Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 2 (July 2021)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)
Special Heft: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 1 (May 2020)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 2 (December 2018)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 2 (December 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and development cycles of temperate natural forest ecosystems

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 61 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented contribution in its first part summarizes several important theoretical findings of the system ecology supporting non-equilibrium paradigm of complex adaptive systems. We emphasise the concept of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of living systems and the Holling’s adaptive cycle of a social-ecological system. In natural forests, the phases of an adaptive cycle fit to a substantial extent also to stages and phases of a large and a small forest cycle, although there is a different terminology. Further, we have emphasised the natural role of disturbances and their explanation from the thermodynamic point of view – as an important component of an adaptive cycle, which supports conclusions that these natural phenomena not only participated in the evolution of the whole habitats, but from the long-term view, they may even increase the resilience and overall ecological stability of ecosystems. Finally, we have tried to apply the findings of the theories presented to derive or underlie several principles of the management of temperate deciduous and mixed natural forests, which we consider important.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adaptive cycle
  • natural forest
  • non-equilibrium thermodynamics
  • resilience
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The influence of forest-forming tree species on diversity and spatial distribution of algae in forest litter

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 72 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The forest litter plays a significant role in forest ecosystems. The composition of the litter biota comprises micro- and mesofauna, and a great diversity of microorganisms, including unrecognized algae (eukaryotic representatives and Cyanoprokaryota). The aim of this work was to study the diversity of algae in the different types of forest litters and to clarify the relationship between the algae composition and the forest-forming tree species. Our results show that the pine forest litter is the most appropriate habitat for the development of green and yellow-green algae and that this litter type limits the variety of blue-green ones. The admixture of deciduous leaf litter to pine litter caused an increase in the species richness of blue-green algae and diatoms. The algae were unevenly distributed across the sub-horizons of pine litter. The highest species richness of algae was identified in the enzymatic sub-horizon of litter. The peculiarity of the composition of leaf litter algae was a significant variety of green, yellow-green and blue-green algae. The spatial organization of algae communities in the leaf litter was characterized by equal distribution of algae species in the litter-subhorizons.

Schlüsselwörter

  • algae
  • ash content
  • biota of the litter
  • leaf litter
  • pH of the litter
  • pine litter
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Basic density and crown parameters of forest forming species within Steppe zone in Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 82 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The parameters of wood density (WD), bark density (BD) and tree crown characteristics are not only important for estimation of the aboveground biomass, but they also serve as indicators for the timber quality. This study had two objectives: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) – an introduced species; Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) – an aboriginal species. Black locust and Scots pine from the Steppe zone in Ukraine were compared in their WD and BD, and in the morphological parameters of their tree crowns. There were determined basic WD and BD for differently aged individuals of Black locust and Scots pine. Generally, a higher WD was found for Black locust trees. The average Black locust WD was 518 kg m−3, ranging from 375 kg m−3 to 612 kg m−3; with the average BD – 294 kg m−3, ranging from 214 kg m−3 to 421 kg m−3. The average Scots pine WD was 414 kg m−3, ranging from 254 to 491 kg m−3; with average BD – 317 kg m−3, ranging from 178 to 433 kg m−3. The dependences between WD, BD and biometric tree parameters were identified by correlation analysis. The crown diameter for Black locust and Scots pine was described with fixed prediction models. We proposed particular equations for relationships between foliage biomass and branch biomass, derived from the crown volume of the investigated species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Black locust
  • Scots pine
  • forestry
  • prediction models
  • tree biometric parameters
  • trunk wood and bark
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Traffic effects on leaf macro- and micro-morphological traits

