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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 25 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Palm Kernel Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The research investigated the effects of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were performed on three soil samples, i.e., L1, L2 and L3 for identification; the results showed that L1 was A-7-6, L2 was A-7-6, and L3 was A-7-6. The optimum amount of lime for each of the soil samples was achieved. The optimum amount for L1 was 10%, for L2, 8% and for L3, 10%; at these values they recorded the lowest plasticity indexes. The further addition of PKSA was performed by varying the amount of PKSA and lime added to each of the soil samples. The addition of 4% PKSA+ 6% lime, the addition of 4% PKSA + 4% lime, and the addition of 4% PKSA + 6% lime increased the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) to the highest values for L1, L2 and L3 from 8.20%. It was concluded that PKSA can be a suitable complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Atterberg Limits
  • Lateritic soil
  • Lime stabilization
  • Palm kernel shell ash
  • Strength tests
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Causes of Early-Age Thermal Cracking of Concrete Foundation Slabs and their Reinforcement to Control the Cracking

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 8 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper focuses on the causes and consequences of early-age cracking of mass concrete foundation slabs due to restrained volume changes. Considering the importance of water leaking through cracks in terms of the serviceability, durability and environmental impact of watertight concrete structures, emphasis is placed on the effect of temperature loads on foundation slabs. Foundation slabs are usually restrained to some degree externally or internally. To evaluate the effect of external restraints on foundation slabs, friction and interaction models are introduced. The reinforcement of concrete cannot prevent the initiation of cracking, but when cracking has occurred, it may act to reduce the spacing and width of cracks. According to EN 1992-1-1, results of calculating crack widths with local variations included in National Annexes (NAs) vary considerably. A comparison of the required reinforcement areas according to different NAs is presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Watertight concrete
  • Foundation slab
  • Restrained contractions
  • Early-age cracking
  • Reinforcement
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of Trends and Variability of Rainfall and Temperature for the District of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 15 - 22

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Climate variability, particularly, that of the annual air temperature and precipitation, has received a great deal of attention worldwide. The magnitude of the variability of the factors changes according to the locations. The present study focuses on detecting the trends and variability in the annual temperature and rainfall for the district of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. This study used annual and monsoon time series data for the time period 1981-2010 and modified the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator in analyzing the problem. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual maximum temperature (TMX) and annual minimum temperature (TMN) for the period of 30 years have shown an increasing trend, whereas the monsoon’s maximum and minimum temperatures have shown a decreasing trend, although it is statistically not significant. The amount of annual rainfall does not show any significant trend, but the monsoonal rainfall has shown an increasing trend that is also statistically not significant. The resulting Mann-Kendall test statistic (Z) and Sen’s slope estimate (Q) of all the parameters studied indicate that changes are occurring in the magnitude and timing of the precipitation and temperature events at the Mandi station.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Climate change
  • Mann–Kendall
  • Precipitation
  • Sens’s Slope Estimator
  • Temperature
  • Trend analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimization of Typological Requirements for Low-Cost Detached Houses

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 23 - 29

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented paper deals with an analysis of the legislative, hygienic, functional and operational requirements for the design of detached houses and individual dwellings in terms of typological requirements. The article also presents a sociological survey about the preferences and subjective requirements of relevant public group segments in terms of living in a detached house or an individual dwelling. The aim of the paper is to define the possibilities for the optimization of typological requirements. The optimization methods are based on principles already applied to contemporary detached house preferences and trends. The main idea is to reduce the amount of floor space, thus lowering construction and operating costs. The goal is to design an optimized floor plan, while preserving the hygienic criteria for individual residential dwellings. By applying optimization methods, a so-called rationalized and conditioned floor plan results in an individual dwelling floor plan design that can be compared to a reference model with an accurate quantification comparison. The significant sources of research are the legislative and normative requirements in the field of house construction in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and abroad.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Typology
  • Individual dwelling
  • Optimization
  • Rational detached house
  • Low-cost detached house
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An Application of a Stochastic Semi-Continuous Simulation Method for Flood Frequency Analysis: A Case Study in Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 30 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A reliable estimate of extreme flood characteristics has always been an active topic in hydrological research. Over the decades a large number of approaches and their modifications have been proposed and used, with various methods utilizing continuous simulation of catchment runoff, being the subject of the most intensive research in the last decade. In this paper a new and promising stochastic semi-continuous method is used to estimate extreme discharges in two mountainous Slovak catchments of the rivers Váh and Hron, in which snow-melt processes need to be taken into account. The SCHADEX method used, couples a precipitation probabilistic model with a rainfall-runoff model used to both continuously simulate catchment hydrological conditions and to transform generated synthetic rainfall events into corresponding discharges. The stochastic nature of the method means that a wide range of synthetic rainfall events were simulated on various historical catchment conditions, taking into account not only the saturation of soil, but also the amount of snow accumulated in the catchment. The results showed that the SCHADEX extreme discharge estimates with return periods of up to 100 years were comparable to those estimated by statistical approaches. In addition, two reconstructed historical floods with corresponding return periods of 100 and 1000 years were compared to the SCHADEX estimates. The results confirmed the usability of the method for estimating design discharges with a recurrence interval of more than 100 years and its applicability in Slovak conditions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • SCHADEX
  • MEWP
  • MORDOR
  • Stochastic rainfall model
  • Rainfall-runoff model
  • Flood frequency analysis
5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Palm Kernel Shell Ash on Lime-Stabilized Lateritic Soil

