Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 2 (July 2022)

Volumen 49 (2022): Heft 1 (January 2022)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 2 (July 2021)

Volumen 48 (2021): Heft 1 (May 2021)

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 2 (November 2020)
Special Heft: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volumen 47 (2020): Heft 1 (May 2020)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 1 (May 2019)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 2 (December 2018)

Volumen 45 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 44 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 46 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1338-7014
Erstveröffentlichung
16 Apr 2017
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

11 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spatial and temporal analysis of leopards (Panthera pardus), their prey and tigers (Panthera tigris) in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 73 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Despite their extensive distribution globally, recent reports indicate leopards are declining, especially in Southeast Asia. To support conservation efforts we analyzed the behavioral interactions between leopards (Panthera pardus), their prey, and tigers to determine if leopards fine-tune their activity to maximize contact with four prey species (sambar; wild boar; barking deer; banteng) and avoid tigers and if prey alter their temporal activity in response to variation in their relative abundance ratio with leopards. A lower density of sambar in the northern part of our study area and a lower density of wild boar and a higher density of tigers in the southern part allowed us to examine fine-grained differences in the behavior of leopards and their prey. We used camera trap data to investigate spatial and temporal overlap. Differences in tiger relative abundance did not appear to impact the temporal activity of leopards. Leopards had similar cathemeral activity at all sites with highest activity at dawn and dusk. This behavior appears to be a compromise to provide access to diurnal wild boar and barking deer and nocturnal sambar and banteng. Sambar showed higher temporal avoidance of leopards in the north where its RAI was lowest; in contrast, wild boar had the highest temporal avoidance in the south where its density was lowest. This is the first study in Southeast Asia to quantify spatial and temporal interactions between the leopard, its primary ungulate prey, and the tiger. It provides new insights for conserving this declining subspecies.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leopard
  • prey
  • tiger
  • spatial activity
  • temporal activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of a host tree on movement and distribution of winter geometrid moths (Lepidoptera): thickness of trunks and branches

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 83 - 90

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Adult moths from an ecological group of winter geometrid species look for trees where they copulate and females lay eggs. We investigated how tree trunk and lower branch thickness affects the occurrence of females on trunks and branches and how the density of females and tree trunk thickness affects the occurrence of males on trunks. The research was carried out in a xeric thermophilous oak forest in southern Slovakia (Central Europe) in the winter season 2014–2015. The moths were obtained from Quercus pubescens trees by sticky bands. Three autumn species Operophtera brumata, Erannis defoliaria, Alsophila aceraria and four spring species Agriopis leucophaearia, Agriopis marginaria, Apocheima hispidaria, Phigalia pilosaria were recorded. We have found out that females had not exclusively negative geotactic behaviour as they (except for the rare P. pilosaria) occurred also on lower branches. Tree trunk and lower branch thickness had a positive effect on abundance of females of the three most abundant species (A. leucophaearia, O. brumata, E. defoliaria) on trunks and lower branches. Tree trunk thickness had a positive effect on density of the females of A. leucophaearia on trunks but not on O. brumata and E. defoliaria. The abundance of the males of O. brumata, E. defoliaria and A. leucophaearia on trunks was positively affected by tree trunk thickness and the density of their females.

Schlüsselwörter

  • behaviour
  • forest pests
  • phytophagous insects
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Some ecological aspects of dhole (Cuon alpinus) in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Uthai Thani Province, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 91 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is one of the least frequent studied endangered canid species and many aspects of ecological knowledge about this species are lacking. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial movement of dholes, prey abundance, prey selection, and prey overlaps with other large carnivorous species in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, during November, 2017 and October, 2018. Two adult female dholes were captured and fitted with GPS collars. Twenty camera trap sets were systematically used to survey the area. Scat collection was conducted along forest roads and trails. The home range sizes and activity radii of the two dholes were 3,151.63 ha. and 1,442.84 m, and 33.39 ha and 331.56 m, respectively. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) was the most abundant prey species (30.93%). However, dhole fecal analysis showed that the monitored dholes preferred red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) (57.1%). There was a high degree of prey overlap between dholes and leopards (98%), indicating very high prey competition. The dholes in this study represent movement patterns in richly abundant prey habitats, but with the presence of other predators that can affect prey selection and movement patterns of the dhole in the area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • GPS-collar
  • large carnivores
  • prey species
  • scat analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tree canopy affects soil macrofauna spatial patterns on broad- and meso-scale levels in an Eastern European poplar-willow forest in the floodplain of the River Dnipro

