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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 28 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Source Model of Domestic Gas Stoves

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Results from medical research show that the use of domestic gas stoves could have a major impact on human health and well-being, especially if they used for heating. Approximately 0.289 m3 of natural gas is combusted daily in Hungarian kitchens. The users normally stand near the stove during its operation, which on average is 45 minutes long; therefore, they are directly affected by the combustion products. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain concerning the effects of the combustion products on humans; the nitrogen dioxide load could be the most problematic. Its nominal source strength is in a range of 12.0 - 21.0 ug/kJ, depending on the type of burner. In order to improve kitchen ventilation, a source model of domestic gas stoves has been developed that is based on measurement results, statistical data, and further technical assumptions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gasstove
  • IAQ
  • Emission
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Kitchen ventilation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quantitative Design Methods for Protection Against Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures During Various Stages of their Life Cycle

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 8 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are large amounts of reinforced concrete structures that have undergone damage from corrosion at their operational stage. The Eurocodes and national standards do not contain any guidelines for designing primary protection and repair systems for reinforced concrete structures. Our research shows the economic feasibility of designing reinforced concrete structures that can interact with an aggressive environment, taking into account the kinetics of concrete corrosion. Optimal design methods can be used to obtain the most economical solutions. We have developed a quantitative methodology for the design of the primary protection of reinforced concrete structures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Reinforced concrete structures
  • Concrete corrosion
  • Primary protection
  • Mass transfer process
  • Safety conditions
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Automated Verification of Building Components Using BIM Models and Point Clouds

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 13 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most important parts of construction work is the verification of the geometry of the parts of structures and buildings constructed. Today this procedure is often semi- or fully automated. The paper introduces an approach for the automated verification of parts of buildings, by comparing the design of a building (as-planned model), derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) in an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) exchange format to a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point cloud (as-built model). The approach proposed has three main steps. The process begins with the acquisition of information from the as-planned model in the IFC exchange format; the second step is the automated (wall) plane segmentation from the point cloud. In the last step, the two models mentioned are compared to determine the deviations from the design, and the as-built wall flatness quantification is also executed. The potential of the proposed algorithm is shown in a case-study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Verification of buildings
  • Point clouds
  • BIM
  • automated verification
  • IFC
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Structural Behavior of RC Columns Improved by Different Strengthening Techniques

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 20 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deficient or deteriorating reinforced-concrete columns in many existing structures have to be strengthened using economical, efficient, and fast methods. In the present study, different strengthening techniques to improve the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns have been compared. Five groups of fifteen square reinforced concrete columns (150 mm × 150 mm × 600 mm) and one group of three circular columns ( φ 170 mm) that have cross-sectional areas equivalent to those of the square columns were cast from normal-strength concrete. The test program was designed to examine the behavior of columns strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), steel jacketing, ferro cement, steel fibers, and silica fumes under cyclic axial compression. The efficiency of each strengthening method in increasing the column’s axial capacity, energy absorption, and ductility was studied using the experimental data. The test results showed that strengthening the columns could significantly enhance their load-carrying capacity and failure strains.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Strengthening
  • CFRP wraps
  • Ferrocement
  • Steel jacketing
  • Silica fume
  • Steel fibers
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Short-Term Behavior of Partially Precast and Partially Encased Composite Beams

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the short-term behavior of a new partially pre-cast and partially encased composite (PPEC) beam is studied. This paper reports the results of a 4-point bending test on a full-scale PPEC beam and sets out the load displacement response, short-term stiffness, peak load capacity and failure mode of the proposed PPEC beam. In addition, a finite element analysis of the PPEC beam is carried out, and the numerical simulation results are compared with the test results. The results show that the finite element model can reflect the bending response of the PPEC beam. In this paper, three different calculation methods are used to compare the deflection of the PPEC beam. The results show that the values calculated by the bending-shear coupling method formula agree relatively well with the test results.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Precast composite beams
  • Static test
  • Bending behavior
  • Numerical simulation
  • Short-term flexural rigidity
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A New Hybrid Algorithm for Cost Optimization of Waffle Slab

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 40 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, we have developed an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm for structural cost optimization of a waffle slab and have also solved the relevant optimization problems. The cost of the waffle slab is considered to be the objective function, and the design is based on the American Concrete Institute’s ACI 318-08 standard. This algorithm utilizes the recently developed mouth-brooding fish (MBF) algorithm as the main engine and uses the favorable properties of the colliding bodies optimization (CBO) algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is compared with MBF, CBO, harmony search (HS), particle swarm optimization (PSO), democratic particle swarm optimization (DPSO), charged system search (CSS) and enhanced charged system search (ECSS). The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can construct promising results and has merits in solving challenging optimization problems.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Mouth-brooding fish algorithm
  • Colliding bodies optimization
  • Meta-heuristic algorithms
  • Cost optimization
  • Waffle slab
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sorption Properties of Thermal Insulation Composed of Flax or Hemp Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 47 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper deals with the sorption characteristics of thermal insulation materials based on flax and hemp. The added value of these materials is a positive impact on healthy and sustainable housing. Flax and hemp, which are classified as organic, have a high sorption capacity. Changes in the properties of these materials at a relative air humidity of 20% – 95% allow us to determine their advantages and disadvantages as well as whether the insulation is suitable for incorporation into a building structure. The article describes an experiment during which hygroscopic and thermal-technical properties were monitored. The most important indicators were the change in the coefficient of thermal conductivity and the change in the equilibrium moisture content.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermal insulation materials
  • Insulation stability
  • Humidity
  • Moisture content
  • Hemp
  • Flax
7 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Source Model of Domestic Gas Stoves

