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Special Heft: Sociology of Sport edited by Natalia Organista, Michał Lenartowicz & Michał Jasny

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Dec 2009
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 59 (2013): Heft 1 (October 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1899-4849
ISSN
2081-2221
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Dec 2009
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sport and Philosophy of Hospitality: Three Questions on How to Rethink Contemporary Sport Education in Light of Gift and Peace

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 5 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ancient Olympic Games were held in spaces and places consecrated for hospitality, to xénia, a Greek word that means “gifts” but also something that refers to and belongs to strangers and foreigners. Foreigners from every part of Greece met in Olympia to celebrate the agón. In this place, a stranger or a foreigner (hostis in Latin), probably a former enemy, became a friend because he was both guest and host (hospes in Latin) in the sanctuary-town, which belonged to the gods and to all of the Greeks, who recognized themselves in its spirit. This mechanism of hospitality formed the basis of the Olympic peace system and was the fundamental prerequisite for the celebration of agón. The practice of the agón was therefore made possible by a “gift” but also by “for-giveness” that allowed people to meet and compete. We can conclude that at the base of the Olympic (and Greek) ethics there was the concept of hospitality. Olympia was then the common home of all Greeks, the place where ethics were carried out, were put into practice, and concretely exercised. It is not a pure coincidence that the Greek word “ethics” is linked to the word éthos, which means “house”, “home”. For this reason, ethics can be thought as the art of hosting somebody in our own home and trusting him/her, just as it happened in ancient Olympia during the Olympic Games, which demonstrated that ethics was always a home’s ethics. Therefore, taking into account this cultural and philosophical framework, this study will develop a methodological approach, derived from deconstructionism, which will be applied to concepts that are both ambiguous and semantically rich in meaning, such as “gift”, “forgiveness”, xénos, hostis, and hospes. The first objective of this study is to reflect upon the connection between “gift” and “sport” and show the deep interconnection between the two concepts. The second is to use the model of Greek hospitality at the Olympic Games to deeply rethink sport and contemporary philosophy of sport education in terms of peace and multiculturalism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sport
  • hospitality
  • philosophy
  • education
  • ethics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Italian Early Adolescent Females’ Intrinsic Motivation in Sport: An Explorative Study of Psychological and Sociorelational Correlates

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 11 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using self-determination theory (SDT), this study simultaneously investigated the relationships between intrinsic motivation, psychological factors (sport enjoyment, social self-efficacy), and sociorelational factors (perceived coaching behaviors) by subsequently testing whether psychological factors mediate the relationships between social-relational factors and intrinsic motivation. One hundred and twentyseven early adolescent females from several teams of the Italian Volleyball Society completed a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that female athletes’ intrinsic motivation was associated with a) sport enjoyment and b) perceived coaching behaviors (e.g., training and instruction, social support). Second, results showed that training-and-instruction coaches’ leadership style affected intrinsic motivation via the females’ enjoyment in sport. This study provided further insights into unknown associations among psychological, sociorelational factors and intrinsic motivation, highlighting the innovative role of sport enjoyment as a key factor for sustaining intrinsic motivation. Original and useful behavioral suggestions will be given to the coaches in order to sustain female athletes’ sport enjoyment and their intrinsic motivation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • enjoyment
  • coaching behavior
  • females
  • intrinsicmotivation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cheating is the Name of the Game - Conventional Cheating Arguments Fail to Articulate Moral Responses to Doping

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 21 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most common arguments in the discussion on doping is that it represents a form of cheating. In this paper it is argued that common doping-is-cheating arguments based on notions of rule-violation and unfair advantage are inadequate, since they treat cheating as distinct from the structure and the logic of competitive sport. An alternative approach to cheating in sport as regards performance enhancement will be offered based on the ethics of participation in interpersonal relationships. This participatory perspective points towards the need to broaden our conception of agency and moral responsibility in relation to doping, beyond the notion of the individual “drug-cheat” who acts in a vacuum.