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 92 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the traffic-related effects on morphological and anatomical traits of Fraxinus rotundifolia and Morus alba along the Malayer-Hamedan road. In the study area, populations of two species of F. rotundifolia (30 individual trees) and M. alba (30 individual trees) were selected for sampling. The results showed that the leaf and stomata dimensions at distances near to the roadside were significantly lower compared to longer distances from the road. For F. rotundifolia, the number of veins showed the lowest plasticity, while in case of M. alba, the stomata length (P = 0.52) and the number of veins (P = 0.54) showed the lowest plasticity related to the environmental conditions. Results of discriminant analysis for population grouping for the two species of F. rotundifolia and M. alba confirmed the accuracy of grouping 74.8% and 79.5%, respectively. In case of trees that were farther away from the road, guard and epidermal cells were located at the same level. We found that the leaf stomata in M. alba were closed more than in F. rotundifolia at the same distance. Totally, the results of this research show that the air pollution stress impacted the tree morphological traits. From the two species, F. rotundifolia was more resistant in terms of pollution stress.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leaf traits
  • pollution
  • roadside
  • stomata
  • traffic
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Carabid communities (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in differently managed forage legume stands in the Podpoľanie region (Central Slovakia)

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 102 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies on the communities of Carabids from the land registry area of the Očová village (Podpoľanie region, Central Slovakia). The research was carried out in two consecutive vegetation periods on two different agricultural plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): the first of them (locality Nadhájniková) was managed intensively, and the second one (locality Koteľnice) was characterized by a nature-friendly, low-input agro-environmental management form, without application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. On the studied sites, the observed species composition of Carabidae was similar. Neverthe-less, the higher total number of individuals and the higher species richness were typical for the nature-friendly managed plot in Koteľnice. On both plots, the highest abundances were reached in Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius and Pseudoophonus rufipes. On the intensively managed plot in Nadhájniková, however, the abundances of all these species were markedly lower. Our results suggest that the studied component of epigeic fauna finds better ecological conditions on the sites with the nature-friendly management form.

Schlüsselwörter

  • agricultural management
  • agriculture
  • edaphon
  • epigeic fauna
  • ground beetles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The physiological and genetic differences between flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis vs. Ficedula hypoleuca)

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 111 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper studies interspecies physiological and genetic differences between the white-collared flycatcher and the pied flycatcher of the genus Ficedula. The fact that the flycatchers are capable of interspecies hybridization is one more reason for particular interest to these species. Using our own-developed method of taking venous blood from the eye’s sinus, we took blood samples from birds in the protected area of Homilshanski Forests, Kharkiv, Ukraine, to study their leukogram patterns. The bird feathers were also collected for genetic analysis -- to identify interspecies differences with application of the ISSR technique. It was revealed that the percentage of heterophiles in the nestlings of the pied flycatcher was lower than in the nestlings of the white-collared flycatcher. The micronucleus test did not reveal any significant difference in the interspecies groups. The spectra of amplification products obtained with the primer (AGC)6 G showed that the white-collared flycatchers had a more heterogeneous structure. The study of the leukogram, micronucleus test, and the ISSR analysis can be especially effective in the study of intra-species genetic differentiation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • flycatchers
  • ISSR inter-microsatellite analysis
  • leukogram
  • micronuclei
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Soils classified in the Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 120 - 128

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Successful adaptation of introduced trees requires providing appropriate conditions for their growth and life. In this context, our study aim was a soil survey in the Arboretum Mlyňany, on the basis of which the soils could be classified. Detailed soil investigations were done at seventeen sites under dense monocultures of trees and the grassland. For each site, there was dug one soil pit, near which there were made three soil bores. Over most area of the locality, the prevailing soil-forming substrates were decalcified loess and silt, with gravelly patches, with prevailing medium soil texture, and acid to slightly acid pH. Based on the morphological features and the results concerning the physical and chemical soil properties, seven quality-degrees of soil cover were classified. The lowest-quality was recognised in Fragic Stagnic Retisol, in the highest-situated, east part of Arboretum, and also in the central part of the Ambrozy’s park under Thuja plicata, where there was discerned also low quality Albic Stagnic Luvisol. The most area east of the manor house is covered with Stagnic Cutanic Luvisol (the North American and East Asian area with Stagnic Cutanic Luvisol (Anthric)). North of the manor, on a slight slope of the North American area was found a Cutanic Luvisol (Anthric). West of the manor, the terrain evenly declines, and there has been developed Luvic Chernozem, whose cultivated form, Luvic Chernozem (Anthric), was determined in the East Asian area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • base saturation
  • Central European hilly area
  • introduced trees
  • organic carbon
  • pH
  • texture
7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-equilibrium thermodynamics and development cycles of temperate natural forest ecosystems

