservation

Original Paper

Accès libre

Seasonal dynamics of arginine ammonification in forest soils of Norway spruce pure stands under different silvicultural practices

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 66 - 72

Résumé

Abstract

Effects of seasonal dynamics and silvicultural practice on ammonification of arginine, one of the proteinogenic amino acids, were assessed in surface organic H-horizon of three Norway spruce pure stands in medium altitudes (600 - 660 m a.s.l.). Contents of ammonium ions NH4+ measured monthly in the field and contents of NH4+ after laboratory incubation of these samples with arginine were taken as dependent variables in ANOVA and in linear regression model using generalised linear model. The aim of the analyses was to determine the significance of decomposition of this amino acid in H-horizon of forest soils and to determine categorical and continuous predictors which influence intensity of the ammonification. Laboratory experiments confirmed its close link to seasonal dynamics, as well as to forest management; however the last mentioned was firstly found as less significant when compared within whole season. As regards to seasonal dynamics in forest soils, the highest amount of ammonium ion was released in May and the lowest in July. As regards to the silvicultural practice applied, more ammonium ion was released under mature spruce monoculture, especially in August and May; in the young stands, the method of thinning had no effect on the ammonium ion release. However, the arginine ammonification was found to be influenced by ammonium nitrogen content (slight, less significant negative correlation) and by soil water content (stronger positive significance), especially in the stand with thinning from below. This was concluded to be caused by changes in stand microclimate in function of the silvicultural practice.

Mots clés

  • ammonium availability
  • arginine deaminase
  • forest management
  • Norway spruce
Accès libre

Effect of surface humus on water infiltration and redistribution in beech forest stands with different density

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 73 - 78

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how the beech surface humus form and forest density affect the infiltration and redistribution of rainwater into the soil matrix. Beech as the most-abundant tree species in Slovakia has a tendency to form a compact humus layer with specific structure, leading to a reduction in the soil surface infiltration area and a significant influence on the preferential flow generation. The research was carried out in beech forests with different forest stand density in the Vtáčnik Mountain (Central Slovakia). The maximal infiltration surface area 35.11 ± 6.58% of sand surface infiltration area was reached at the plot A (0.8). The minimal infiltration surface area was reached at the plot B (0.8) and was 19.45 ± 2.52%. Statistical tests confirmed a significant effect of the forest stand density on the surface infiltration area (p = 0.05) and number of infiltration inputs (p = 0.05). The results show a statistically significant influence of surface humus form and stand density on infiltration and redistribution of rainwater into the soil matrix. The influence results in water flow changes from matrix flow to preferential flow and fingering. As a consequence deeper infiltration of water and solutions, e. g. dissolved organic carbon, to deeper soil layers is observed.

Keywords

  • surface humus
  • beech forests
  • infiltration
  • water regime
Accès libre

Interaction of Brilliant Blue dye solution with soil and its effect on mobility of compounds around the zones of preferenial flows at spruce stand

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 79 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

We performed field experiment with 10 g l−1 concentration of Brilliant Blue solutes in 100 l of water sprinkling on 1 × 1 m surface of the Dystric Cambisol. Consequently, four vertical profiles were exposed at experimental plot after 2 hours (CUT 2), 24 hours (CUT 24), 27 hours (CUT 27) and after 504 hours (CUT 504) in order to analyse spatiotemporal interactions among the BB solution (Na-salts), soil exchangeable complex and fine earth soil (%) samples extracted from both the high and low coloured zones located around the optically visualised macropore preferred flow (PF) zones. The concentration changes were quantifying via soil profiles not affected by BB (termed as REF) located in the close vicinity of experimental plot. Observed changes in pH (H2O), chemical composition of fineearth soil, as well as in concentration of Na+ in soil exchangeable complex to suggest, the BB dye solution didn’t represent an inert tracer, but compounds strongly involved in reaction with surrounding soils. Recorded chemical trends seems to be the result both the competitive processes between the Na+ of BB dye solution and composition of surrounding soil exchangeable complex, as well and the spatial-temporal controlled mechanism of dye solution transfer in soil.