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Results from medical research show that the use of domestic gas stoves could have a major impact on human health and well-being, especially if they used for heating. Approximately 0.289 m3 of natural gas is combusted daily in Hungarian kitchens. The users normally stand near the stove during its operation, which on average is 45 minutes long; therefore, they are directly affected by the combustion products. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain concerning the effects of the combustion products on humans; the nitrogen dioxide load could be the most problematic. Its nominal source strength is in a range of 12.0 - 21.0 ug/kJ, depending on the type of burner. In order to improve kitchen ventilation, a source model of domestic gas stoves has been developed that is based on measurement results, statistical data, and further technical assumptions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Gasstove
  • IAQ
  • Emission
  • Nitrogen dioxide
  • Kitchen ventilation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Quantitative Design Methods for Protection Against Corrosion of Reinforced Concrete Structures During Various Stages of their Life Cycle

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 8 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are large amounts of reinforced concrete structures that have undergone damage from corrosion at their operational stage. The Eurocodes and national standards do not contain any guidelines for designing primary protection and repair systems for reinforced concrete structures. Our research shows the economic feasibility of designing reinforced concrete structures that can interact with an aggressive environment, taking into account the kinetics of concrete corrosion. Optimal design methods can be used to obtain the most economical solutions. We have developed a quantitative methodology for the design of the primary protection of reinforced concrete structures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Reinforced concrete structures
  • Concrete corrosion
  • Primary protection
  • Mass transfer process
  • Safety conditions
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Automated Verification of Building Components Using BIM Models and Point Clouds

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 13 - 19

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most important parts of construction work is the verification of the geometry of the parts of structures and buildings constructed. Today this procedure is often semi- or fully automated. The paper introduces an approach for the automated verification of parts of buildings, by comparing the design of a building (as-planned model), derived from a Building Information Model (BIM) in an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) exchange format to a terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) point cloud (as-built model). The approach proposed has three main steps. The process begins with the acquisition of information from the as-planned model in the IFC exchange format; the second step is the automated (wall) plane segmentation from the point cloud. In the last step, the two models mentioned are compared to determine the deviations from the design, and the as-built wall flatness quantification is also executed. The potential of the proposed algorithm is shown in a case-study.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Verification of buildings
  • Point clouds
  • BIM
  • automated verification
  • IFC
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Structural Behavior of RC Columns Improved by Different Strengthening Techniques

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 20 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Deficient or deteriorating reinforced-concrete columns in many existing structures have to be strengthened using economical, efficient, and fast methods. In the present study, different strengthening techniques to improve the load-carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC) columns have been compared. Five groups of fifteen square reinforced concrete columns (150 mm × 150 mm × 600 mm) and one group of three circular columns ( φ 170 mm) that have cross-sectional areas equivalent to those of the square columns were cast from normal-strength concrete. The test program was designed to examine the behavior of columns strengthened by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), steel jacketing, ferro cement, steel fibers, and silica fumes under cyclic axial compression. The efficiency of each strengthening method in increasing the column’s axial capacity, energy absorption, and ductility was studied using the experimental data. The test results showed that strengthening the columns could significantly enhance their load-carrying capacity and failure strains.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Strengthening
  • CFRP wraps
  • Ferrocement
  • Steel jacketing
  • Silica fume
  • Steel fibers
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Short-Term Behavior of Partially Precast and Partially Encased Composite Beams

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 29 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the short-term behavior of a new partially pre-cast and partially encased composite (PPEC) beam is studied. This paper reports the results of a 4-point bending test on a full-scale PPEC beam and sets out the load displacement response, short-term stiffness, peak load capacity and failure mode of the proposed PPEC beam. In addition, a finite element analysis of the PPEC beam is carried out, and the numerical simulation results are compared with the test results. The results show that the finite element model can reflect the bending response of the PPEC beam. In this paper, three different calculation methods are used to compare the deflection of the PPEC beam. The results show that the values calculated by the bending-shear coupling method formula agree relatively well with the test results.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Precast composite beams
  • Static test
  • Bending behavior
  • Numerical simulation
  • Short-term flexural rigidity
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A New Hybrid Algorithm for Cost Optimization of Waffle Slab

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 40 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, we have developed an efficient hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm for structural cost optimization of a waffle slab and have also solved the relevant optimization problems. The cost of the waffle slab is considered to be the objective function, and the design is based on the American Concrete Institute’s ACI 318-08 standard. This algorithm utilizes the recently developed mouth-brooding fish (MBF) algorithm as the main engine and uses the favorable properties of the colliding bodies optimization (CBO) algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is compared with MBF, CBO, harmony search (HS), particle swarm optimization (PSO), democratic particle swarm optimization (DPSO), charged system search (CSS) and enhanced charged system search (ECSS). The numerical results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can construct promising results and has merits in solving challenging optimization problems.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Mouth-brooding fish algorithm
  • Colliding bodies optimization
  • Meta-heuristic algorithms
  • Cost optimization
  • Waffle slab
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sorption Properties of Thermal Insulation Composed of Flax or Hemp Fibers

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 47 - 52

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper deals with the sorption characteristics of thermal insulation materials based on flax and hemp. The added value of these materials is a positive impact on healthy and sustainable housing. Flax and hemp, which are classified as organic, have a high sorption capacity. Changes in the properties of these materials at a relative air humidity of 20% – 95% allow us to determine their advantages and disadvantages as well as whether the insulation is suitable for incorporation into a building structure. The article describes an experiment during which hygroscopic and thermal-technical properties were monitored. The most important indicators were the change in the coefficient of thermal conductivity and the change in the equilibrium moisture content.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermal insulation materials
  • Insulation stability
  • Humidity
  • Moisture content
  • Hemp
  • Flax

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