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 61 - 71

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presented contribution in its first part summarizes several important theoretical findings of the system ecology supporting non-equilibrium paradigm of complex adaptive systems. We emphasise the concept of non-equilibrium thermodynamics of living systems and the Holling’s adaptive cycle of a social-ecological system. In natural forests, the phases of an adaptive cycle fit to a substantial extent also to stages and phases of a large and a small forest cycle, although there is a different terminology. Further, we have emphasised the natural role of disturbances and their explanation from the thermodynamic point of view – as an important component of an adaptive cycle, which supports conclusions that these natural phenomena not only participated in the evolution of the whole habitats, but from the long-term view, they may even increase the resilience and overall ecological stability of ecosystems. Finally, we have tried to apply the findings of the theories presented to derive or underlie several principles of the management of temperate deciduous and mixed natural forests, which we consider important.

Schlüsselwörter

  • adaptive cycle
  • natural forest
  • non-equilibrium thermodynamics
  • resilience
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The influence of forest-forming tree species on diversity and spatial distribution of algae in forest litter

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 72 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The forest litter plays a significant role in forest ecosystems. The composition of the litter biota comprises micro- and mesofauna, and a great diversity of microorganisms, including unrecognized algae (eukaryotic representatives and Cyanoprokaryota). The aim of this work was to study the diversity of algae in the different types of forest litters and to clarify the relationship between the algae composition and the forest-forming tree species. Our results show that the pine forest litter is the most appropriate habitat for the development of green and yellow-green algae and that this litter type limits the variety of blue-green ones. The admixture of deciduous leaf litter to pine litter caused an increase in the species richness of blue-green algae and diatoms. The algae were unevenly distributed across the sub-horizons of pine litter. The highest species richness of algae was identified in the enzymatic sub-horizon of litter. The peculiarity of the composition of leaf litter algae was a significant variety of green, yellow-green and blue-green algae. The spatial organization of algae communities in the leaf litter was characterized by equal distribution of algae species in the litter-subhorizons.

Schlüsselwörter

  • algae
  • ash content
  • biota of the litter
  • leaf litter
  • pH of the litter
  • pine litter
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Basic density and crown parameters of forest forming species within Steppe zone in Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 82 - 91

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The parameters of wood density (WD), bark density (BD) and tree crown characteristics are not only important for estimation of the aboveground biomass, but they also serve as indicators for the timber quality. This study had two objectives: Black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) – an introduced species; Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) – an aboriginal species. Black locust and Scots pine from the Steppe zone in Ukraine were compared in their WD and BD, and in the morphological parameters of their tree crowns. There were determined basic WD and BD for differently aged individuals of Black locust and Scots pine. Generally, a higher WD was found for Black locust trees. The average Black locust WD was 518 kg m−3, ranging from 375 kg m−3 to 612 kg m−3; with the average BD – 294 kg m−3, ranging from 214 kg m−3 to 421 kg m−3. The average Scots pine WD was 414 kg m−3, ranging from 254 to 491 kg m−3; with average BD – 317 kg m−3, ranging from 178 to 433 kg m−3. The dependences between WD, BD and biometric tree parameters were identified by correlation analysis. The crown diameter for Black locust and Scots pine was described with fixed prediction models. We proposed particular equations for relationships between foliage biomass and branch biomass, derived from the crown volume of the investigated species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Black locust
  • Scots pine
  • forestry
  • prediction models
  • tree biometric parameters
  • trunk wood and bark
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Traffic effects on leaf macro- and micro-morphological traits

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 92 - 101

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the traffic-related effects on morphological and anatomical traits of Fraxinus rotundifolia and Morus alba along the Malayer-Hamedan road. In the study area, populations of two species of F. rotundifolia (30 individual trees) and M. alba (30 individual trees) were selected for sampling. The results showed that the leaf and stomata dimensions at distances near to the roadside were significantly lower compared to longer distances from the road. For F. rotundifolia, the number of veins showed the lowest plasticity, while in case of M. alba, the stomata length (P = 0.52) and the number of veins (P = 0.54) showed the lowest plasticity related to the environmental conditions. Results of discriminant analysis for population grouping for the two species of F. rotundifolia and M. alba confirmed the accuracy of grouping 74.8% and 79.5%, respectively. In case of trees that were farther away from the road, guard and epidermal cells were located at the same level. We found that the leaf stomata in M. alba were closed more than in F. rotundifolia at the same distance. Totally, the results of this research show that the air pollution stress impacted the tree morphological traits. From the two species, F. rotundifolia was more resistant in terms of pollution stress.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leaf traits
  • pollution
  • roadside
  • stomata
  • traffic
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Carabid communities (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in differently managed forage legume stands in the Podpoľanie region (Central Slovakia)