Keywords

  • preferential flow
  • compounds migration
  • spatial-temporal evolution
  • dye solution- soil interaction
  • Brilliant Blue dye
Accès libre

Dehydrogenase activity in topsoil at windthrow plots in Tatra National Park

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 91 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of windthrow treatments established after the windstorm in 2004 on the activity of enzyme dehydrogenase (DHA) in forest topsoils. We also focused on the effect of the recent windthrow (May 2014) on the DHA in topsoil. Soil samples were collected in July 2014 from four sites in the Tatra National Park: EXT - tree trunks and wood debris extracted after the windstorm in 2004, NEX - area left for self-regeneration after the windstorm in 2004, REX - tree trunks and wood debris extracted after the windstorm (May 2014), REN - Norway spruce stand set as a control plot. We measured pH, dry weight %, soil organic matter (SOM), carbon content in microbial biomass (Cblo) and DHA. Dehydrogenase activity at studied plots was the lowest at the EXT plot and the highest values were measured at the REN plot. DHA at NEX was similar to REN suggesting comparable ecological conditions at these plots comparing to EXT. Carbon content in microbial biomass at plots reflected intensity of dehydrogenase activity in sequence EXT < REX < NEX < REN.

Keywords

  • topsoil
  • dehydrogenase activity
  • soil organic matter
  • windthrow
  • Tatra National Park
Accès libre

Carbon sequestration in soil following afforestation of former agricultural land in the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 97 - 104

Résumé

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a great component of the global carbon cycle and plays significant role in terms of climatic changes and agricultural land-use. An important management concern is the extent of SOC stocks sequestration when farmland is converted to forest stands. We have reviewed the literature about changes in SOC stock in relation to altitude and stand age and sought differences between former agricultural land and origin forest stands. Accumulation of SOC was monitored in 17 examples (41 samples) in 9 locations across the all Czech Republic with focus on the main tree species Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Results showed a significant increase of SOC stock in an afforested farmland with increasing stand age. Another factor was the altitude. With increasing altitude, the carbon stock in our model gradually decreased. From the data analyzed comparing forest stand and former agricultural land, similar carbon sequestration was documented for both variants with higher SOC for forest stands. However, other conditions affecting SOC stock should be taken into consideration, especially silvicultural management, topography, disturbances, soil properties and cultivation. The general tendencies of SOC changes at the investigated sites are comparable to those in other studies across the Europe.

Keywords

  • carbon storage
  • soil organic matter
  • abandoned farmland
  • land-use change
  • temperate forest soil
Accès libre

Carbon stocks in tree biomass and soils of German forests

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 105 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

Close to one third of Germany is forested. Forests are able to store significant quantities of carbon (C) in the biomass and in the soil. Coordinated by the Thünen Institute, the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) and the National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) have generated data to estimate the carbon storage capacity of forests. The second NFI started in 2002 and had been repeated in 2012. The reporting time for the NFSI was 1990 to 2006. Living forest biomass, deadwood, litter and soils up to a depth of 90 cm have stored 2500 t of carbon within the reporting time. Over all 224 t C ha-1 in aboveground and belowground biomass, deadwood and soil are stored in forests. Specifically, 46% stored in above-ground and below-ground biomass, 1% in dead wood and 53% in the organic layer together with soil up to 90 cm. Carbon stocks in mineral soils up to 30 cm mineral soil increase about 0.4 t C ha-1 yr-1 stocks between the inventories while the carbon pool in the organic layers declined slightly. In the living biomass carbon stocks increased about 1.0 t C ha-1 yr-1. In Germany, approximately 58 mill. tonnes of CO2 were sequestered in 2012 (NIR 2017).

