Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 2 (July 2021)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)
Special Heft: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 1 (May 2020)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 2 (December 2018)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)
Special Heft: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Scots pine forest in Central Europe as a habitat for Harmonia axyridis: temporal and spatial patterns in the population of an alien ladybird

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 81 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Understanding of habitat favourability has wide relevance to the invasion biology of alien species. We studied the seasonal dynamics of the alien ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in monoculture Scots pine forest stands in south-west Slovakia, Central Europe, from April 2013 to March 2015. Adult H. axyridis were collected monthly across seven randomly selected pine stands of different ages and canopy closure, from the lower branches of pine trees, and larvae were recorded qualitatively. Adults were recorded all year round, most abundantly in November and least abundantly in February. The relationship between the abundance of H. axyridis and selected forest stand characteristics was modelled using the negative binomial Generalized Additive Model with penalized spline component in month (seasonality) effect, year, canopy closure and age effects and the random effect of forest stand (sample area effect). The abundance of H. axyridis was significantly influenced by the age of stand and seasonality (with month granularity) for both closed and open canopy stands, whereas the effects of canopy closure and sample area were not significant. The bimodal pattern of seasonal dynamics of H. axyridis on Scots pine was common for closed and open canopy stands, with two peaks reflecting the cyclic movement of the species from and to overwintering sites. Harmonia axyridis utilized certain pine stands preferably for foraging during the growing season and certain stands for refuge during winter. The ladybirds were found in highest numbers in the 15 year old closed canopy stand (overwintering site). The occurrence of both adults and larvae in most stands indicated a suitability of Scots pine forest for ladybird breeding. The model of year-round dynamics of H. axyridis has been presented for the first time within the invaded range of the ladybird in Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • harlequin ladybird
  • invasive insect
  • invaded range
  • seasonal changes
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Golden jackal, a natural disperser or an invasive alien species in Slovakia? A summary within European context

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 89 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This summary provides an overview of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) categorization in Europe with particular focus on its presence in Slovakia. The distribution range of this species in Europe has been expanding in recent decades. Currently, European population is in constant and fast increase, widening their ranges towards Central and Eastern Europe and more recently in some western countries. All over Europe, the categorization of the golden jackal status is discussed with some controversial. A recent genetic study helped to determine that golden jackals do not meet the established three criteria, which categorize a species as an invasive alien species. In Slovakia, golden jackals’ numbers grown considerably in the last decade and with an increasing of their distribution through the country it became a permanent species of the Slovak fauna. The only internal status is the hunting Act no. 274/2009, which classifies it as, game species. The fast adaptation and dispersion through Slovakia can be considered similar to the behaviour of an invasive species, as suggested in previous studies in Hungary. Based on widely accepted definitions, agreed under international legal instruments, it is quite clear that the term ‘Invasive Alien Species’ only encompasses non-native species specifically introduced by humans (intentionally or accidentally). Following this Invasive Alien Species terminology, golden jackals cannot be categorized as such in Slovakia. The natural expansion, the growing ranges, and the increase in numbers of the golden jackal in Slovakia in the last decades points to a need to improve the knowledge of the species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adaptation
  • alien species
  • dispersion
  • distribution
  • effects
  • invasion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-native plant species in alder-dominated forests in Slovakia: what does the regional- and the local-scale approach bring?

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 100 - 108

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

European riparian forests are in general susceptible to plant invasions compared to other natural forest habitats. Their descriptive vegetation overviews with phytosociological affiliation contain detail insight into species composition patterns at various geographical scales, but quantitative assessment of the relationship between non-native plant richness and measured environmental variables is still scarce. We used two vegetation datasets of alder-dominated forests to analyse plant invasion patterns in the Pannonian and the Carpathian region of Slovakia. A large dataset of 918 vegetation plots was used at the regional scale, whereas 40 vegetation plots completed by ecological (mainly soil, climatic) predictors were used at the local scale in order to determine how they shape non-native species richness. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) between the Pannonian and the Carpathian region in the number of non-native vascular plants at both scales, with altitude being the most important predictor. Generalized Linear Models accounted for 56.6% and 59.6% of alien species richness data in the Pannonian and Carpathian region, respectively. Alien richness was affected by altitude and soil pH in the Pannonian region, but only by altitude in the Carpathian region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alien vascular plants
  • altitude
  • floodplain forests
  • invasibility
  • lowland and mountainous regions
  • Slovakia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien and native woody plants in scattered vegetation in agricultural landscape

