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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 25 (2017): Heft 2 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Indoor Air Quality of Residential Building Before and After Renovation

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 6

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of energy renovation on the indoor air quality of an apartment building during the heating season. The study was performed in one residential building before and after its renovation. An evaluation of the indoor air quality was performed using objective measurements and a subjective survey. The concentration of CO2 was measured in the bedrooms, and a sampling of the total volatile compounds (TVOC) was performed in the living rooms of the selected apartments. Higher concentrations of CO2 and TVOC were observed in the residential building after its renovation. The concentrations of CO2, and TVOC in some of the cases exceeded the recommended maximum limits, especially after implementing energy-saving measures on the building. The average air exchange rate was visibly higher before the renovation of the building. The current study indicates that large-scale renovations may reduce the quality of an indoor environment in many apartments, especially in the winter season.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Indoor environmental quality
  • Carbon dioxide concentration
  • Volatile organic compounds concentration
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Creation of Space Vector Models of Buildings From RPAS Photogrammetry Data

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 7 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The results of Remote Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) photogrammetry are digital surface models and orthophotos. The main problem of the digital surface models obtained is that buildings are not perpendicular and the shape of roofs is deformed. The task of this paper is to obtain a more accurate digital surface model using building reconstructions. The paper discusses the problem of obtaining and approximating building footprints, reconstructing the final spatial vector digital building model, and modifying the buildings on the digital surface model.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RPAS photogrammetry
  • DSM
  • Building reconstruction
  • Space model
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Construction in Occupied Spaces

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 15 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Occupied Spaces
  • Building Occupants
  • Health and Safety
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal Response-Related Weighting Matrices to Control Semi-Active Base Isolation Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 24 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the performance of a semi-active base isolation system, including a magneto-rheological (MR) damper and base isolation system for different combinations of response-related weighting matrices, has been studied. To consider all possible sets of response-related matrices, seven H2/linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control designs have been considered. For a numerical simulation, a six-story shear frame has been subjected to different earthquakes, and the performance of the control system has been evaluated. The results show that the optimal force-related weighting parameter is identical for different sets of response-related weighting matrices and is also independent of earthquake records when minimizing the maximum base drift is considered as the design objective. Also, the results of different sets of response-related weighting matrices show that the optimal sets for the design objective of minimizing the maximum base drift are the velocity and displacement/velocity-related weighting matrices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Semi-active base isolation system
  • H2/LQG control algorithm
  • Response-related weighting matrix
  • Force-related weighting parameter
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 33 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermal comfort
  • Glazed envelope
  • Overheating
  • Simulation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hybrid Forecasting of Daily River Discharges Considering Autoregressive Heteroscedasticity

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 39 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It is widely acknowledged that in the hydrological and meteorological communities, there is a continuing need to improve the quality of quantitative rainfall and river flow forecasts. A hybrid (combined deterministic-stochastic) modelling approach is proposed here that combines the advantages offered by modelling the system dynamics with a deterministic model and a deterministic forecasting error series with a data-driven model in parallel. Since the processes to be modelled are generally nonlinear and the model error series may exhibit nonstationarity and heteroscedasticity, GARCH-type nonlinear time series models are considered here. The fitting, forecasting and simulation performance of such models have to be explored on a case-by-case basis. The goal of this paper is to test and develop an appropriate methodology for model fitting and forecasting applicable for daily river discharge forecast error data from the GARCH family of time series models. We concentrated on verifying whether the use of a GARCH-type model is suitable for modelling and forecasting a hydrological model error time series on the Hron and Morava Rivers in Slovakia. For this purpose we verified the presence of heteroscedasticity in the simulation error series of the KLN multilinear flow routing model; then we fitted the GARCH-type models to the data and compared their fit with that of an ARMA - type model. We produced one-stepahead forecasts from the fitted models and again provided comparisons of the model’s performance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Morava and Hron Rivers
  • KLN multilinear flow routing model
  • Simulation error
  • GARCH model.
6 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Indoor Air Quality of Residential Building Before and After Renovation

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 6

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study investigates the impact of energy renovation on the indoor air quality of an apartment building during the heating season. The study was performed in one residential building before and after its renovation. An evaluation of the indoor air quality was performed using objective measurements and a subjective survey. The concentration of CO2 was measured in the bedrooms, and a sampling of the total volatile compounds (TVOC) was performed in the living rooms of the selected apartments. Higher concentrations of CO2 and TVOC were observed in the residential building after its renovation. The concentrations of CO2, and TVOC in some of the cases exceeded the recommended maximum limits, especially after implementing energy-saving measures on the building. The average air exchange rate was visibly higher before the renovation of the building. The current study indicates that large-scale renovations may reduce the quality of an indoor environment in many apartments, especially in the winter season.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Indoor environmental quality
  • Carbon dioxide concentration
  • Volatile organic compounds concentration
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Creation of Space Vector Models of Buildings From RPAS Photogrammetry Data

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 7 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The results of Remote Piloted Aircraft System (RPAS) photogrammetry are digital surface models and orthophotos. The main problem of the digital surface models obtained is that buildings are not perpendicular and the shape of roofs is deformed. The task of this paper is to obtain a more accurate digital surface model using building reconstructions. The paper discusses the problem of obtaining and approximating building footprints, reconstructing the final spatial vector digital building model, and modifying the buildings on the digital surface model.