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 101 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper tested the hypothesis that the placement of trees in the floodplain ecosystem leads to multiscale spatial structuring and plays an important role in formation of the spatial patterns of the soil macrofauna. The research polygon was laid in an Eastern European poplar-willow forest in the floodplain of the River Dnipro. The litter macrofauna was manually collected from the soil samples. The distances of the sampling locations from the nearest individual of each tree species were applied to obtain a measure of the overstorey spatial structure. The pure effect of tree structured space on the soil animal community was presented by the broad-scale and meso-scale components. The soil animal community demonstrated patterns varying in tree structured space. The tree induced spatial heterogeneity was revealed to effect on the vertical stratification of the soil animal community. The complex nature of the soil animal community variability depending on the distance from trees was depended on the interaction of tree species in their effects on soil animals. The importance of the spatial structures that interact with soil, plants and tree factors in shaping soil macrofauna communities was shown.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ecological groups
  • environmental factors
  • neutral diversity
  • soil macrofauna
  • spatial variation
  • tree canopy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of dormancy-breaking methods on germination of the water-impermeable seeds of Gleditsia caspica (Fabaceae) and seedling growth

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 115 - 126

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Various treatments can be used to break physical dormancy (PY, i.e. water-impermeable seed coat) of legume species, but the effects of these treatments on seedling growth are of great importance in the success of afforestation projects. Our aims were to determine the effects of 20 PY-breaking treatments on (1) germination of Gleditsia caspica (Caspian locust) seeds and (2) seedling growth. Five germination and nine seedling growth and morphological traits were studied. Immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (98%) for 60 minutes was optimal for all germination traits and for all seedling traits except root length. After seed coat removal or treatment with sulfuric acid (for 45 to 120 minutes), 99–100% of the seeds germinated, but seedling growth traits after 5 months were significantly lower in the former than in the latter treatment. Other treatments (e.g., different periods of exposure to cold water, boiling water, and KNO3) did not significantly increase germination or improve seedling growth. Thus, despite incurring adverse environmental impacts, sulfuric acid treatments have the best potential to break seed dormancy and produce high-quality seedlings (in terms of shoot length, root and shoot mass, root area, leaf number and area and collar diameter) of Caspian locust.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fresh biomass
  • root area
  • seed dormancy breaking
  • seedling growth
  • sulfuric acid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of regional climatic conditions on tree growth on mainland Greece

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 127 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Forest growth is commonly used to explore tree vitality and ability to resist to environmental changes or climatic fluctuations. This paper illustrates and examines how regional climatic conditions can be related to the decline of tree growth, which were found to be more distinct in Quercus frainetto Ten. (Hungarian oak) and Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech) and less pronounced in Abies borissi-regis Matt f. (Bulgarian fir) on three long-term intensive monitoring plots (ICP Forests-Level II) in Greece during the period 1996–2009. Relative basal area increment and volume increment were calculated, expressing tree growth in terms of mean relative annual periodic increment. A decline in the growth of basal area and volume was observed after hot and dry periods, where annual temperatures and precipitation were far from the mean of the analyzed period. This observation was statistically confirmed in oak and beech plots regarding summer precipitation only and are in agreement with the findings of previous studies in Europe. The representativeness of the results at a national scale needs further investigation, although our results provide a good basis for further and more intensive monitoring programs to address various forest management scenarios against the background of potential climatic changes in the Mediterranean area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bulgarian fir
  • climate-growth relationship
  • European beech
  • Hungarian oak
  • ICP-Forests
  • Mediterranean forests
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differentiation of flea communities of small mammals in selected habitats in the Eastern Tatra Mts