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 102 - 110

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies on the communities of Carabids from the land registry area of the Očová village (Podpoľanie region, Central Slovakia). The research was carried out in two consecutive vegetation periods on two different agricultural plots with alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.): the first of them (locality Nadhájniková) was managed intensively, and the second one (locality Koteľnice) was characterized by a nature-friendly, low-input agro-environmental management form, without application of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. On the studied sites, the observed species composition of Carabidae was similar. Neverthe-less, the higher total number of individuals and the higher species richness were typical for the nature-friendly managed plot in Koteľnice. On both plots, the highest abundances were reached in Poecilus cupreus, Pterostichus melanarius and Pseudoophonus rufipes. On the intensively managed plot in Nadhájniková, however, the abundances of all these species were markedly lower. Our results suggest that the studied component of epigeic fauna finds better ecological conditions on the sites with the nature-friendly management form.

Schlüsselwörter

  • agricultural management
  • agriculture
  • edaphon
  • epigeic fauna
  • ground beetles
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The physiological and genetic differences between flycatchers (Ficedula albicollis vs. Ficedula hypoleuca)

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 111 - 119

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper studies interspecies physiological and genetic differences between the white-collared flycatcher and the pied flycatcher of the genus Ficedula. The fact that the flycatchers are capable of interspecies hybridization is one more reason for particular interest to these species. Using our own-developed method of taking venous blood from the eye’s sinus, we took blood samples from birds in the protected area of Homilshanski Forests, Kharkiv, Ukraine, to study their leukogram patterns. The bird feathers were also collected for genetic analysis -- to identify interspecies differences with application of the ISSR technique. It was revealed that the percentage of heterophiles in the nestlings of the pied flycatcher was lower than in the nestlings of the white-collared flycatcher. The micronucleus test did not reveal any significant difference in the interspecies groups. The spectra of amplification products obtained with the primer (AGC)6 G showed that the white-collared flycatchers had a more heterogeneous structure. The study of the leukogram, micronucleus test, and the ISSR analysis can be especially effective in the study of intra-species genetic differentiation.

Schlüsselwörter

  • flycatchers
  • ISSR inter-microsatellite analysis
  • leukogram
  • micronuclei
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Soils classified in the Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 26 Jan 2019
Seitenbereich: 120 - 128

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Successful adaptation of introduced trees requires providing appropriate conditions for their growth and life. In this context, our study aim was a soil survey in the Arboretum Mlyňany, on the basis of which the soils could be classified. Detailed soil investigations were done at seventeen sites under dense monocultures of trees and the grassland. For each site, there was dug one soil pit, near which there were made three soil bores. Over most area of the locality, the prevailing soil-forming substrates were decalcified loess and silt, with gravelly patches, with prevailing medium soil texture, and acid to slightly acid pH. Based on the morphological features and the results concerning the physical and chemical soil properties, seven quality-degrees of soil cover were classified. The lowest-quality was recognised in Fragic Stagnic Retisol, in the highest-situated, east part of Arboretum, and also in the central part of the Ambrozy’s park under Thuja plicata, where there was discerned also low quality Albic Stagnic Luvisol. The most area east of the manor house is covered with Stagnic Cutanic Luvisol (the North American and East Asian area with Stagnic Cutanic Luvisol (Anthric)). North of the manor, on a slight slope of the North American area was found a Cutanic Luvisol (Anthric). West of the manor, the terrain evenly declines, and there has been developed Luvic Chernozem, whose cultivated form, Luvic Chernozem (Anthric), was determined in the East Asian area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • base saturation
  • Central European hilly area
  • introduced trees
  • organic carbon
  • pH
  • texture

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo