Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 2 (July 2021)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)
Special Heft: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 1 (May 2020)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 2 (December 2018)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 2 (July 2021)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Annual course of temperature and precipitation as proximal predictors of birds’ responses to climatic changes on the species and community level

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 118 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study was conducted in the landscapes of south-eastern Ukraine during the nesting seasons 1988–2018. Within the landscape system associated with the Molochny Estuary, the ten most important ecosystem types were investigated, including the following: agricultural land, vegetated strips, meadows, islands and spits, reedbeds, urban areas, salt marshes, steppe, cliffs, artificial forests. Bird species responded to temperature and precipitation gradients. The patterns of responses were presented using Huisman, Olff and Fresco expanded by the Jansen-Oksanen hierarchical models. The nature of species response in the gradient of temperature or precipitation conditions depends on the type of particular ecosystem and is not uniform for all populations inhabiting the different landscape types. The bird communities were revealed to demonstrate an abrupt dynamic over time. The continuous changes in community structure initiated by the external environmental factors are combined with modifications of internal biotic interactions, which may lead to abrupt reorganization of the community.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ecological niche
  • landscape diversity
  • ordination
  • temporal dynamic
  • trajectory analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Constructing single-entry stem volume models for four economically important tree species of Greece

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 136 - 146

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Three different nonlinear regression models were tested for their ability to predict stem volume for economically important native tree species in Greece. Τhe models were evaluated using adjusted R square (Adj Rsqr) root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion (AICc), where necessary. In general, the quadratic polynomial and cubic polynomial models and the two-parameter power models fit the data well. Although the two-parameter power function fit best for fir, oak, and beech trees, the cubic polynomial model produced the best fit statistics for black pine. Making forest inventory estimates often involves predicting tree volumes from only the diameter at breast height (DBH) and merchantable height. This study covers important gaps in fast and cost-effective methods for calculating the volume of tree species at national level. However, the increasing need for reliable estimates of inventory components and volume changes requires more accurate volume estimation techniques. Especially when those estimates concern the national inventory, those models must be validated using an entire range of age/diameter and site classes of each species before their extended use across the country to promote the sustainable use of forest resources.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diameter at breast height
  • fit statistics
  • nonlinear regression
  • tree species
  • volume estimation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dispersion of the epigeic fauna groups in the agricultural landscape

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 147 - 155

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Changes in the structure of epigeic animal groups indicate ecological stability, which are influenced by urbanization, agriculture, and forestry. The aim of the paper was to assess the impact of agrarian land in the vicinity of urban and suburban landscape and non-fragmented forest in the vicinity of rural landscape on the occurrence of epigeic groups. We recorded the pitfall traps - 19, 676 individuals belonging to 20 taxonomic groups at 9 localities representing 7 types of habitat. Our results indicate a year-on-year increase in the number of individuals of epigeic groups in the city, with surrounding agrarian land. We found a correlation between eudominant epigeic groups of Aranea and Hymenoptera and rural landscape with the non-fragmented surrounding. Coleoptera has shown a link between the conditions of urban and suburban landscape with the surrounding developed agriculture. We confirmed a statistically significant effect for luminosity (p = 0.002), humidity (p = 0.025) and pH (p = 0.017).

Schlüsselwörter

  • agriculture
  • epigeic groups
  • Slovakia
  • spatial modelling
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Distribution patterns and conservation status of Crocus species in Iran, one of the diversity centers of Crocus in the Middle East