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 137 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Research into small mammals and their ectoparasites was carried out in the Belianske Tatras during 2010–14, evaluating flea communities found on small mammals on the basis of species richness, abundance and level of infestation. Flea infestation of host species occurred mostly in C. glareolus with the highest infestation rates recorded in S. alpinus, the earlier mentioned C. glareolus, N. anomalus and N. fodiens. Based on their prevalence in all the examined hosts, the most frequent flea communities found were M. turbidus, C. agyrtes, A. penicilliger and P. soricis. In addition, flea prevalence in all the captured host species was evaluated. The most frequent flea communities were M. turbidus, P. soricis and D. dasycnema (8 host species); C. agyrtes and H. orientalis (7); A. penicilliger and P. bidentata (4); C. uncinatus, P. sylvatica and R. integela (3); and M. rectangulatus, N. fasciatus and C. bisoctodentatus (2), while A. nuperus and A. arvicolae were recorded in only one host species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eulipotyphla
  • Rodentia
  • Siphonaptera
  • Tatra Mountains
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Functional diversity of soil microorganisms in the conditions of an ecological farming system

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 146 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the current study, we investigate the relationships among the soil functional diversity, physicochemical properties and heavy metals presence in an ecological farming system. The soil samples were collected from permanent research sites, from A soil horizons, at a depth from 0.05 m to 0.15 m, in June 2018. In fresh soil samples, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of their microbial communities, using Biolog® Eco Plates. The research showed that the soil physical properties got adjusted after a long-term application of an ecological farming system and that the measured values were stabilised, reaching the levels comparable with the average values for the relevant soil type. It is necessary to devote a continual attention to soil reaction, because soil is naturally acidified through acid atmospheric fallout as well as through calcium uptake-off by plants. The values of the selected heavy metals in the monitored period did not exceed the limit values specified in the Act No. 220/2004 Coll. Based on the results of Shannon’s diversity, we can conclude that the diversity in the investigated sites was low, from moderate to medium. The differences (3.26–3.36) among all 11 study localities were very small and not significant. There were determined the correlations between the soil functional diversity, soil physicochemical properties, and heavy metal contents. The average well colour development (AWCD) positively correlated with soil reaction and with Mg content and significantly negatively correlated with contents of Hg, Zn and Cu; equitability significantly positively correlated with soil reaction, Mg, AWCD and Shannon’s diversity. Spearman’s correlation coefficients confirmed the positive correlation between Shannon’s diversity and soil reaction, AWCD and Mg. In our study, no correlation was found between the functional diversity of microorganisms and the soil physical properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AWCD
  • Biolog® system
  • bulk density
  • heavy metals
  • porosity
  • soil reaction
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Diversity, dynamics and ecological analysis of flora of reclaimed soil

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 153 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The flora of vegetation cover of sod-lithogenic soil on loess loams was studied at a reclaimed site in the Nikopol manganese-ore basin. The control site is located on the black soil of the steppe area. The species composition of plants was studied in both sites annually for three years. Ecological analysis of the flora was carried out according to Raunkiaer’s system of life-forms and Belgard’s system of ecomorphs. It has been established that the floristic composition on the reclaimed site is significantly poorer than that of the steppe site. The reclaimed site was found to be have fewer species and a smaller number of families. The comparative inconstancy and dynamism of floristic composition on reclaimed soil is shown. The reclaimed ecosystem is distinguished by a significant share of the participation of annual and biennial plant forms. This indicates the anthropogenic transformation of the vegetation cover of the reclaimed soil. Also, a distinctive feature of the reclaimed soil flora is the smaller number of ecological groups of species. Such groups are united according to the ecological optimum to one of the environmental parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Nikopol manganese-ore basin
  • phytoindication
  • reclamation
  • Ukraine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of aluminum on the growth of the in vitro culture tissues of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Um-Aldehin