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The research investigated the effects of palm kernel shell ash (PKSA) on lime-stabilized lateritic soil. Preliminary tests were performed on three soil samples, i.e., L1, L2 and L3 for identification; the results showed that L1 was A-7-6, L2 was A-7-6, and L3 was A-7-6. The optimum amount of lime for each of the soil samples was achieved. The optimum amount for L1 was 10%, for L2, 8% and for L3, 10%; at these values they recorded the lowest plasticity indexes. The further addition of PKSA was performed by varying the amount of PKSA and lime added to each of the soil samples. The addition of 4% PKSA+ 6% lime, the addition of 4% PKSA + 4% lime, and the addition of 4% PKSA + 6% lime increased the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) to the highest values for L1, L2 and L3 from 8.20%. It was concluded that PKSA can be a suitable complement for lime stabilization in lateritic soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Atterberg Limits
  • Lateritic soil
  • Lime stabilization
  • Palm kernel shell ash
  • Strength tests
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Causes of Early-Age Thermal Cracking of Concrete Foundation Slabs and their Reinforcement to Control the Cracking

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 8 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper focuses on the causes and consequences of early-age cracking of mass concrete foundation slabs due to restrained volume changes. Considering the importance of water leaking through cracks in terms of the serviceability, durability and environmental impact of watertight concrete structures, emphasis is placed on the effect of temperature loads on foundation slabs. Foundation slabs are usually restrained to some degree externally or internally. To evaluate the effect of external restraints on foundation slabs, friction and interaction models are introduced. The reinforcement of concrete cannot prevent the initiation of cracking, but when cracking has occurred, it may act to reduce the spacing and width of cracks. According to EN 1992-1-1, results of calculating crack widths with local variations included in National Annexes (NAs) vary considerably. A comparison of the required reinforcement areas according to different NAs is presented.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Watertight concrete
  • Foundation slab
  • Restrained contractions
  • Early-age cracking
  • Reinforcement
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Assessment of Trends and Variability of Rainfall and Temperature for the District of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 15 - 22

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Climate variability, particularly, that of the annual air temperature and precipitation, has received a great deal of attention worldwide. The magnitude of the variability of the factors changes according to the locations. The present study focuses on detecting the trends and variability in the annual temperature and rainfall for the district of Mandi in Himachal Pradesh, India. This study used annual and monsoon time series data for the time period 1981-2010 and modified the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's slope estimator in analyzing the problem. The results of the analysis indicate that the annual maximum temperature (TMX) and annual minimum temperature (TMN) for the period of 30 years have shown an increasing trend, whereas the monsoon’s maximum and minimum temperatures have shown a decreasing trend, although it is statistically not significant. The amount of annual rainfall does not show any significant trend, but the monsoonal rainfall has shown an increasing trend that is also statistically not significant. The resulting Mann-Kendall test statistic (Z) and Sen’s slope estimate (Q) of all the parameters studied indicate that changes are occurring in the magnitude and timing of the precipitation and temperature events at the Mandi station.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Climate change
  • Mann–Kendall
  • Precipitation
  • Sens’s Slope Estimator
  • Temperature
  • Trend analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimization of Typological Requirements for Low-Cost Detached Houses

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 23 - 29

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented paper deals with an analysis of the legislative, hygienic, functional and operational requirements for the design of detached houses and individual dwellings in terms of typological requirements. The article also presents a sociological survey about the preferences and subjective requirements of relevant public group segments in terms of living in a detached house or an individual dwelling. The aim of the paper is to define the possibilities for the optimization of typological requirements. The optimization methods are based on principles already applied to contemporary detached house preferences and trends. The main idea is to reduce the amount of floor space, thus lowering construction and operating costs. The goal is to design an optimized floor plan, while preserving the hygienic criteria for individual residential dwellings. By applying optimization methods, a so-called rationalized and conditioned floor plan results in an individual dwelling floor plan design that can be compared to a reference model with an accurate quantification comparison. The significant sources of research are the legislative and normative requirements in the field of house construction in Slovakia, the Czech Republic and abroad.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Typology
  • Individual dwelling
  • Optimization
  • Rational detached house
  • Low-cost detached house
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

An Application of a Stochastic Semi-Continuous Simulation Method for Flood Frequency Analysis: A Case Study in Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 03 Oct 2017
Seitenbereich: 30 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A reliable estimate of extreme flood characteristics has always been an active topic in hydrological research. Over the decades a large number of approaches and their modifications have been proposed and used, with various methods utilizing continuous simulation of catchment runoff, being the subject of the most intensive research in the last decade. In this paper a new and promising stochastic semi-continuous method is used to estimate extreme discharges in two mountainous Slovak catchments of the rivers Váh and Hron, in which snow-melt processes need to be taken into account. The SCHADEX method used, couples a precipitation probabilistic model with a rainfall-runoff model used to both continuously simulate catchment hydrological conditions and to transform generated synthetic rainfall events into corresponding discharges. The stochastic nature of the method means that a wide range of synthetic rainfall events were simulated on various historical catchment conditions, taking into account not only the saturation of soil, but also the amount of snow accumulated in the catchment. The results showed that the SCHADEX extreme discharge estimates with return periods of up to 100 years were comparable to those estimated by statistical approaches. In addition, two reconstructed historical floods with corresponding return periods of 100 and 1000 years were compared to the SCHADEX estimates. The results confirmed the usability of the method for estimating design discharges with a recurrence interval of more than 100 years and its applicability in Slovak conditions.

Schlüsselwörter

  • SCHADEX
  • MEWP
  • MORDOR
  • Stochastic rainfall model
  • Rainfall-runoff model
  • Flood frequency analysis

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