Keywords

  • forests ecosystems
  • soil
  • carbon stocks
  • Germany
  • National Forests Inventory
  • National Forests Soil Inventory
Accès libre

Country and regional carbon stock in forest cover – estimates based on the first cycle of the Czech National Forest Inventory data (2001–2004)

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 113 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

Since forests can play an efficient role in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, objective information about the actual carbon stock is very important. Therefore, the presented paper analysed the carbon stock in the living merchantable trees (with diameter at breast height above 7 cm) of the Czech forests with regard to groups of tree species and tree compartments (wood under bark with diameter above 7 cm, wood under bark with diameter below 7 cm, bark, green twigs, foliage, stump and roots). We examined its regional distribution and relationship to the number of inhabitants and the gross domestic product. The data used for the analysis originated from 13,929 forest plots of the first Czech National Forest Inventory performed between 2001 and 2004. The total tree carbon stock was obtained as a sum of the carbon stock in the individual tree compartments estimated from the biomass amount in the compartments multiplied by the relative carbon content. Wood biomass amount was calculated by multiplying a particular part of tree volume with species-specific green wood density. The total amount of carbon stored in forest trees in the Czech Republic was over 327 mill. t, which is about 113 t of carbon per ha of forests. The highest carbon amount (160 mill. t, i.e. 49.0% of the total amount) was fixed in spruce. The minimum carbon amount fixed in the forest cover (14.35 mill. t) was calculated for Ústecký kraj (region), while the maximum carbon amount (51.51 mill. t) was found in Jihočeský kraj.

Keywords

  • carbon
  • forest biomass
  • tree compartments
  • tree species composition
  • allometric equation
Accès libre

Carbon stock in forest aboveground biomass – comparison based on Landsat data

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 126 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to verify a possibility of the assessment of carbon stock above all in forest aboveground biomass in the area of Czech Republic based on Landsat data and terrestrial mapping of land cover. Landsat 7 ETM+ data and method based on vegetation index ND45 were used. Simultaneously the aboveground carbon stock was assessed by expert based estimations of carbon in aboveground biomass in the various classes of landscape cover, derived from Corine Land Cover 2012 data. By comparison of results obtaining by both methods for the whole investigated area in the Czech Republic the differences reached only 4.68% and for forest stands 7.19%. The results of aboveground carbon stock based on the Landsat 7 ETM+ data did not differ distinctly from the assessment of carbon stock for individual classes of land cover for both vegetation cover of the Czech Republic and forest stands.

Keywords

  • aboveground biomass
  • carbon stock
  • remote sensing data
  • vegetation indices
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Quantifying carbon in dead and living trees; a case study in young beech and spruce stand over 9 years

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 133 - 141

Résumé

Abstract

In Slovakia, the contribution of young stands to the total forest area has been increasing in the last decade. However, scientific attention to these stands was previously very sparse and they were usually not included in local and country carbon stock estimates. Therefore, we focused on the calculation of tree biomass and necromass in young beech and spruce stands as well as on their development during the period of nine years (aged from 4 to 12 years). For the calculation, we implemented allometric equations using tree diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed very dynamic changes in biomass (carbon) stock. Specifically, tree biomass increased in the period of 9 years from about 2,000 g to 15,000 g (i.e. cca 1,000 to 7,500 g of carbon) per m2 in beech, and from 4,500 to 12,000 g (cca 2,300 to 6,000 g of carbon) per m2 in the spruce stand. At the same time, the amount of biomass (fixed carbon) was only slightly larger than the accumulated quantity of necromass (carbon loss from living trees). It means that a large portion of carbon was allocated to necromass. We found that not only the foliage fall but also the mass of dead trees, a result of intensive competition, was an important path of carbon flux to necromass. The results proved that although young forests fix much less carbon in their biomass than old stands, they can represent large carbon flux via annual increment of necromass. This indicates that young stands should not be omitted in forest carbon balance estimates of the country.