Schlüsselwörter

  • doping
  • cheating
  • unfair advantage
  • rule violation
  • interpersonal relationships
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Leisure Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Polish and European Population

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 33 - 41

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Introduction and objective: In Poland, there are only a few studies that refer to the whole society’s participation in sport and recreation and that are based an the international questionnaire thus allowing for comparative analysis with other European reports. The aim of the study was to determine the association between leisure physical activity and socio-demographic variables. Methods: A survey based on CAPI was carried out in Poland from October to November 2012. A random sample of Polish adults (N=1,633) was interviewed using the IPAQ-long form. The data were analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Results: More than 21% of Polish subjects did not undertake any physical activity in their leisure time. Of those who were physically active, over 70% engaged in vigorous physical activity; only one in four respondents performed moderate physical activity or walking. The average leisure physical activity of the Poles was 1,916.9 ± 2,621 MET-min/week. A comparison of the current results and European research findings demonstrated that the median physical activity for the Polish population (MET-min/week) was similar to the median values for Czech subjects and Norwegian males and nearly three times higher than Croats. Conclusions: Insufficient participation in the conscious process of caring for one’s health is a common occurrence among adults living in the EU. In order to encourage the Polish population’s participation in physical activities, it is necessary to raise their awareness of the need of well-balanced, regular exercise. Furthermore, this study suggests that caution is warranted before using the CAPI technique to provide the IPAQ-long form survey.

Schlüsselwörter

  • physical activity
  • leisure
  • comparative study
  • Poland
  • European population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Motivations of Iranian University Students for Participation in Sporting Activities

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 42 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was designed to reveal university students’ motivations for sport. A sample of 934 students (male: 47.4%; female: 52.6%) with different educational levels and fields of study were involved in our research. A revised and developed scale was employed for measuring the students’ motivation. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used to describe the differences in students’ motivations for sport. The results indicated that having fun and experiencing joy, maintaining physical and mental health, and having a fit body were rated most frequently as the students’ motivations for sport; whereas spending leisure time, being with friends, and participating in competitions were found as the lowest motivational dimensions. Furthermore, various motivational differences could be observed between students regarding their gender, age, educational level, and field of study. In conclusion, it is suggested that preparing special plans based on the students’ different motivations and on their special needs for sport could improve their participation rate in sporting activities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • motivation
  • Iranian public universities
  • level of education
  • study field
  • students
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Social Stratification in Japanese and Some Other Martial Arts: A Comparison and Discussion of Changes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 49 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using the humanistic theory of martial arts and martial arts sociology, the author attempts to describe and explain the relationship between social stratification and martial arts. He asks whether a person’s position in the martial arts environment is, today, dependent on social background. He asks: Who could practice with weapons, and which weapons, a hundred years ago? Who can study in the ancient fencing schools today? The analysis includes martial arts in ancient Japan, Europe and Brazil as well as today. He finds that positions originally went to those in the privileged classes or social strata. Today, this does not matter. It can be concluded that there is simply a generational transmission of interest within families. Position in the martial arts, as in many other areas, is part of a person’s long-term effort to determine their own position in society, or “position developed independently”. Martial arts are part of the farreaching democratization and leveling of society. Positions inherited from father to son arise only very rarely. This mainly now happens only in the ancient ancestral schools.

Schlüsselwörter

  • martial arts
  • social stratification
  • social position
  • warrior
  • weapon
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Immediate Verbal Feedback on Swimming Effectiveness

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 60 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of immediate verbal feedback on swimming effectiveness. Swimming effectiveness was expressed in the subjects reaching their objective, i.e., maximum swimming velocity. The study involved 64 subjects divided into two groups (experimental group n=32; control group n=32). Two measurements - initial (pre-test) and final (post-test) - were conducted. The subjects swam a distance of 25 m front crawl at maximum velocity. The experimental groups received immediate verbal feedback focused on stroke lengthening, as a shorter stroke length is regarded as the most common reason behind lower swimming velocity. From this perspective, lengthening the stroke is important due to its relation with mechanics and energetics in all styles of swimming. The control group received no verbal feedback. All tests were recorded via video cameras (50 samples·s-1). The analysis of the kinematic movement parameters (horizontal average swimming velocity over 15m, time achieved over 15m) was carried out by means of the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements with a Tukey’s test demonstrated statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the tested groups in the case of the kinematic parameters measured in the study. Immediate verbal feedback (IVF) caused an increase of the average horizontal swimming velocity by 2.92% (0.04 m·s-1). Consequently, the average time needed by the swimmers to cover the distance (15m) decreased by 2.94% (0.36s). The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of teaching and improving the swimming technique using IVF.