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 109 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The woody plant species composition has been evaluated in three cadastral territories of southwestern Slovakia, together in 77 habitats of non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV). A total of 43 tree species have been identified; 8 of them were alien and 5 species were cultural fruit trees. In total 20 shrub species were identified, out of which 3 were alien. Three woody species are classified as invasive according to the law in Slovakia: Acer negundo L., Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, and Lycium barbarum L. They occurred only in 2, maximum in 4 of the evaluated habitats. The most occurring alien tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. was generally identified in 58 habitats and in 48 habitats, with an incidence over 40% and dominance index of 70.6. The second most occurring alien tree Populus × canadensis had a dominance index of 8.3. The dominant native trees in NFWV were Acer campestre L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus robur L., Salix fragilis L. with the dominance index of 1–5 only.

Schlüsselwörter

  • agricultural landscape
  • southwestern Slovakia
  • species composition
  • woody plants
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasions of alien woody plant taxa across a cluster of villages neighbouring the Mlyňany Arboretum (SW Slovakia)

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 121 - 130

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ornamental plantations in cities and particularly botanical gardens and arboreta are rich sources of alien flora. Mlyňany Arboretum, established in 1892, cultivates 1049 non-native woody plant species on the area of 67 ha. In this work we answered following questions: 1. How many taxa are spontaneously spreading in the arboretum and how is the spreading intensity related to their ecological demands and reproduction traits? 2. How many taxa appear behind the fence? 3. How far from the arboretum they can get? 4. Do private gardens and historical aristocratic park in the studied village cluster contribute to species escapes from culture? 5. Which from the widely spread taxa can represent future risk of invasiveness on the national level? We found that about one tenth of taxa spread across the arboretum (particularly Cotoneaster spp., Prunus laurocerasus, P. serotina and Quercus rubra) and number of their seedlings corresponded only with the mother plant number. Almost one third of these species left the arboretum and their seedlings were observed in distance up to 500 m from the village (mainly Mahonia aquifolium, P. serotina). Private gardens were a large source of Juglans regia seedlings, frequency of which decreased with the distance from villages (no species escaped from the historical park). Weed risk assessment revealed potential invasion danger only for Amorpha fruticosa.

Schlüsselwörter

  • arboretum
  • escape from culture
  • historical park
  • village cluster
  • weed risk assessment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Known and predicted impacts of the invasive oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in European oak ecosystems – a review

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 131 - 139

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The North American oak lace bug (OLB, Corythucha arcuata) was first found in Europe in northern Italy in 2000, and up to 2019 it was recorded in 20 countries. Almost all Eurasian deciduous oak species are suitable hosts and the species can also feed on many other woody plants. At least 30 million hectares of oak forests provide suitable hosts for the OLB, meaning that the lack of suitable hosts will not restrict its further spread. Detailed studies on the long-term impact of the species are not yet available but there are many good reasons to assume that it poses multiple threats to oaks and oak ecosystems. In the long term, it may have negative effects on oak health, growth, and acorn crops. Many of other oak-associated species will likely also be negatively affected. So far, no effective and environmentally tolerable large scale control method is known for OLB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • invasive species
  • leaf discoloration
  • oaks
  • spreading
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Appearance of oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata Say, 1832) on sweet chestnut in Hungary (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 140 - 143

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) has caused increasing damage throughout Europe since its appearance in 2000. In Hungary, it has become a dangerous pest of Quercus species in recent years. They frequently appear on ornamental and fruit trees, either, but this type of damage is not significant. Castanea species are known as their common host plants in their native area, but in Europe, it was detected only in Bulgaria. In this paper, we provide the first record of oak lace bug on sweet chestnut (C. sativa) in Hungary, which represents only the second European data on Castanea species. The pest was found in Debrecen, East Hungary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • host plant
  • infestation
  • oak lace bug
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Selected climatic variables in Slovakia are favourable to the development of Dothistroma needle blight

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 144 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) is a disease of pine needles. It causes significant defoliation of affected trees; intensive attacks lead to damages of the whole stand. The relationship of trends in disease severity and intensity with climatic variables were studied in three Austrian pine plantations (Jahodná, Kálnica, Litava) during 2014–2018. During the monitoring period, the greatest variability in disease severity was observed in the top third of the crowns, which showed the highest correlation with the variants of the most important climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) tested. For the spread of DNB, based on statistical assessment, a higher number of intervals of environmentally favourable climatic conditions is crucial. Both Dothistroma species (D. septosporum and D. pini), which are causal agents of the disease, were identified in Jahodná. In Kálnica and Litava, only D. septosporum was present.