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 156 - 168

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Assessing distribution patterns of valuable taxa plays an important role in the biodiversity conservation of these taxa. The genus Crocus L. (Iridaceae) comprises about 100 species that are distributed mainly in the Mediterranean region and western Asia. The present study purposed to assess the distribution patterns of Iranian Crocus species (including C. sativus L. and 8 wild species) and their conservation status in Iran as one of diversity centers of Crocus in the Middle East. A set of geographic distribution data was compiled through field studies, and reviews of herbarium specimens, iNaturalist, and various Flora. Localities were marked on geo-referenced maps (1/106) of Iran using ArcView version 3.2 (Esri, 2000). The distribution patterns of the taxa were mapped per 0.25° × 0.25° universal transverse Mercator grid cells (25 km2 with the exception of boundary area). Based on the species distribution (SDI) (33%) and species specialization (SSI) (44%) indices, those Iranian Crocus species that are threatened are mainly distributed in Irano-Turanian region. The mountainous ecosystems of Almeh and Western Alborz are important distribution centers of these taxa. Iranian Crocus species with SSI < 0.5 (C. almehensis, C. gilanicus, C. michelsonii, and C. caspius) have the highest conservation value.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conservation
  • crop wild relatives (CWR)
  • distribution
  • Iridaceae
  • saffron
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of management measures on the European ground squirrel population development

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 169 - 179

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the past, the European ground squirrel represented a common part of Slovakian fauna. During the 20th century, there was a substantial decrease in its number, mainly due to the intensification of agriculture. Currently, several programs focused on the recovery and preservation of ground squirrel colonies have been implemented. The aim in supporting the population of the European ground squirrel is to increase the number of birds of prey and to ensure a food base for them. In this paper, we focus on evaluating the success rate of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) management measures. The research was realized at two localities in the Protected Bird Area Slovenský kras (Hrhov and Gemerská Hôrka) in the years 2015–2018. Activities were focused on the management of grassland and supplemental feeding during the breeding period. As a result of the management measures and the supplemental feeding, we managed to maintain a positive trend in the populations’ development, as there was an increase observed in all the monitored seasons.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bird of prey
  • feeding landscape management
  • population density
  • restitution
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of long-term CO2 enrichment on carbon and nitrogen content of roots and soil of natural pastureland

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 180 - 190

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 may change C and N dynamics in pasture ecosystems. The present study was conducted to examine the impact of four years of CO2 enrichment on soil and root composition and soil N transformation in natural pastureland. Plots of open-top growth chambers were continuously injected with ambient CO2 (350 µL L–1) and elevated CO2 (625 µL L–1). Soil cores exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 treatment were incubated and collected each year. Net N-mineralization rates in soil (NH4+-N plus NO3ˉ-N), in addition to total C and N content (%) of soil and root tissues were measured. Results revealed that elevated CO2 caused a significant reduction in soil NO3 (P < 0.05), however, no significant CO2 effect was found on total soil C and N content (%). Roots of plants grown under elevated CO2 treatment had higher C/N ratios. Changes in root C/N ratios were driven by changes in root N concentrations as total root N content (%) was significantly reduced by 30% (P < 0.05). Overall, findings suggest that the effects of CO2 enrichment was more noticeable on N content (%) than C content (%) of soil and roots; elevated CO2 significantly affected soil N-mineralization and total N content (%) in roots, however, no substantial change was found in C inputs in CO2-enriched soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CO enrichment
  • C sequestration
  • pastureland
  • root C/N
  • soil C
  • soil N
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of increased ambient temperature on seasonal generation number in Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 191 - 198

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Global climate change and, specifically, rising temperatures, may increase the number of generations of necrophagous insects. The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) ranks among the most important cosmopolitan necrophagous insects that utilize corpses and cause myiasis in farm animals and humans. Based on the data simulations, the use of accumulated degree-hours enables to calculate the number of generations of this forensically important species of blowfly with a greater accuracy than before, considering short-term increases of temperature at the boundary of the cold and warm seasons. The number of generations of L. sericata has increased from 7.65 to 8.46 in the Ukrainian steppe zone over the last 15 years, while the active developmental period of this species has increased by 25 days due to earlier start in spring. The average temperature increase of 1 °C increased the number of generations of L. sericata by 0.85. With a global climate change following the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario (average temperature increase of 2.4 °C), adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, by 2100 the number of generations of L. sericata in a simulated ecosystem will increase by 2.0 to 9.0 generations per year.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blowly
  • climate change
  • forensic entomology
  • generations
  • model
  • post-mortem interval
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Plasticity in response to soil texture affects the relationships between a shoot and root trait and responses vary by population