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 164 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of aluminum: (25, 50 and 100 mg l−1 of aluminum chloride AlCl3. 6H2O) on the enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activity of in vitro cultures of the date palm cv. Um-Aldehin. The addition of aluminum in a concentration of 50 mg l−1 to the medium exhibited most effects on shoots regeneration and this substance also increased the number of shoots per a jar (73.34% and 8.2 shoots/jar, respectively), compared to the other concentrations, including the control treatment. A biochemical analysis of date palm shoots revealed that the high concentration of aluminum chloride (100 mg l−1) led to a significant accumulation of the total proline content, and to a high activity of ascorbate peroxidase, as well as a significant reduction in nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and chlorophyll, compared to the concentration of 50 mg l−1 for which there were recorded the highest contents of the mentioned elements, together with the highest content of chlorophyll in leaves.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AlCl
  • ascorbate peroxidase
  • chlorophyll
  • proline
  • shoot regeneration
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Threats to endangered musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 170 - 173

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is classified as an “Endangered” species by the IUCN Red list category. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. Out of 111 respondents, 77% reported that the primary objective for poacher kills to the musk deer was musk pod, followed by skin (15%) and meat (8%). The major part of the killing tools represented traps; however, 23% respondents stated that poachers also use snares, 20% respondents reported guns, and 18% persons interviewed had no idea regarding the tool the poachers use to kill the musk deer. There was a significant difference between the male and female respondents regarding their opinion on musk deer conservation; male respondents exhibited more positive attitudes towards musk deer conservation than female respondents (Chi-squared 8.21; P < 0.05). People based conservation awareness programs and alternative income generating sources must be employed for long term musk deer conservation in the Nepal Himalayas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conservation
  • Himalayas
  • mammals
  • poachers
  • Red list
11 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Spatial and temporal analysis of leopards (Panthera pardus), their prey and tigers (Panthera tigris) in Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 73 - 82

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Despite their extensive distribution globally, recent reports indicate leopards are declining, especially in Southeast Asia. To support conservation efforts we analyzed the behavioral interactions between leopards (Panthera pardus), their prey, and tigers to determine if leopards fine-tune their activity to maximize contact with four prey species (sambar; wild boar; barking deer; banteng) and avoid tigers and if prey alter their temporal activity in response to variation in their relative abundance ratio with leopards. A lower density of sambar in the northern part of our study area and a lower density of wild boar and a higher density of tigers in the southern part allowed us to examine fine-grained differences in the behavior of leopards and their prey. We used camera trap data to investigate spatial and temporal overlap. Differences in tiger relative abundance did not appear to impact the temporal activity of leopards. Leopards had similar cathemeral activity at all sites with highest activity at dawn and dusk. This behavior appears to be a compromise to provide access to diurnal wild boar and barking deer and nocturnal sambar and banteng. Sambar showed higher temporal avoidance of leopards in the north where its RAI was lowest; in contrast, wild boar had the highest temporal avoidance in the south where its density was lowest. This is the first study in Southeast Asia to quantify spatial and temporal interactions between the leopard, its primary ungulate prey, and the tiger. It provides new insights for conserving this declining subspecies.

Schlüsselwörter

  • leopard
  • prey
  • tiger
  • spatial activity
  • temporal activity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of a host tree on movement and distribution of winter geometrid moths (Lepidoptera): thickness of trunks and branches