Schlüsselwörter

  • disease intensity
  • Dothistroma needle blight
  • relative humidity
  • temperature
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of the mycelial compatibility of Macrophomina phaseolina

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 153 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is found on all five crop-growing continents. In hot and dry seasons, this fungus is capable of causing considerable damage. In this study, mycelial compatibility of M. phaseolina isolates was investigated. In total the 30 samples collected were tested to examine their compatibility. The sunflower samples examined were collected in 2019 and 2020 in different regions of Hungary (29 isolates) and Slovakia (1 isolate). A total of 465 pairing tests were made with 30 isolates. The results of our examination showed incompatibility in 12 pairings. In our studies, we also measured the size of the microsclerotia of the isolates in order to determine which group they belong to. The diameter of the microsclerotia ranged from 74 to 182 μm. Based on this, microsclerotia belong to group ‘C’, as well as the data of previous studies in Hungary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic variability
  • host plant
  • invasive pathogen
  • sunflower
  • vegetative compatibility
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urban ecosystems as locations of distribution of alien aquatic plants

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 159 - 167

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Peculiarities of alien macrophytes invasions into aquatic ecosystems located at urban landscapes were investigated on an example of water bodies, rivers and streams located within the Kyiv City (Ukraine). There have been recognised seven species of alien aquatic macrophytes established at the territory of Kyiv City, representing 11% of the hydrophilic flora of the city. The representatives of the recent invasions Egeria densa, Elodea nuttallii and Pistia stratiotes in comparison with Elodea canadensis were characterized by a wider ecological valence concerning the contents of nitrogen compounds in water. Significant variability of morphometric parameters of coenopopulations of alien species formed in different environmental conditions was recognised. There was observed that the individuals of Pistia stratiotes from eutrophic water bodies formed significantly larger surface organs, and the individuals from meso-eutrophic reservoir had a larger number of leaves in the rosette, and more numerous and longer roots. The alien macrophytes species dwelling in the water bodies of the city were characterized by wide ecological amplitudes, high stress tolerance, high reproduction rate, high naturalization degree, allowing these species to use the resources of their new environment inaccessible for the local species and significantly affecting the ecosystem homeostasis and transformation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • invasive aquatic plants
  • macrophytes
  • Ukraine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasive terrestrial plant species in the Romanian protected areas. A review of the geographical aspects

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 168 - 177

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Geographical factors play an essential role in the occurrence and spread of invasive species worldwide, and their particular analysis at regional and local scales becomes important in understanding species development patterns. The present paper discusses the relationships between some key geographical factors and the Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species (ITPS) distribution, and their environmental implications in a few protected areas in Romania. The authors focused their attention on three of the foremost invaders (i.e. Amorpha fruticosa, Ailanthus altissima and Fallopia japonica) making use of the information provided by the scientific literature and some illustrative examples developed in the framework of the FP7 enviroGRIDS project. The study is aimed to increase the knowledge of the ITPS and, specifically, to contribute to the geographical understanding of the role played by the driving factors in their distribution and spread in various habitats and ecosystems. The results will further support the control efforts in protected areas where, often, valuable native species are at risk of being replaced by non-native species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • geographical factors
  • Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species (ITPS)
  • national/natural parks
  • potential distribution
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Occurrence and management of invasive alien species in Hungarian protected areas compared to Europe

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 178 - 191

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the problems caused by invasive alien species (IAS) in Hungarian protected areas (PAs). Results from 144 PAs were evaluated and compared with a previous study of 21 European countries. In the European survey, the most important threats were habitat loss and fragmentation, Hungarian respondents put IAS in first place. Eradication, control and prevention were mentioned among the best strategies against invasive species in both surveys, but Hungarian PA managers emphasized the efficiency of habitat restoration and regulatory as well. Comparing the harmful animals and plants occurring in most Hungarian and European PAs, we found nearly 30% similarity. In most Hungarian PAs domestic cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were indicated as most harmful species. The results of our study draw the attention to the species, which are highly invasive in Hungary, but are missing from the European PAs list, therefore may pose a potential threat to other protected areas of Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • European legalisation
  • invasive alien species
  • invasion list
  • protected areas
  • web survey
12 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Scots pine forest in Central Europe as a habitat for Harmonia axyridis: temporal and spatial patterns in the population of an alien ladybird