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 199 - 204

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The relationships between shoot and root traits can inform plant selection for restoration, forestry, and agriculture and help to identify relationships that inform plant productivity and enhance their performance. But the strength of coordination between above- and belowground morphological and physiological traits varies due to differences in edaphic properties and population variation. More assessments are needed to determine what conditions influence these relationships. So, we tested whether plant population and soil texture affect the relationship between shoot and root traits which have important ecological ramifications for competition and resource capture: shoot height and root tip production. We grew seedlings of two populations of Bromus tectorum due to is fast growing nature in a growth chamber in loam soil, sand, and clay. We found variation in height by plant population and the substrate used (R2 = 0.44, p < 0.0001), and variation in root tip production by the substrate used (R2 = 0.33, p < 0.0001). Importantly, we found that relationships between shoot height and root tip production varied by soil texture and population (R2 = 0.54, p < 0.0001), and growth in sand produced the strongest relationship and was the most water deficient substrate (R2 = 0.32). This shows that screening populations under several environments influences appropriate plant selection.

Schlüsselwörter

  • population variation
  • root tips
  • soil texture
  • trait relationships
  • water stress
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nickel in forests – a short review on its distribution and fluxes

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 205 - 214

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The distribution and cycling of nickel (Ni) in forests is greatly affected by their proximity to emission sources of the metal. The throughfall deposition is always richer in Ni than the bulk deposition. It can be inferred that some dry deposition enriches the throughfall. In remote forested areas, the hydrological fluxes of Ni do not differ a lot from those in litterfall. In addition, the current year needles in conifers have higher concentrations than the older needles, a sign of absorption and mobility of the metal. In contrast, near an industrial Ni source the older needles accumulate much more of the metal. The Ni content in bark tissue can be used to map the deposition distribution of the metal around an area (rural or urban). The concentrations of Ni in forest soils is also dependent on their distances from the Ni emission sources and the nature of the soil parent material. The Ni concentrations increase with soil depth due to the geogenic origin of the metal. Low pH greatly enhances the mobility of the metal in soils, much more than the leachability of organic matter.

Schlüsselwörter

  • forests
  • hydrology
  • litterfall
  • nickel
  • soil
  • vegetation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Populations of Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in Kyiv (Ukraine)

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 215 - 228

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In connection with the increasing negative impact of invasive alien species on biodiversity and the environment in general, their research, as well as throughout the world, is relevant. The distribution of the Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum of the secondary range on the example of the Kyiv agglomeration is investigated in the work. In our study we aimed to evaluate the possibility of spontaneous spread of giant hogweeds in the secondary range, adaptation of the species to the new conditions of the environment that favor to control of these species’ expansion and reduce the threat to the urban ecosystems and citizens’ health. We hypothesise that in the secondary range H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum settle sites with relatively high temperature (Tr), lightening (Lc), and soil moisture conditions similar to that in their natural range. 17 populations and four localities (sites) of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum were studied. They were found within forest, meadow, riverine and ruderal plant communities. It is indicated that the advent species fully adapted to the conditions of the environment. The difference by ecological indicators Lc2 and Tm1 is pointed out. According to the results of our research, for the area of Kyiv urban agglomeration the growth of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum is indicated in the plants communities of six classes. They spread most in ruderal plant communities of the: Robinietea, Artemisietea, Epilobietea classes. The studied species belong to invasive plant species in Ukraine and are characterized by extremely high effect on the environment and high invasive potential.