Keywords

  • young trees
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Norway spruce
  • stand development
  • carbon stock
  • tree components
Accès libre

Carbon stock in aboveground biomass of vegetation at the High Tatra Mts. twelve years after disturbance

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 142 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The paper focused on the estimation of aboveground biomass and its carbon stock in the vegetation cover on the territory of the High Tatras twelve years after a large-scale wind disturbance. Besides biomass quantification of main plant groups (i.e. trees and ground vegetation) we considered plant components with special regard to carbon rotation rate. The measurements were performed on two transects each containing 25 plots sized 4 × 4 m. Height and stem diameter of all trees on the plots were measured and used for biomass estimation. To quantify the biomass of ground vegetation, six subplots sized 20 × 20 cm were systematically placed on each plot and the aboveground biomass was harvested. The plant material was subjected to chemical analyses to quantify its carbon concentration. The study showed that while the wind disturbance caused dramatic decrease of carbon stock, young post-disturbance stands with abundant ground vegetation, represented large carbon flux via litter fall. Twelve years after the wind disturbance, the trees contributed to carbon stock more than the ground vegetation. However, the opposite situation was recorded for the carbon flux to litter that was related to the dominance of annual plants in the above-ground biomass of ground vegetation. The carbon stock in the biomass of young trees and ground vegetation represented about 8,000 kg per ha. The young stands manifested a dynamic growth, specifically the aboveground biomass increased annually by one third. The results confirmed different carbon regimes in the former old (pre-disturbance) and sparse young (post-disturbance) stands.

Mots clés

  • wind disturbance
  • carbon in biomass
  • evergreen and deciduous trees
  • ground vegetation
  • foliage fall
12 Articles

Editorial

Accès libre

Editorial

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 57 - 58

Résumé

Review Paper

Accès libre

Soil biodiversity and environmental change in European forests

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 59 - 65

Résumé

Abstract

Biodiversity not only responds to environmental change, but has been shown to be one of the key drivers of ecosystem function and service delivery. Forest soil biodiversity is also governed by these principles, the structure of soil biological communities is clearly determined by spatial, temporal and hierarchical factors. Global environmental change, together with land-use change and forest ecosystem management, impacts the aboveground structure and composition of European forests. Due to the close link between the above- and belowground parts of forest ecosystems, we know that soil biodiversity is also impacted. However, very little is known about the nature of these impacts; effects they have on the overall level of biodiversity, the functions it fulfills, and on the future stability of forests and forest soils. Even though much remains to be learned about the relationships between soil biodiversity and forest ecosystem functionality, it is clear that better effort needs to be made to preserve existing soil biodiversity and forest conservation strategies taking soils into account must be considered.

Keywords

  • forest soils
  • community structure
  • ecosystem function
  • conservation

Original Paper

Accès libre

Seasonal dynamics of arginine ammonification in forest soils of Norway spruce pure stands under different silvicultural practices

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 66 - 72

Résumé

Abstract

Effects of seasonal dynamics and silvicultural practice on ammonification of arginine, one of the proteinogenic amino acids, were assessed in surface organic H-horizon of three Norway spruce pure stands in medium altitudes (600 - 660 m a.s.l.). Contents of ammonium ions NH4+ measured monthly in the field and contents of NH4+ after laboratory incubation of these samples with arginine were taken as dependent variables in ANOVA and in linear regression model using generalised linear model. The aim of the analyses was to determine the significance of decomposition of this amino acid in H-horizon of forest soils and to determine categorical and continuous predictors which influence intensity of the ammonification. Laboratory experiments confirmed its close link to seasonal dynamics, as well as to forest management; however the last mentioned was firstly found as less significant when compared within whole season. As regards to seasonal dynamics in forest soils, the highest amount of ammonium ion was released in May and the lowest in July. As regards to the silvicultural practice applied, more ammonium ion was released under mature spruce monoculture, especially in August and May; in the young stands, the method of thinning had no effect on the ammonium ion release. However, the arginine ammonification was found to be influenced by ammonium nitrogen content (slight, less significant negative correlation) and by soil water content (stronger positive significance), especially in the stand with thinning from below. This was concluded to be caused by changes in stand microclimate in function of the silvicultural practice.