Schlüsselwörter

  • didactic communication
  • verbal information
  • immediate feedback
  • swimming
7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sport and Philosophy of Hospitality: Three Questions on How to Rethink Contemporary Sport Education in Light of Gift and Peace

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 5 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The ancient Olympic Games were held in spaces and places consecrated for hospitality, to xénia, a Greek word that means “gifts” but also something that refers to and belongs to strangers and foreigners. Foreigners from every part of Greece met in Olympia to celebrate the agón. In this place, a stranger or a foreigner (hostis in Latin), probably a former enemy, became a friend because he was both guest and host (hospes in Latin) in the sanctuary-town, which belonged to the gods and to all of the Greeks, who recognized themselves in its spirit. This mechanism of hospitality formed the basis of the Olympic peace system and was the fundamental prerequisite for the celebration of agón. The practice of the agón was therefore made possible by a “gift” but also by “for-giveness” that allowed people to meet and compete. We can conclude that at the base of the Olympic (and Greek) ethics there was the concept of hospitality. Olympia was then the common home of all Greeks, the place where ethics were carried out, were put into practice, and concretely exercised. It is not a pure coincidence that the Greek word “ethics” is linked to the word éthos, which means “house”, “home”. For this reason, ethics can be thought as the art of hosting somebody in our own home and trusting him/her, just as it happened in ancient Olympia during the Olympic Games, which demonstrated that ethics was always a home’s ethics. Therefore, taking into account this cultural and philosophical framework, this study will develop a methodological approach, derived from deconstructionism, which will be applied to concepts that are both ambiguous and semantically rich in meaning, such as “gift”, “forgiveness”, xénos, hostis, and hospes. The first objective of this study is to reflect upon the connection between “gift” and “sport” and show the deep interconnection between the two concepts. The second is to use the model of Greek hospitality at the Olympic Games to deeply rethink sport and contemporary philosophy of sport education in terms of peace and multiculturalism.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sport
  • hospitality
  • philosophy
  • education
  • ethics
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Italian Early Adolescent Females’ Intrinsic Motivation in Sport: An Explorative Study of Psychological and Sociorelational Correlates

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 11 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using self-determination theory (SDT), this study simultaneously investigated the relationships between intrinsic motivation, psychological factors (sport enjoyment, social self-efficacy), and sociorelational factors (perceived coaching behaviors) by subsequently testing whether psychological factors mediate the relationships between social-relational factors and intrinsic motivation. One hundred and twentyseven early adolescent females from several teams of the Italian Volleyball Society completed a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that female athletes’ intrinsic motivation was associated with a) sport enjoyment and b) perceived coaching behaviors (e.g., training and instruction, social support). Second, results showed that training-and-instruction coaches’ leadership style affected intrinsic motivation via the females’ enjoyment in sport. This study provided further insights into unknown associations among psychological, sociorelational factors and intrinsic motivation, highlighting the innovative role of sport enjoyment as a key factor for sustaining intrinsic motivation. Original and useful behavioral suggestions will be given to the coaches in order to sustain female athletes’ sport enjoyment and their intrinsic motivation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • enjoyment
  • coaching behavior
  • females
  • intrinsicmotivation
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Cheating is the Name of the Game - Conventional Cheating Arguments Fail to Articulate Moral Responses to Doping

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 21 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most common arguments in the discussion on doping is that it represents a form of cheating. In this paper it is argued that common doping-is-cheating arguments based on notions of rule-violation and unfair advantage are inadequate, since they treat cheating as distinct from the structure and the logic of competitive sport. An alternative approach to cheating in sport as regards performance enhancement will be offered based on the ethics of participation in interpersonal relationships. This participatory perspective points towards the need to broaden our conception of agency and moral responsibility in relation to doping, beyond the notion of the individual “drug-cheat” who acts in a vacuum.

Schlüsselwörter

  • doping
  • cheating
  • unfair advantage
  • rule violation
  • interpersonal relationships
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Comparative Leisure Physical Activity: A Comparison Between Polish and European Population

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 33 - 41

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Introduction and objective: In Poland, there are only a few studies that refer to the whole society’s participation in sport and recreation and that are based an the international questionnaire thus allowing for comparative analysis with other European reports. The aim of the study was to determine the association between leisure physical activity and socio-demographic variables. Methods: A survey based on CAPI was carried out in Poland from October to November 2012. A random sample of Polish adults (N=1,633) was interviewed using the IPAQ-long form. The data were analyzed using standard statistical procedures. Results: More than 21% of Polish subjects did not undertake any physical activity in their leisure time. Of those who were physically active, over 70% engaged in vigorous physical activity; only one in four respondents performed moderate physical activity or walking. The average leisure physical activity of the Poles was 1,916.9 ± 2,621 MET-min/week. A comparison of the current results and European research findings demonstrated that the median physical activity for the Polish population (MET-min/week) was similar to the median values for Czech subjects and Norwegian males and nearly three times higher than Croats. Conclusions: Insufficient participation in the conscious process of caring for one’s health is a common occurrence among adults living in the EU. In order to encourage the Polish population’s participation in physical activities, it is necessary to raise their awareness of the need of well-balanced, regular exercise. Furthermore, this study suggests that caution is warranted before using the CAPI technique to provide the IPAQ-long form survey.

Schlüsselwörter

  • physical activity
  • leisure
  • comparative study
  • Poland
  • European population
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Motivations of Iranian University Students for Participation in Sporting Activities

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 42 - 48

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was designed to reveal university students’ motivations for sport. A sample of 934 students (male: 47.4%; female: 52.6%) with different educational levels and fields of study were involved in our research. A revised and developed scale was employed for measuring the students’ motivation. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used to describe the differences in students’ motivations for sport. The results indicated that having fun and experiencing joy, maintaining physical and mental health, and having a fit body were rated most frequently as the students’ motivations for sport; whereas spending leisure time, being with friends, and participating in competitions were found as the lowest motivational dimensions. Furthermore, various motivational differences could be observed between students regarding their gender, age, educational level, and field of study. In conclusion, it is suggested that preparing special plans based on the students’ different motivations and on their special needs for sport could improve their participation rate in sporting activities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • motivation
  • Iranian public universities
  • level of education
  • study field
  • students
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Social Stratification in Japanese and Some Other Martial Arts: A Comparison and Discussion of Changes

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 49 - 59

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Using the humanistic theory of martial arts and martial arts sociology, the author attempts to describe and explain the relationship between social stratification and martial arts. He asks whether a person’s position in the martial arts environment is, today, dependent on social background. He asks: Who could practice with weapons, and which weapons, a hundred years ago? Who can study in the ancient fencing schools today? The analysis includes martial arts in ancient Japan, Europe and Brazil as well as today. He finds that positions originally went to those in the privileged classes or social strata. Today, this does not matter. It can be concluded that there is simply a generational transmission of interest within families. Position in the martial arts, as in many other areas, is part of a person’s long-term effort to determine their own position in society, or “position developed independently”. Martial arts are part of the farreaching democratization and leveling of society. Positions inherited from father to son arise only very rarely. This mainly now happens only in the ancient ancestral schools.

Schlüsselwörter

  • martial arts
  • social stratification
  • social position
  • warrior
  • weapon
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Immediate Verbal Feedback on Swimming Effectiveness

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Oct 2013
Seitenbereich: 60 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of immediate verbal feedback on swimming effectiveness. Swimming effectiveness was expressed in the subjects reaching their objective, i.e., maximum swimming velocity. The study involved 64 subjects divided into two groups (experimental group n=32; control group n=32). Two measurements - initial (pre-test) and final (post-test) - were conducted. The subjects swam a distance of 25 m front crawl at maximum velocity. The experimental groups received immediate verbal feedback focused on stroke lengthening, as a shorter stroke length is regarded as the most common reason behind lower swimming velocity. From this perspective, lengthening the stroke is important due to its relation with mechanics and energetics in all styles of swimming. The control group received no verbal feedback. All tests were recorded via video cameras (50 samples·s-1). The analysis of the kinematic movement parameters (horizontal average swimming velocity over 15m, time achieved over 15m) was carried out by means of the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements with a Tukey’s test demonstrated statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the tested groups in the case of the kinematic parameters measured in the study. Immediate verbal feedback (IVF) caused an increase of the average horizontal swimming velocity by 2.92% (0.04 m·s-1). Consequently, the average time needed by the swimmers to cover the distance (15m) decreased by 2.94% (0.36s). The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of teaching and improving the swimming technique using IVF.

Schlüsselwörter

  • didactic communication
  • verbal information
  • immediate feedback
  • swimming

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