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 83 - 90

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Adult moths from an ecological group of winter geometrid species look for trees where they copulate and females lay eggs. We investigated how tree trunk and lower branch thickness affects the occurrence of females on trunks and branches and how the density of females and tree trunk thickness affects the occurrence of males on trunks. The research was carried out in a xeric thermophilous oak forest in southern Slovakia (Central Europe) in the winter season 2014–2015. The moths were obtained from Quercus pubescens trees by sticky bands. Three autumn species Operophtera brumata, Erannis defoliaria, Alsophila aceraria and four spring species Agriopis leucophaearia, Agriopis marginaria, Apocheima hispidaria, Phigalia pilosaria were recorded. We have found out that females had not exclusively negative geotactic behaviour as they (except for the rare P. pilosaria) occurred also on lower branches. Tree trunk and lower branch thickness had a positive effect on abundance of females of the three most abundant species (A. leucophaearia, O. brumata, E. defoliaria) on trunks and lower branches. Tree trunk thickness had a positive effect on density of the females of A. leucophaearia on trunks but not on O. brumata and E. defoliaria. The abundance of the males of O. brumata, E. defoliaria and A. leucophaearia on trunks was positively affected by tree trunk thickness and the density of their females.

Schlüsselwörter

  • behaviour
  • forest pests
  • phytophagous insects
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Some ecological aspects of dhole (Cuon alpinus) in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Uthai Thani Province, Thailand

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 91 - 100

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The dhole (Cuon alpinus) is one of the least frequent studied endangered canid species and many aspects of ecological knowledge about this species are lacking. The objectives of this study were to investigate the spatial movement of dholes, prey abundance, prey selection, and prey overlaps with other large carnivorous species in the Huai Kha Khaeng Wildlife Sanctuary, Thailand, during November, 2017 and October, 2018. Two adult female dholes were captured and fitted with GPS collars. Twenty camera trap sets were systematically used to survey the area. Scat collection was conducted along forest roads and trails. The home range sizes and activity radii of the two dholes were 3,151.63 ha. and 1,442.84 m, and 33.39 ha and 331.56 m, respectively. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) was the most abundant prey species (30.93%). However, dhole fecal analysis showed that the monitored dholes preferred red muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak) (57.1%). There was a high degree of prey overlap between dholes and leopards (98%), indicating very high prey competition. The dholes in this study represent movement patterns in richly abundant prey habitats, but with the presence of other predators that can affect prey selection and movement patterns of the dhole in the area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • GPS-collar
  • large carnivores
  • prey species
  • scat analysis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tree canopy affects soil macrofauna spatial patterns on broad- and meso-scale levels in an Eastern European poplar-willow forest in the floodplain of the River Dnipro

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 101 - 114

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper tested the hypothesis that the placement of trees in the floodplain ecosystem leads to multiscale spatial structuring and plays an important role in formation of the spatial patterns of the soil macrofauna. The research polygon was laid in an Eastern European poplar-willow forest in the floodplain of the River Dnipro. The litter macrofauna was manually collected from the soil samples. The distances of the sampling locations from the nearest individual of each tree species were applied to obtain a measure of the overstorey spatial structure. The pure effect of tree structured space on the soil animal community was presented by the broad-scale and meso-scale components. The soil animal community demonstrated patterns varying in tree structured space. The tree induced spatial heterogeneity was revealed to effect on the vertical stratification of the soil animal community. The complex nature of the soil animal community variability depending on the distance from trees was depended on the interaction of tree species in their effects on soil animals. The importance of the spatial structures that interact with soil, plants and tree factors in shaping soil macrofauna communities was shown.

Schlüsselwörter

  • ecological groups
  • environmental factors
  • neutral diversity
  • soil macrofauna
  • spatial variation
  • tree canopy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of dormancy-breaking methods on germination of the water-impermeable seeds of Gleditsia caspica (Fabaceae) and seedling growth

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 115 - 126

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Various treatments can be used to break physical dormancy (PY, i.e. water-impermeable seed coat) of legume species, but the effects of these treatments on seedling growth are of great importance in the success of afforestation projects. Our aims were to determine the effects of 20 PY-breaking treatments on (1) germination of Gleditsia caspica (Caspian locust) seeds and (2) seedling growth. Five germination and nine seedling growth and morphological traits were studied. Immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid (98%) for 60 minutes was optimal for all germination traits and for all seedling traits except root length. After seed coat removal or treatment with sulfuric acid (for 45 to 120 minutes), 99–100% of the seeds germinated, but seedling growth traits after 5 months were significantly lower in the former than in the latter treatment. Other treatments (e.g., different periods of exposure to cold water, boiling water, and KNO3) did not significantly increase germination or improve seedling growth. Thus, despite incurring adverse environmental impacts, sulfuric acid treatments have the best potential to break seed dormancy and produce high-quality seedlings (in terms of shoot length, root and shoot mass, root area, leaf number and area and collar diameter) of Caspian locust.