Mots clés

  • ammonium availability
  • arginine deaminase
  • forest management
  • Norway spruce
Accès libre

Effect of surface humus on water infiltration and redistribution in beech forest stands with different density

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 73 - 78

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to demonstrate how the beech surface humus form and forest density affect the infiltration and redistribution of rainwater into the soil matrix. Beech as the most-abundant tree species in Slovakia has a tendency to form a compact humus layer with specific structure, leading to a reduction in the soil surface infiltration area and a significant influence on the preferential flow generation. The research was carried out in beech forests with different forest stand density in the Vtáčnik Mountain (Central Slovakia). The maximal infiltration surface area 35.11 ± 6.58% of sand surface infiltration area was reached at the plot A (0.8). The minimal infiltration surface area was reached at the plot B (0.8) and was 19.45 ± 2.52%. Statistical tests confirmed a significant effect of the forest stand density on the surface infiltration area (p = 0.05) and number of infiltration inputs (p = 0.05). The results show a statistically significant influence of surface humus form and stand density on infiltration and redistribution of rainwater into the soil matrix. The influence results in water flow changes from matrix flow to preferential flow and fingering. As a consequence deeper infiltration of water and solutions, e. g. dissolved organic carbon, to deeper soil layers is observed.

Keywords

  • surface humus
  • beech forests
  • infiltration
  • water regime
Accès libre

Interaction of Brilliant Blue dye solution with soil and its effect on mobility of compounds around the zones of preferenial flows at spruce stand

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 79 - 90

Résumé

Abstract

We performed field experiment with 10 g l−1 concentration of Brilliant Blue solutes in 100 l of water sprinkling on 1 × 1 m surface of the Dystric Cambisol. Consequently, four vertical profiles were exposed at experimental plot after 2 hours (CUT 2), 24 hours (CUT 24), 27 hours (CUT 27) and after 504 hours (CUT 504) in order to analyse spatiotemporal interactions among the BB solution (Na-salts), soil exchangeable complex and fine earth soil (%) samples extracted from both the high and low coloured zones located around the optically visualised macropore preferred flow (PF) zones. The concentration changes were quantifying via soil profiles not affected by BB (termed as REF) located in the close vicinity of experimental plot. Observed changes in pH (H2O), chemical composition of fineearth soil, as well as in concentration of Na+ in soil exchangeable complex to suggest, the BB dye solution didn’t represent an inert tracer, but compounds strongly involved in reaction with surrounding soils. Recorded chemical trends seems to be the result both the competitive processes between the Na+ of BB dye solution and composition of surrounding soil exchangeable complex, as well and the spatial-temporal controlled mechanism of dye solution transfer in soil.

Keywords

  • preferential flow
  • compounds migration
  • spatial-temporal evolution
  • dye solution- soil interaction
  • Brilliant Blue dye
Accès libre

Dehydrogenase activity in topsoil at windthrow plots in Tatra National Park

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 91 - 96

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the study was to compare the effect of windthrow treatments established after the windstorm in 2004 on the activity of enzyme dehydrogenase (DHA) in forest topsoils. We also focused on the effect of the recent windthrow (May 2014) on the DHA in topsoil. Soil samples were collected in July 2014 from four sites in the Tatra National Park: EXT - tree trunks and wood debris extracted after the windstorm in 2004, NEX - area left for self-regeneration after the windstorm in 2004, REX - tree trunks and wood debris extracted after the windstorm (May 2014), REN - Norway spruce stand set as a control plot. We measured pH, dry weight %, soil organic matter (SOM), carbon content in microbial biomass (Cblo) and DHA. Dehydrogenase activity at studied plots was the lowest at the EXT plot and the highest values were measured at the REN plot. DHA at NEX was similar to REN suggesting comparable ecological conditions at these plots comparing to EXT. Carbon content in microbial biomass at plots reflected intensity of dehydrogenase activity in sequence EXT < REX < NEX < REN.