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 81 - 88

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Understanding of habitat favourability has wide relevance to the invasion biology of alien species. We studied the seasonal dynamics of the alien ladybird Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in monoculture Scots pine forest stands in south-west Slovakia, Central Europe, from April 2013 to March 2015. Adult H. axyridis were collected monthly across seven randomly selected pine stands of different ages and canopy closure, from the lower branches of pine trees, and larvae were recorded qualitatively. Adults were recorded all year round, most abundantly in November and least abundantly in February. The relationship between the abundance of H. axyridis and selected forest stand characteristics was modelled using the negative binomial Generalized Additive Model with penalized spline component in month (seasonality) effect, year, canopy closure and age effects and the random effect of forest stand (sample area effect). The abundance of H. axyridis was significantly influenced by the age of stand and seasonality (with month granularity) for both closed and open canopy stands, whereas the effects of canopy closure and sample area were not significant. The bimodal pattern of seasonal dynamics of H. axyridis on Scots pine was common for closed and open canopy stands, with two peaks reflecting the cyclic movement of the species from and to overwintering sites. Harmonia axyridis utilized certain pine stands preferably for foraging during the growing season and certain stands for refuge during winter. The ladybirds were found in highest numbers in the 15 year old closed canopy stand (overwintering site). The occurrence of both adults and larvae in most stands indicated a suitability of Scots pine forest for ladybird breeding. The model of year-round dynamics of H. axyridis has been presented for the first time within the invaded range of the ladybird in Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • harlequin ladybird
  • invasive insect
  • invaded range
  • seasonal changes
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Golden jackal, a natural disperser or an invasive alien species in Slovakia? A summary within European context

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 89 - 99

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This summary provides an overview of the golden jackal (Canis aureus) categorization in Europe with particular focus on its presence in Slovakia. The distribution range of this species in Europe has been expanding in recent decades. Currently, European population is in constant and fast increase, widening their ranges towards Central and Eastern Europe and more recently in some western countries. All over Europe, the categorization of the golden jackal status is discussed with some controversial. A recent genetic study helped to determine that golden jackals do not meet the established three criteria, which categorize a species as an invasive alien species. In Slovakia, golden jackals’ numbers grown considerably in the last decade and with an increasing of their distribution through the country it became a permanent species of the Slovak fauna. The only internal status is the hunting Act no. 274/2009, which classifies it as, game species. The fast adaptation and dispersion through Slovakia can be considered similar to the behaviour of an invasive species, as suggested in previous studies in Hungary. Based on widely accepted definitions, agreed under international legal instruments, it is quite clear that the term ‘Invasive Alien Species’ only encompasses non-native species specifically introduced by humans (intentionally or accidentally). Following this Invasive Alien Species terminology, golden jackals cannot be categorized as such in Slovakia. The natural expansion, the growing ranges, and the increase in numbers of the golden jackal in Slovakia in the last decades points to a need to improve the knowledge of the species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adaptation
  • alien species
  • dispersion
  • distribution
  • effects
  • invasion
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-native plant species in alder-dominated forests in Slovakia: what does the regional- and the local-scale approach bring?

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 100 - 108

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

European riparian forests are in general susceptible to plant invasions compared to other natural forest habitats. Their descriptive vegetation overviews with phytosociological affiliation contain detail insight into species composition patterns at various geographical scales, but quantitative assessment of the relationship between non-native plant richness and measured environmental variables is still scarce. We used two vegetation datasets of alder-dominated forests to analyse plant invasion patterns in the Pannonian and the Carpathian region of Slovakia. A large dataset of 918 vegetation plots was used at the regional scale, whereas 40 vegetation plots completed by ecological (mainly soil, climatic) predictors were used at the local scale in order to determine how they shape non-native species richness. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) between the Pannonian and the Carpathian region in the number of non-native vascular plants at both scales, with altitude being the most important predictor. Generalized Linear Models accounted for 56.6% and 59.6% of alien species richness data in the Pannonian and Carpathian region, respectively. Alien richness was affected by altitude and soil pH in the Pannonian region, but only by altitude in the Carpathian region.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alien vascular plants
  • altitude
  • floodplain forests
  • invasibility
  • lowland and mountainous regions
  • Slovakia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien and native woody plants in scattered vegetation in agricultural landscape

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 109 - 120

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The woody plant species composition has been evaluated in three cadastral territories of southwestern Slovakia, together in 77 habitats of non-forest woody vegetation (NFWV). A total of 43 tree species have been identified; 8 of them were alien and 5 species were cultural fruit trees. In total 20 shrub species were identified, out of which 3 were alien. Three woody species are classified as invasive according to the law in Slovakia: Acer negundo L., Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, and Lycium barbarum L. They occurred only in 2, maximum in 4 of the evaluated habitats. The most occurring alien tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. was generally identified in 58 habitats and in 48 habitats, with an incidence over 40% and dominance index of 70.6. The second most occurring alien tree Populus × canadensis had a dominance index of 8.3. The dominant native trees in NFWV were Acer campestre L., Fraxinus excelsior L., Quercus robur L., Salix fragilis L. with the dominance index of 1–5 only.