Schlüsselwörter

  • giant hogweeds
  • invasive alien species
  • Kyiv
  • populations
10 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Annual course of temperature and precipitation as proximal predictors of birds’ responses to climatic changes on the species and community level

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 118 - 135

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The study was conducted in the landscapes of south-eastern Ukraine during the nesting seasons 1988–2018. Within the landscape system associated with the Molochny Estuary, the ten most important ecosystem types were investigated, including the following: agricultural land, vegetated strips, meadows, islands and spits, reedbeds, urban areas, salt marshes, steppe, cliffs, artificial forests. Bird species responded to temperature and precipitation gradients. The patterns of responses were presented using Huisman, Olff and Fresco expanded by the Jansen-Oksanen hierarchical models. The nature of species response in the gradient of temperature or precipitation conditions depends on the type of particular ecosystem and is not uniform for all populations inhabiting the different landscape types. The bird communities were revealed to demonstrate an abrupt dynamic over time. The continuous changes in community structure initiated by the external environmental factors are combined with modifications of internal biotic interactions, which may lead to abrupt reorganization of the community.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ecological niche
  • landscape diversity
  • ordination
  • temporal dynamic
  • trajectory analysis
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Constructing single-entry stem volume models for four economically important tree species of Greece

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 136 - 146

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Three different nonlinear regression models were tested for their ability to predict stem volume for economically important native tree species in Greece. Τhe models were evaluated using adjusted R square (Adj Rsqr) root mean square error (RMSE) and Akaike information criterion (AICc), where necessary. In general, the quadratic polynomial and cubic polynomial models and the two-parameter power models fit the data well. Although the two-parameter power function fit best for fir, oak, and beech trees, the cubic polynomial model produced the best fit statistics for black pine. Making forest inventory estimates often involves predicting tree volumes from only the diameter at breast height (DBH) and merchantable height. This study covers important gaps in fast and cost-effective methods for calculating the volume of tree species at national level. However, the increasing need for reliable estimates of inventory components and volume changes requires more accurate volume estimation techniques. Especially when those estimates concern the national inventory, those models must be validated using an entire range of age/diameter and site classes of each species before their extended use across the country to promote the sustainable use of forest resources.

Schlüsselwörter

  • diameter at breast height
  • fit statistics
  • nonlinear regression
  • tree species
  • volume estimation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dispersion of the epigeic fauna groups in the agricultural landscape

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 147 - 155

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Changes in the structure of epigeic animal groups indicate ecological stability, which are influenced by urbanization, agriculture, and forestry. The aim of the paper was to assess the impact of agrarian land in the vicinity of urban and suburban landscape and non-fragmented forest in the vicinity of rural landscape on the occurrence of epigeic groups. We recorded the pitfall traps - 19, 676 individuals belonging to 20 taxonomic groups at 9 localities representing 7 types of habitat. Our results indicate a year-on-year increase in the number of individuals of epigeic groups in the city, with surrounding agrarian land. We found a correlation between eudominant epigeic groups of Aranea and Hymenoptera and rural landscape with the non-fragmented surrounding. Coleoptera has shown a link between the conditions of urban and suburban landscape with the surrounding developed agriculture. We confirmed a statistically significant effect for luminosity (p = 0.002), humidity (p = 0.025) and pH (p = 0.017).

Schlüsselwörter

  • agriculture
  • epigeic groups
  • Slovakia
  • spatial modelling
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Distribution patterns and conservation status of Crocus species in Iran, one of the diversity centers of Crocus in the Middle East

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 156 - 168

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Assessing distribution patterns of valuable taxa plays an important role in the biodiversity conservation of these taxa. The genus Crocus L. (Iridaceae) comprises about 100 species that are distributed mainly in the Mediterranean region and western Asia. The present study purposed to assess the distribution patterns of Iranian Crocus species (including C. sativus L. and 8 wild species) and their conservation status in Iran as one of diversity centers of Crocus in the Middle East. A set of geographic distribution data was compiled through field studies, and reviews of herbarium specimens, iNaturalist, and various Flora. Localities were marked on geo-referenced maps (1/106) of Iran using ArcView version 3.2 (Esri, 2000). The distribution patterns of the taxa were mapped per 0.25° × 0.25° universal transverse Mercator grid cells (25 km2 with the exception of boundary area). Based on the species distribution (SDI) (33%) and species specialization (SSI) (44%) indices, those Iranian Crocus species that are threatened are mainly distributed in Irano-Turanian region. The mountainous ecosystems of Almeh and Western Alborz are important distribution centers of these taxa. Iranian Crocus species with SSI < 0.5 (C. almehensis, C. gilanicus, C. michelsonii, and C. caspius) have the highest conservation value.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conservation
  • crop wild relatives (CWR)
  • distribution
  • Iridaceae
  • saffron
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of management measures on the European ground squirrel population development

