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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 24 (2016): Heft 3 (September 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-3973
ISSN
1210-3896
Erstveröffentlichung
23 May 2011
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of the Effect of Changes in Forest Associations on Runoff Processes in Basins: Case Study in the Hron and Topľa River Basins

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Distributed rainfall-runoff model simulations are often used to evaluate the impact of changes on the generation of runoff. These models have the advantage of reflecting the effects of land use on spatially distributed model parameters. The article deals with changes in forest associations as a result of global climate changes. In this article the WetSpa model was used for estimating the impact of forest changes on the runoff regime in the Hron and Topla river basins, with an emphasis on the parameterization of the land cover properties in the runoff simulations. The parameters of the model were estimated using climate data and three digital map layers: a land-use map, soil map and digital elevation model. This work contains two land use change scenarios of forest associations and also two scenarios of global climate change. Both types of scenarios of changes were prepared, and the runoff under the new conditions was simulated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Distributed rainfall-runoff model
  • Land use and climate change scenarios
  • Changes in runoff
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pulicat Lake: A Fragile Ecosystem Under Threat

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 8 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lake after Chilika Lake in India. The average area of the water spread is 461 sq km. During the monsoon Pulicat Lake receives freshwater through three major rivers, namely, the Swarnamukhi, the Kalangi and the Arani. The Pulicat lagoon system, which is a storehouse of rich biological resources, is under great threat because of the anthropogenic influences. The Pulicat Lake ecosystem is degraded by siltation, bar mouth dynamics, shell mining and processing and population pressure due to the resettlement of villagers from Sriharikota Island. It has been determined that the extent of the lake, including its water spread area, is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to assess the land use / land cover changes taking place in and around Pulicat Lake using remote sensing and GIS. Studies on its sediment characteristics are also vital. The grain size content reveals that most of the sediments contain clay and silt in enormous amounts. This lake has been the prime source of a livelihood through fishing for a large section of the population living in the surrounding villages. It is the most important refuge for water birds in south India. The fishing community who lives in and around Pulicat Lake follows the Padu system for fishing in the lake. In this study, apart from studies on configuration changes and sediment analysis, a study of the flora and fauna of the lake and the socio-economic conditions of the local community were also carried out. Finally, mitigation measures for the sustainable protection of the lake’s ecosystem were identified.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pulicat
  • Brackish Water
  • Lake Ecosystem
  • Sediment
  • Flora
  • Fauna
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM)

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 19 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM) to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1) building energy consumption, (2) building energy performance and analysis, and (3) building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world’s first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise) or its size.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Building Information Modelling
  • Building energy performance analysis
  • Sustainability
  • Energy efficiency
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interaction of Buried Pipeline with Soil Under Different Loading Cases

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 29 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Gas pipelines pass through different topographies. Their stress level is influenced not only by gas pressure, but also by the adjacent soil, the thickness of any covering layers, and soil movements (sinking, landslides). The stress level may be unevenly spread over a pipe due to these causes. When evaluating experimental measurements, errors may occur. The value of the resistance reserve of steel can be adjusted by a detailed analysis of any loading. This reserve can be used in the assessment of a pipeline’s actual state or in reconstructions. A detailed analysis of such loading and its comparison with the simple theory of elasticity is shown in this article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pipeline
  • Adjacent soil
  • FEM analysis
  • Landslide
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 36 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 – 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Ash
  • Concrete
  • Compressive Strength
  • Flow
  • Slump
  • Ground nut leave
5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Estimation of the Effect of Changes in Forest Associations on Runoff Processes in Basins: Case Study in the Hron and Topľa River Basins