Schlüsselwörter

  • agricultural landscape
  • southwestern Slovakia
  • species composition
  • woody plants
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasions of alien woody plant taxa across a cluster of villages neighbouring the Mlyňany Arboretum (SW Slovakia)

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 121 - 130

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ornamental plantations in cities and particularly botanical gardens and arboreta are rich sources of alien flora. Mlyňany Arboretum, established in 1892, cultivates 1049 non-native woody plant species on the area of 67 ha. In this work we answered following questions: 1. How many taxa are spontaneously spreading in the arboretum and how is the spreading intensity related to their ecological demands and reproduction traits? 2. How many taxa appear behind the fence? 3. How far from the arboretum they can get? 4. Do private gardens and historical aristocratic park in the studied village cluster contribute to species escapes from culture? 5. Which from the widely spread taxa can represent future risk of invasiveness on the national level? We found that about one tenth of taxa spread across the arboretum (particularly Cotoneaster spp., Prunus laurocerasus, P. serotina and Quercus rubra) and number of their seedlings corresponded only with the mother plant number. Almost one third of these species left the arboretum and their seedlings were observed in distance up to 500 m from the village (mainly Mahonia aquifolium, P. serotina). Private gardens were a large source of Juglans regia seedlings, frequency of which decreased with the distance from villages (no species escaped from the historical park). Weed risk assessment revealed potential invasion danger only for Amorpha fruticosa.

Schlüsselwörter

  • arboretum
  • escape from culture
  • historical park
  • village cluster
  • weed risk assessment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Known and predicted impacts of the invasive oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) in European oak ecosystems – a review

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 131 - 139

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The North American oak lace bug (OLB, Corythucha arcuata) was first found in Europe in northern Italy in 2000, and up to 2019 it was recorded in 20 countries. Almost all Eurasian deciduous oak species are suitable hosts and the species can also feed on many other woody plants. At least 30 million hectares of oak forests provide suitable hosts for the OLB, meaning that the lack of suitable hosts will not restrict its further spread. Detailed studies on the long-term impact of the species are not yet available but there are many good reasons to assume that it poses multiple threats to oaks and oak ecosystems. In the long term, it may have negative effects on oak health, growth, and acorn crops. Many of other oak-associated species will likely also be negatively affected. So far, no effective and environmentally tolerable large scale control method is known for OLB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • invasive species
  • leaf discoloration
  • oaks
  • spreading
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Appearance of oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata Say, 1832) on sweet chestnut in Hungary (Heteroptera: Tingidae)

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 140 - 143

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Oak lace bug (Corythucha arcuata) has caused increasing damage throughout Europe since its appearance in 2000. In Hungary, it has become a dangerous pest of Quercus species in recent years. They frequently appear on ornamental and fruit trees, either, but this type of damage is not significant. Castanea species are known as their common host plants in their native area, but in Europe, it was detected only in Bulgaria. In this paper, we provide the first record of oak lace bug on sweet chestnut (C. sativa) in Hungary, which represents only the second European data on Castanea species. The pest was found in Debrecen, East Hungary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • host plant
  • infestation
  • oak lace bug
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Selected climatic variables in Slovakia are favourable to the development of Dothistroma needle blight

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 144 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dothistroma needle blight (DNB) is a disease of pine needles. It causes significant defoliation of affected trees; intensive attacks lead to damages of the whole stand. The relationship of trends in disease severity and intensity with climatic variables were studied in three Austrian pine plantations (Jahodná, Kálnica, Litava) during 2014–2018. During the monitoring period, the greatest variability in disease severity was observed in the top third of the crowns, which showed the highest correlation with the variants of the most important climatic conditions (temperature and relative humidity) tested. For the spread of DNB, based on statistical assessment, a higher number of intervals of environmentally favourable climatic conditions is crucial. Both Dothistroma species (D. septosporum and D. pini), which are causal agents of the disease, were identified in Jahodná. In Kálnica and Litava, only D. septosporum was present.