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 169 - 179

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the past, the European ground squirrel represented a common part of Slovakian fauna. During the 20th century, there was a substantial decrease in its number, mainly due to the intensification of agriculture. Currently, several programs focused on the recovery and preservation of ground squirrel colonies have been implemented. The aim in supporting the population of the European ground squirrel is to increase the number of birds of prey and to ensure a food base for them. In this paper, we focus on evaluating the success rate of European ground squirrel (Spermophilus citellus) management measures. The research was realized at two localities in the Protected Bird Area Slovenský kras (Hrhov and Gemerská Hôrka) in the years 2015–2018. Activities were focused on the management of grassland and supplemental feeding during the breeding period. As a result of the management measures and the supplemental feeding, we managed to maintain a positive trend in the populations’ development, as there was an increase observed in all the monitored seasons.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bird of prey
  • feeding landscape management
  • population density
  • restitution
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of long-term CO2 enrichment on carbon and nitrogen content of roots and soil of natural pastureland

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 180 - 190

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Increasing levels of atmospheric CO2 may change C and N dynamics in pasture ecosystems. The present study was conducted to examine the impact of four years of CO2 enrichment on soil and root composition and soil N transformation in natural pastureland. Plots of open-top growth chambers were continuously injected with ambient CO2 (350 µL L–1) and elevated CO2 (625 µL L–1). Soil cores exposed to ambient and elevated CO2 treatment were incubated and collected each year. Net N-mineralization rates in soil (NH4+-N plus NO3ˉ-N), in addition to total C and N content (%) of soil and root tissues were measured. Results revealed that elevated CO2 caused a significant reduction in soil NO3 (P < 0.05), however, no significant CO2 effect was found on total soil C and N content (%). Roots of plants grown under elevated CO2 treatment had higher C/N ratios. Changes in root C/N ratios were driven by changes in root N concentrations as total root N content (%) was significantly reduced by 30% (P < 0.05). Overall, findings suggest that the effects of CO2 enrichment was more noticeable on N content (%) than C content (%) of soil and roots; elevated CO2 significantly affected soil N-mineralization and total N content (%) in roots, however, no substantial change was found in C inputs in CO2-enriched soil.

Schlüsselwörter

  • CO enrichment
  • C sequestration
  • pastureland
  • root C/N
  • soil C
  • soil N
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of increased ambient temperature on seasonal generation number in Lucilia sericata (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 191 - 198

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Global climate change and, specifically, rising temperatures, may increase the number of generations of necrophagous insects. The common green bottle fly Lucilia sericata (Meigen, 1826) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) ranks among the most important cosmopolitan necrophagous insects that utilize corpses and cause myiasis in farm animals and humans. Based on the data simulations, the use of accumulated degree-hours enables to calculate the number of generations of this forensically important species of blowfly with a greater accuracy than before, considering short-term increases of temperature at the boundary of the cold and warm seasons. The number of generations of L. sericata has increased from 7.65 to 8.46 in the Ukrainian steppe zone over the last 15 years, while the active developmental period of this species has increased by 25 days due to earlier start in spring. The average temperature increase of 1 °C increased the number of generations of L. sericata by 0.85. With a global climate change following the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 scenario (average temperature increase of 2.4 °C), adopted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, by 2100 the number of generations of L. sericata in a simulated ecosystem will increase by 2.0 to 9.0 generations per year.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blowly
  • climate change
  • forensic entomology
  • generations
  • model
  • post-mortem interval
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Plasticity in response to soil texture affects the relationships between a shoot and root trait and responses vary by population