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 7

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Distributed rainfall-runoff model simulations are often used to evaluate the impact of changes on the generation of runoff. These models have the advantage of reflecting the effects of land use on spatially distributed model parameters. The article deals with changes in forest associations as a result of global climate changes. In this article the WetSpa model was used for estimating the impact of forest changes on the runoff regime in the Hron and Topla river basins, with an emphasis on the parameterization of the land cover properties in the runoff simulations. The parameters of the model were estimated using climate data and three digital map layers: a land-use map, soil map and digital elevation model. This work contains two land use change scenarios of forest associations and also two scenarios of global climate change. Both types of scenarios of changes were prepared, and the runoff under the new conditions was simulated.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Distributed rainfall-runoff model
  • Land use and climate change scenarios
  • Changes in runoff
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pulicat Lake: A Fragile Ecosystem Under Threat

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 8 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lake after Chilika Lake in India. The average area of the water spread is 461 sq km. During the monsoon Pulicat Lake receives freshwater through three major rivers, namely, the Swarnamukhi, the Kalangi and the Arani. The Pulicat lagoon system, which is a storehouse of rich biological resources, is under great threat because of the anthropogenic influences. The Pulicat Lake ecosystem is degraded by siltation, bar mouth dynamics, shell mining and processing and population pressure due to the resettlement of villagers from Sriharikota Island. It has been determined that the extent of the lake, including its water spread area, is decreasing. Therefore, it is essential to assess the land use / land cover changes taking place in and around Pulicat Lake using remote sensing and GIS. Studies on its sediment characteristics are also vital. The grain size content reveals that most of the sediments contain clay and silt in enormous amounts. This lake has been the prime source of a livelihood through fishing for a large section of the population living in the surrounding villages. It is the most important refuge for water birds in south India. The fishing community who lives in and around Pulicat Lake follows the Padu system for fishing in the lake. In this study, apart from studies on configuration changes and sediment analysis, a study of the flora and fauna of the lake and the socio-economic conditions of the local community were also carried out. Finally, mitigation measures for the sustainable protection of the lake’s ecosystem were identified.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pulicat
  • Brackish Water
  • Lake Ecosystem
  • Sediment
  • Flora
  • Fauna
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Optimizing Energy Consumption in Building Designs Using Building Information Model (BIM)

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 19 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Given the ability of a Building Information Model (BIM) to serve as a multi-disciplinary data repository, this paper seeks to explore and exploit the sustainability value of Building Information Modelling/models in delivering buildings that require less energy for their operation, emit less CO2 and at the same time provide a comfortable living environment for their occupants. This objective was achieved by a critical and extensive review of the literature covering: (1) building energy consumption, (2) building energy performance and analysis, and (3) building information modeling and energy assessment. The literature cited in this paper showed that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helped project design teams to predict and create optimized energy consumption. To validate this finding, an in-depth analysis was carried out on a completed BIM integrated construction project using the Arboleda Project in the Dominican Republic. The findings showed that the BIM-based energy analysis helped the design team achieve the world’s first 103% positive energy building. From the research findings, the paper concludes that linking an energy analysis tool with a BIM model helps to expedite the energy analysis process, provide more detailed and accurate results as well as deliver energy-efficient buildings. The study further recommends that the adoption of a level 2 BIM and the integration of BIM in energy optimization analyse should be made compulsory for all projects irrespective of the method of procurement (government-funded or otherwise) or its size.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Building Information Modelling
  • Building energy performance analysis
  • Sustainability
  • Energy efficiency
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Interaction of Buried Pipeline with Soil Under Different Loading Cases

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 29 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Gas pipelines pass through different topographies. Their stress level is influenced not only by gas pressure, but also by the adjacent soil, the thickness of any covering layers, and soil movements (sinking, landslides). The stress level may be unevenly spread over a pipe due to these causes. When evaluating experimental measurements, errors may occur. The value of the resistance reserve of steel can be adjusted by a detailed analysis of any loading. This reserve can be used in the assessment of a pipeline’s actual state or in reconstructions. A detailed analysis of such loading and its comparison with the simple theory of elasticity is shown in this article.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Pipeline
  • Adjacent soil
  • FEM analysis
  • Landslide
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

Online veröffentlicht: 08 Oct 2016
Seitenbereich: 36 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 – 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Ash
  • Concrete
  • Compressive Strength
  • Flow
  • Slump
  • Ground nut leave

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