Keywords

  • topsoil
  • dehydrogenase activity
  • soil organic matter
  • windthrow
  • Tatra National Park
Accès libre

Carbon sequestration in soil following afforestation of former agricultural land in the Czech Republic

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 97 - 104

Résumé

Abstract

Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a great component of the global carbon cycle and plays significant role in terms of climatic changes and agricultural land-use. An important management concern is the extent of SOC stocks sequestration when farmland is converted to forest stands. We have reviewed the literature about changes in SOC stock in relation to altitude and stand age and sought differences between former agricultural land and origin forest stands. Accumulation of SOC was monitored in 17 examples (41 samples) in 9 locations across the all Czech Republic with focus on the main tree species Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.). Results showed a significant increase of SOC stock in an afforested farmland with increasing stand age. Another factor was the altitude. With increasing altitude, the carbon stock in our model gradually decreased. From the data analyzed comparing forest stand and former agricultural land, similar carbon sequestration was documented for both variants with higher SOC for forest stands. However, other conditions affecting SOC stock should be taken into consideration, especially silvicultural management, topography, disturbances, soil properties and cultivation. The general tendencies of SOC changes at the investigated sites are comparable to those in other studies across the Europe.

Keywords

  • carbon storage
  • soil organic matter
  • abandoned farmland
  • land-use change
  • temperate forest soil
Accès libre

Carbon stocks in tree biomass and soils of German forests

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 105 - 112

Résumé

Abstract

Close to one third of Germany is forested. Forests are able to store significant quantities of carbon (C) in the biomass and in the soil. Coordinated by the Thünen Institute, the German National Forest Inventory (NFI) and the National Forest Soil Inventory (NFSI) have generated data to estimate the carbon storage capacity of forests. The second NFI started in 2002 and had been repeated in 2012. The reporting time for the NFSI was 1990 to 2006. Living forest biomass, deadwood, litter and soils up to a depth of 90 cm have stored 2500 t of carbon within the reporting time. Over all 224 t C ha-1 in aboveground and belowground biomass, deadwood and soil are stored in forests. Specifically, 46% stored in above-ground and below-ground biomass, 1% in dead wood and 53% in the organic layer together with soil up to 90 cm. Carbon stocks in mineral soils up to 30 cm mineral soil increase about 0.4 t C ha-1 yr-1 stocks between the inventories while the carbon pool in the organic layers declined slightly. In the living biomass carbon stocks increased about 1.0 t C ha-1 yr-1. In Germany, approximately 58 mill. tonnes of CO2 were sequestered in 2012 (NIR 2017).

Keywords

  • forests ecosystems
  • soil
  • carbon stocks
  • Germany
  • National Forests Inventory
  • National Forests Soil Inventory
Accès libre

Country and regional carbon stock in forest cover – estimates based on the first cycle of the Czech National Forest Inventory data (2001–2004)

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 113 - 125

Résumé

Abstract

Since forests can play an efficient role in the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, objective information about the actual carbon stock is very important. Therefore, the presented paper analysed the carbon stock in the living merchantable trees (with diameter at breast height above 7 cm) of the Czech forests with regard to groups of tree species and tree compartments (wood under bark with diameter above 7 cm, wood under bark with diameter below 7 cm, bark, green twigs, foliage, stump and roots). We examined its regional distribution and relationship to the number of inhabitants and the gross domestic product. The data used for the analysis originated from 13,929 forest plots of the first Czech National Forest Inventory performed between 2001 and 2004. The total tree carbon stock was obtained as a sum of the carbon stock in the individual tree compartments estimated from the biomass amount in the compartments multiplied by the relative carbon content. Wood biomass amount was calculated by multiplying a particular part of tree volume with species-specific green wood density. The total amount of carbon stored in forest trees in the Czech Republic was over 327 mill. t, which is about 113 t of carbon per ha of forests. The highest carbon amount (160 mill. t, i.e. 49.0% of the total amount) was fixed in spruce. The minimum carbon amount fixed in the forest cover (14.35 mill. t) was calculated for Ústecký kraj (region), while the maximum carbon amount (51.51 mill. t) was found in Jihočeský kraj.