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 199 - 204

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The relationships between shoot and root traits can inform plant selection for restoration, forestry, and agriculture and help to identify relationships that inform plant productivity and enhance their performance. But the strength of coordination between above- and belowground morphological and physiological traits varies due to differences in edaphic properties and population variation. More assessments are needed to determine what conditions influence these relationships. So, we tested whether plant population and soil texture affect the relationship between shoot and root traits which have important ecological ramifications for competition and resource capture: shoot height and root tip production. We grew seedlings of two populations of Bromus tectorum due to is fast growing nature in a growth chamber in loam soil, sand, and clay. We found variation in height by plant population and the substrate used (R2 = 0.44, p < 0.0001), and variation in root tip production by the substrate used (R2 = 0.33, p < 0.0001). Importantly, we found that relationships between shoot height and root tip production varied by soil texture and population (R2 = 0.54, p < 0.0001), and growth in sand produced the strongest relationship and was the most water deficient substrate (R2 = 0.32). This shows that screening populations under several environments influences appropriate plant selection.

Schlüsselwörter

  • population variation
  • root tips
  • soil texture
  • trait relationships
  • water stress
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nickel in forests – a short review on its distribution and fluxes

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 205 - 214

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The distribution and cycling of nickel (Ni) in forests is greatly affected by their proximity to emission sources of the metal. The throughfall deposition is always richer in Ni than the bulk deposition. It can be inferred that some dry deposition enriches the throughfall. In remote forested areas, the hydrological fluxes of Ni do not differ a lot from those in litterfall. In addition, the current year needles in conifers have higher concentrations than the older needles, a sign of absorption and mobility of the metal. In contrast, near an industrial Ni source the older needles accumulate much more of the metal. The Ni content in bark tissue can be used to map the deposition distribution of the metal around an area (rural or urban). The concentrations of Ni in forest soils is also dependent on their distances from the Ni emission sources and the nature of the soil parent material. The Ni concentrations increase with soil depth due to the geogenic origin of the metal. Low pH greatly enhances the mobility of the metal in soils, much more than the leachability of organic matter.

Schlüsselwörter

  • forests
  • hydrology
  • litterfall
  • nickel
  • soil
  • vegetation
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Populations of Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum (Apiaceae) in Kyiv (Ukraine)

Online veröffentlicht: 31 Jul 2021
Seitenbereich: 215 - 228

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In connection with the increasing negative impact of invasive alien species on biodiversity and the environment in general, their research, as well as throughout the world, is relevant. The distribution of the Heracleum sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum of the secondary range on the example of the Kyiv agglomeration is investigated in the work. In our study we aimed to evaluate the possibility of spontaneous spread of giant hogweeds in the secondary range, adaptation of the species to the new conditions of the environment that favor to control of these species’ expansion and reduce the threat to the urban ecosystems and citizens’ health. We hypothesise that in the secondary range H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum settle sites with relatively high temperature (Tr), lightening (Lc), and soil moisture conditions similar to that in their natural range. 17 populations and four localities (sites) of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum were studied. They were found within forest, meadow, riverine and ruderal plant communities. It is indicated that the advent species fully adapted to the conditions of the environment. The difference by ecological indicators Lc2 and Tm1 is pointed out. According to the results of our research, for the area of Kyiv urban agglomeration the growth of H. sosnowskyi and H. mantegazzianum is indicated in the plants communities of six classes. They spread most in ruderal plant communities of the: Robinietea, Artemisietea, Epilobietea classes. The studied species belong to invasive plant species in Ukraine and are characterized by extremely high effect on the environment and high invasive potential.

Schlüsselwörter

  • giant hogweeds
  • invasive alien species
  • Kyiv
  • populations

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