Schlüsselwörter

  • fresh biomass
  • root area
  • seed dormancy breaking
  • seedling growth
  • sulfuric acid
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Impact of regional climatic conditions on tree growth on mainland Greece

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 127 - 136

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Forest growth is commonly used to explore tree vitality and ability to resist to environmental changes or climatic fluctuations. This paper illustrates and examines how regional climatic conditions can be related to the decline of tree growth, which were found to be more distinct in Quercus frainetto Ten. (Hungarian oak) and Fagus sylvatica L. (European beech) and less pronounced in Abies borissi-regis Matt f. (Bulgarian fir) on three long-term intensive monitoring plots (ICP Forests-Level II) in Greece during the period 1996–2009. Relative basal area increment and volume increment were calculated, expressing tree growth in terms of mean relative annual periodic increment. A decline in the growth of basal area and volume was observed after hot and dry periods, where annual temperatures and precipitation were far from the mean of the analyzed period. This observation was statistically confirmed in oak and beech plots regarding summer precipitation only and are in agreement with the findings of previous studies in Europe. The representativeness of the results at a national scale needs further investigation, although our results provide a good basis for further and more intensive monitoring programs to address various forest management scenarios against the background of potential climatic changes in the Mediterranean area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Bulgarian fir
  • climate-growth relationship
  • European beech
  • Hungarian oak
  • ICP-Forests
  • Mediterranean forests
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Differentiation of flea communities of small mammals in selected habitats in the Eastern Tatra Mts

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 137 - 145

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Research into small mammals and their ectoparasites was carried out in the Belianske Tatras during 2010–14, evaluating flea communities found on small mammals on the basis of species richness, abundance and level of infestation. Flea infestation of host species occurred mostly in C. glareolus with the highest infestation rates recorded in S. alpinus, the earlier mentioned C. glareolus, N. anomalus and N. fodiens. Based on their prevalence in all the examined hosts, the most frequent flea communities found were M. turbidus, C. agyrtes, A. penicilliger and P. soricis. In addition, flea prevalence in all the captured host species was evaluated. The most frequent flea communities were M. turbidus, P. soricis and D. dasycnema (8 host species); C. agyrtes and H. orientalis (7); A. penicilliger and P. bidentata (4); C. uncinatus, P. sylvatica and R. integela (3); and M. rectangulatus, N. fasciatus and C. bisoctodentatus (2), while A. nuperus and A. arvicolae were recorded in only one host species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eulipotyphla
  • Rodentia
  • Siphonaptera
  • Tatra Mountains
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Functional diversity of soil microorganisms in the conditions of an ecological farming system

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 146 - 152

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the current study, we investigate the relationships among the soil functional diversity, physicochemical properties and heavy metals presence in an ecological farming system. The soil samples were collected from permanent research sites, from A soil horizons, at a depth from 0.05 m to 0.15 m, in June 2018. In fresh soil samples, we evaluated the metabolic profiles of their microbial communities, using Biolog® Eco Plates. The research showed that the soil physical properties got adjusted after a long-term application of an ecological farming system and that the measured values were stabilised, reaching the levels comparable with the average values for the relevant soil type. It is necessary to devote a continual attention to soil reaction, because soil is naturally acidified through acid atmospheric fallout as well as through calcium uptake-off by plants. The values of the selected heavy metals in the monitored period did not exceed the limit values specified in the Act No. 220/2004 Coll. Based on the results of Shannon’s diversity, we can conclude that the diversity in the investigated sites was low, from moderate to medium. The differences (3.26–3.36) among all 11 study localities were very small and not significant. There were determined the correlations between the soil functional diversity, soil physicochemical properties, and heavy metal contents. The average well colour development (AWCD) positively correlated with soil reaction and with Mg content and significantly negatively correlated with contents of Hg, Zn and Cu; equitability significantly positively correlated with soil reaction, Mg, AWCD and Shannon’s diversity. Spearman’s correlation coefficients confirmed the positive correlation between Shannon’s diversity and soil reaction, AWCD and Mg. In our study, no correlation was found between the functional diversity of microorganisms and the soil physical properties.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AWCD
  • Biolog® system
  • bulk density
  • heavy metals
  • porosity
  • soil reaction
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Diversity, dynamics and ecological analysis of flora of reclaimed soil