Keywords

  • carbon
  • forest biomass
  • tree compartments
  • tree species composition
  • allometric equation
Accès libre

Carbon stock in forest aboveground biomass – comparison based on Landsat data

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 126 - 132

Résumé

Abstract

The objective of this study was to verify a possibility of the assessment of carbon stock above all in forest aboveground biomass in the area of Czech Republic based on Landsat data and terrestrial mapping of land cover. Landsat 7 ETM+ data and method based on vegetation index ND45 were used. Simultaneously the aboveground carbon stock was assessed by expert based estimations of carbon in aboveground biomass in the various classes of landscape cover, derived from Corine Land Cover 2012 data. By comparison of results obtaining by both methods for the whole investigated area in the Czech Republic the differences reached only 4.68% and for forest stands 7.19%. The results of aboveground carbon stock based on the Landsat 7 ETM+ data did not differ distinctly from the assessment of carbon stock for individual classes of land cover for both vegetation cover of the Czech Republic and forest stands.

Keywords

  • aboveground biomass
  • carbon stock
  • remote sensing data
  • vegetation indices
  • Czech Republic
Accès libre

Quantifying carbon in dead and living trees; a case study in young beech and spruce stand over 9 years

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 133 - 141

Résumé

Abstract

In Slovakia, the contribution of young stands to the total forest area has been increasing in the last decade. However, scientific attention to these stands was previously very sparse and they were usually not included in local and country carbon stock estimates. Therefore, we focused on the calculation of tree biomass and necromass in young beech and spruce stands as well as on their development during the period of nine years (aged from 4 to 12 years). For the calculation, we implemented allometric equations using tree diameter and height as independent variables. The results showed very dynamic changes in biomass (carbon) stock. Specifically, tree biomass increased in the period of 9 years from about 2,000 g to 15,000 g (i.e. cca 1,000 to 7,500 g of carbon) per m2 in beech, and from 4,500 to 12,000 g (cca 2,300 to 6,000 g of carbon) per m2 in the spruce stand. At the same time, the amount of biomass (fixed carbon) was only slightly larger than the accumulated quantity of necromass (carbon loss from living trees). It means that a large portion of carbon was allocated to necromass. We found that not only the foliage fall but also the mass of dead trees, a result of intensive competition, was an important path of carbon flux to necromass. The results proved that although young forests fix much less carbon in their biomass than old stands, they can represent large carbon flux via annual increment of necromass. This indicates that young stands should not be omitted in forest carbon balance estimates of the country.

Keywords

  • young trees
  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Norway spruce
  • stand development
  • carbon stock
  • tree components
Accès libre

Carbon stock in aboveground biomass of vegetation at the High Tatra Mts. twelve years after disturbance

Publié en ligne: 02 Sep 2017
Pages: 142 - 151

Résumé

Abstract

The paper focused on the estimation of aboveground biomass and its carbon stock in the vegetation cover on the territory of the High Tatras twelve years after a large-scale wind disturbance. Besides biomass quantification of main plant groups (i.e. trees and ground vegetation) we considered plant components with special regard to carbon rotation rate. The measurements were performed on two transects each containing 25 plots sized 4 × 4 m. Height and stem diameter of all trees on the plots were measured and used for biomass estimation. To quantify the biomass of ground vegetation, six subplots sized 20 × 20 cm were systematically placed on each plot and the aboveground biomass was harvested. The plant material was subjected to chemical analyses to quantify its carbon concentration. The study showed that while the wind disturbance caused dramatic decrease of carbon stock, young post-disturbance stands with abundant ground vegetation, represented large carbon flux via litter fall. Twelve years after the wind disturbance, the trees contributed to carbon stock more than the ground vegetation. However, the opposite situation was recorded for the carbon flux to litter that was related to the dominance of annual plants in the above-ground biomass of ground vegetation. The carbon stock in the biomass of young trees and ground vegetation represented about 8,000 kg per ha. The young stands manifested a dynamic growth, specifically the aboveground biomass increased annually by one third. The results confirmed different carbon regimes in the former old (pre-disturbance) and sparse young (post-disturbance) stands.

Mots clés

  • wind disturbance
  • carbon in biomass
  • evergreen and deciduous trees
  • ground vegetation
  • foliage fall

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