Schlüsselwörter

  • disease intensity
  • Dothistroma needle blight
  • relative humidity
  • temperature
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Investigation of the mycelial compatibility of Macrophomina phaseolina

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 153 - 158

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is found on all five crop-growing continents. In hot and dry seasons, this fungus is capable of causing considerable damage. In this study, mycelial compatibility of M. phaseolina isolates was investigated. In total the 30 samples collected were tested to examine their compatibility. The sunflower samples examined were collected in 2019 and 2020 in different regions of Hungary (29 isolates) and Slovakia (1 isolate). A total of 465 pairing tests were made with 30 isolates. The results of our examination showed incompatibility in 12 pairings. In our studies, we also measured the size of the microsclerotia of the isolates in order to determine which group they belong to. The diameter of the microsclerotia ranged from 74 to 182 μm. Based on this, microsclerotia belong to group ‘C’, as well as the data of previous studies in Hungary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • genetic variability
  • host plant
  • invasive pathogen
  • sunflower
  • vegetative compatibility
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urban ecosystems as locations of distribution of alien aquatic plants

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 159 - 167

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Peculiarities of alien macrophytes invasions into aquatic ecosystems located at urban landscapes were investigated on an example of water bodies, rivers and streams located within the Kyiv City (Ukraine). There have been recognised seven species of alien aquatic macrophytes established at the territory of Kyiv City, representing 11% of the hydrophilic flora of the city. The representatives of the recent invasions Egeria densa, Elodea nuttallii and Pistia stratiotes in comparison with Elodea canadensis were characterized by a wider ecological valence concerning the contents of nitrogen compounds in water. Significant variability of morphometric parameters of coenopopulations of alien species formed in different environmental conditions was recognised. There was observed that the individuals of Pistia stratiotes from eutrophic water bodies formed significantly larger surface organs, and the individuals from meso-eutrophic reservoir had a larger number of leaves in the rosette, and more numerous and longer roots. The alien macrophytes species dwelling in the water bodies of the city were characterized by wide ecological amplitudes, high stress tolerance, high reproduction rate, high naturalization degree, allowing these species to use the resources of their new environment inaccessible for the local species and significantly affecting the ecosystem homeostasis and transformation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • invasive aquatic plants
  • macrophytes
  • Ukraine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasive terrestrial plant species in the Romanian protected areas. A review of the geographical aspects

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 168 - 177

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Geographical factors play an essential role in the occurrence and spread of invasive species worldwide, and their particular analysis at regional and local scales becomes important in understanding species development patterns. The present paper discusses the relationships between some key geographical factors and the Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species (ITPS) distribution, and their environmental implications in a few protected areas in Romania. The authors focused their attention on three of the foremost invaders (i.e. Amorpha fruticosa, Ailanthus altissima and Fallopia japonica) making use of the information provided by the scientific literature and some illustrative examples developed in the framework of the FP7 enviroGRIDS project. The study is aimed to increase the knowledge of the ITPS and, specifically, to contribute to the geographical understanding of the role played by the driving factors in their distribution and spread in various habitats and ecosystems. The results will further support the control efforts in protected areas where, often, valuable native species are at risk of being replaced by non-native species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • geographical factors
  • Invasive Terrestrial Plant Species (ITPS)
  • national/natural parks
  • potential distribution
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Occurrence and management of invasive alien species in Hungarian protected areas compared to Europe

Online veröffentlicht: 24 Nov 2020
Seitenbereich: 178 - 191

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A questionnaire survey was carried out to examine the problems caused by invasive alien species (IAS) in Hungarian protected areas (PAs). Results from 144 PAs were evaluated and compared with a previous study of 21 European countries. In the European survey, the most important threats were habitat loss and fragmentation, Hungarian respondents put IAS in first place. Eradication, control and prevention were mentioned among the best strategies against invasive species in both surveys, but Hungarian PA managers emphasized the efficiency of habitat restoration and regulatory as well. Comparing the harmful animals and plants occurring in most Hungarian and European PAs, we found nearly 30% similarity. In most Hungarian PAs domestic cat (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) were indicated as most harmful species. The results of our study draw the attention to the species, which are highly invasive in Hungary, but are missing from the European PAs list, therefore may pose a potential threat to other protected areas of Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • European legalisation
  • invasive alien species
  • invasion list
  • protected areas
  • web survey

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