Schlüsselwörter

  • RPAS photogrammetry
  • DSM
  • Building reconstruction
  • Space model
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Construction in Occupied Spaces

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 15 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Conducting construction activities in occupied environments presents a great challenge due to the additional logistical requirements and the presence of the building occupants. The aim of this research is to gather and evaluate the means and methods to successfully plan, manage, and execute construction activities in occupied spaces in an effort to provide consolidated industry tools and strategies for maintaining a schedule and minimizing the impact on the occupants. The methodology of the research utilizes an exploratory approach to gather qualitative data. The data was collected through interviews with industry professionals to identify industry best practices. The semi-structured interviews provided a platform for the documents, lessons learned, and the techniques and strategies used for occupied construction by the construction industry. The information obtained in the interview process identified six themes that are critical to achieving and maintaining quality in occupied construction. These themes of the schedule, cost, customer satisfaction, planning, fire/life safety and utilities, and contractor management are reviewed in detail, and the paper discusses how to manage each element. The analysis and extracted management techniques, procedures and strategies can be used by the construction industry for future projects by focusing on the critical aspects of occupied construction and the manner in which to succeed with it.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Occupied Spaces
  • Building Occupants
  • Health and Safety
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimal Response-Related Weighting Matrices to Control Semi-Active Base Isolation Systems

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 24 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper, the performance of a semi-active base isolation system, including a magneto-rheological (MR) damper and base isolation system for different combinations of response-related weighting matrices, has been studied. To consider all possible sets of response-related matrices, seven H2/linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control designs have been considered. For a numerical simulation, a six-story shear frame has been subjected to different earthquakes, and the performance of the control system has been evaluated. The results show that the optimal force-related weighting parameter is identical for different sets of response-related weighting matrices and is also independent of earthquake records when minimizing the maximum base drift is considered as the design objective. Also, the results of different sets of response-related weighting matrices show that the optimal sets for the design objective of minimizing the maximum base drift are the velocity and displacement/velocity-related weighting matrices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Semi-active base isolation system
  • H2/LQG control algorithm
  • Response-related weighting matrix
  • Force-related weighting parameter
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Thermal Comfort and Energy Consumption Using Different Radiant Heating/Cooling Systems in a Modern Office Building

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 33 - 38

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of enhancing thermal comfort and energy consumption created by three different radiant systems in the newly-built Energetikum office building. A representative office, Simulation room 1/1, was selected from 6 areas equipped with portable sensor groups for the indoor environment monitoring. The presented data obtained from 3 reference weeks; the heating, transition and cooling periods indicate overheating, particularly during the heating and transition period. The values of the indoor air temperature during the heating and transition period could not meet the normative criteria according to standard EN 15251:2007 (cat. II.) for 15-30% of the time intervals evaluated. Consequently, a simulation model of the selected office was created and points to the possibilities of improving the control system, which can lead to an elimination of the problem with overheating. Three different radiant systems - floor heating/ cooling, a thermally active ceiling, and a near-surface thermally active ceiling were implemented in the model. A comparison of their effects on thermal comfort and energy consumption is presented in the paper.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Thermal comfort
  • Glazed envelope
  • Overheating
  • Simulation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Hybrid Forecasting of Daily River Discharges Considering Autoregressive Heteroscedasticity

Online veröffentlicht: 01 Jul 2017
Seitenbereich: 39 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

It is widely acknowledged that in the hydrological and meteorological communities, there is a continuing need to improve the quality of quantitative rainfall and river flow forecasts. A hybrid (combined deterministic-stochastic) modelling approach is proposed here that combines the advantages offered by modelling the system dynamics with a deterministic model and a deterministic forecasting error series with a data-driven model in parallel. Since the processes to be modelled are generally nonlinear and the model error series may exhibit nonstationarity and heteroscedasticity, GARCH-type nonlinear time series models are considered here. The fitting, forecasting and simulation performance of such models have to be explored on a case-by-case basis. The goal of this paper is to test and develop an appropriate methodology for model fitting and forecasting applicable for daily river discharge forecast error data from the GARCH family of time series models. We concentrated on verifying whether the use of a GARCH-type model is suitable for modelling and forecasting a hydrological model error time series on the Hron and Morava Rivers in Slovakia. For this purpose we verified the presence of heteroscedasticity in the simulation error series of the KLN multilinear flow routing model; then we fitted the GARCH-type models to the data and compared their fit with that of an ARMA - type model. We produced one-stepahead forecasts from the fitted models and again provided comparisons of the model’s performance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Morava and Hron Rivers
  • KLN multilinear flow routing model
  • Simulation error
  • GARCH model.

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