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 153 - 163

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The flora of vegetation cover of sod-lithogenic soil on loess loams was studied at a reclaimed site in the Nikopol manganese-ore basin. The control site is located on the black soil of the steppe area. The species composition of plants was studied in both sites annually for three years. Ecological analysis of the flora was carried out according to Raunkiaer’s system of life-forms and Belgard’s system of ecomorphs. It has been established that the floristic composition on the reclaimed site is significantly poorer than that of the steppe site. The reclaimed site was found to be have fewer species and a smaller number of families. The comparative inconstancy and dynamism of floristic composition on reclaimed soil is shown. The reclaimed ecosystem is distinguished by a significant share of the participation of annual and biennial plant forms. This indicates the anthropogenic transformation of the vegetation cover of the reclaimed soil. Also, a distinctive feature of the reclaimed soil flora is the smaller number of ecological groups of species. Such groups are united according to the ecological optimum to one of the environmental parameters.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Nikopol manganese-ore basin
  • phytoindication
  • reclamation
  • Ukraine
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effect of aluminum on the growth of the in vitro culture tissues of the date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) cv. Um-Aldehin

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 164 - 169

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of aluminum: (25, 50 and 100 mg l−1 of aluminum chloride AlCl3. 6H2O) on the enhancement of shoot multiplication, phytochemicals, as well as, antioxidant enzyme activity of in vitro cultures of the date palm cv. Um-Aldehin. The addition of aluminum in a concentration of 50 mg l−1 to the medium exhibited most effects on shoots regeneration and this substance also increased the number of shoots per a jar (73.34% and 8.2 shoots/jar, respectively), compared to the other concentrations, including the control treatment. A biochemical analysis of date palm shoots revealed that the high concentration of aluminum chloride (100 mg l−1) led to a significant accumulation of the total proline content, and to a high activity of ascorbate peroxidase, as well as a significant reduction in nitrogen, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and chlorophyll, compared to the concentration of 50 mg l−1 for which there were recorded the highest contents of the mentioned elements, together with the highest content of chlorophyll in leaves.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AlCl
  • ascorbate peroxidase
  • chlorophyll
  • proline
  • shoot regeneration
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Threats to endangered musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal

Online veröffentlicht: 21 Dec 2019
Seitenbereich: 170 - 173

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Alpine musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is classified as an “Endangered” species by the IUCN Red list category. We studied anthropogenic pressure on the musk deer population in the Khaptad National Park, Nepal. The questionnaire survey was applied from October to November 2018. Out of 111 respondents, 77% reported that the primary objective for poacher kills to the musk deer was musk pod, followed by skin (15%) and meat (8%). The major part of the killing tools represented traps; however, 23% respondents stated that poachers also use snares, 20% respondents reported guns, and 18% persons interviewed had no idea regarding the tool the poachers use to kill the musk deer. There was a significant difference between the male and female respondents regarding their opinion on musk deer conservation; male respondents exhibited more positive attitudes towards musk deer conservation than female respondents (Chi-squared 8.21; P < 0.05). People based conservation awareness programs and alternative income generating sources must be employed for long term musk deer conservation in the Nepal Himalayas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • conservation
  • Himalayas
  • mammals
  • poachers
  • Red list

Planen Sie Ihre Fernkonferenz mit Scienceendo