1. bookVolume 28 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2450-5781
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Research and Development in the Service Sector – Vague Definition and Problematic Application

Published Online: 17 Mar 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 28 (2020) - Issue 1 (March 2020)
Page range: 53 - 59
Received: 01 Sep 2019
Accepted: 01 Nov 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2450-5781
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

It is a well-known fact that research and development (R&D) activities are an important factor in maintaining a business on the market. Nowadays, not only is conducting R&D crucial for entities from new technology sector, but also for companies from each sector, including service entities. The aim of the study was to investigate R&D activities among the biggest publicly traded entities in Poland and to examine the way economists and engineers understand the notion of R&D. We hypothesize and find that R&D expenditure is underestimated or unrecognized in financial reports disclosed by service sector enterprises. Further, we surveyed professional economists and engineers to investigate their knowledge about R&D notion and ability to distinguish operational (day-to-day) actions from R&D activities. The study results indicated difference between the opinions expressed by economists and engineers. Our findings are important for regulators and practitioners as they pinpoint that a substantial change in the definition of R&D is required in order to facilitate a wider adoption of R&D by companies rendering services.

Keywords

[1] A. Adamczyk. „Poziom wewnętrznych źródeł finansowania jako determinanta inwestycji w działalność B+R przedsiębiorstw.” Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 323, 13-22, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[2] D.B. Audretsch., A. Segarra, M. Teruel. “Why don’t all young firms invest in R&D?” Small Business Economy, 43, 751-766, 2014.10.1007/s11187-014-9561-9Search in Google Scholar

[3] W. Biały, J. Žarnovský. „Acquiring EU funds for the development of research potential of enterprises as a method for developing smart specialisations”. Acta Technologica Agriculturae, 20(2), 46-51, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1515/ata-2017-000910.1515/ata-2017-0009Search in Google Scholar

[4] B.A. Billings, Y. Fried. “The effects of taxes and organizational variables on research and development intensity”. R&D Management, 29(3), 289-301, 1999.10.1111/1467-9310.00137Search in Google Scholar

[5] K. Brożek, J. Kogut. „Ekonometryczna analiza zarządzania działalnością B+R w polskich przedsiębiorstwach”. Edukacja Ekonomistów i Menadżerów. Problemy, Innowacje, Projekty, 2(44), 145-160, 2017.10.5604/01.3001.0010.3174Search in Google Scholar

[6] P. Chojnacki, T. Kijek. „Wydatki na prace badawczo-rozwojowe a wartość rynkowa firm biotechnologicznych”. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 439, 59-67, 2016.10.15611/pn.2016.439.05Search in Google Scholar

[7] D. Chybowska, L. Chybowski. “R&D in Poland: is the country close to a knowledge economy?” Management Systems in Production Engineering, 26(2), 99-105, 2018.10.1515/mspe-2018-0016Search in Google Scholar

[8] V. Doyar. “R&D expenditures by field of science and GDP: which causes which in Canada?” Economics and Business Letters, 8(1), 31-40, 2019.10.17811/ebl.8.1.2019.31-40Search in Google Scholar

[9] M. Falk. “What drives business research and development (R&D) intensity across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries?” Applied Economics, 38, 533-547, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1080/0003684050039118710.1080/00036840500391187Search in Google Scholar

[10] R.K. Goel. “The substitutability of capital, labor and R&D investment in US manufacturing”. Bulletin of Economic Research, 42(3), 211-223, 1990.10.1111/j.1467-8586.1990.tb00671.xSearch in Google Scholar

[11] P. Hąbek. “Implementacja społecznej odpowiedzialności jako innowacji – wybrane przykłady”. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 100, 146-161, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[12] International Accounting Standards Board, “International Accounting Standard No 38 Intangible Assets”, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[13] P. Kaczmarczyk. „Ekonometryczna analiza rozwoju działalności badawczo-rozwojowej polskiego sektora ICT w latach 2007-2014”. Zeszyty Naukowe Państwowej Wyższej Szkoły Zawodowej w Płocku, XXIII, 55-70, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[14] A. Kargol-Wasiluk, A. Wyszkowski. „Preferencje podatkowe wspierające działalność B+R w ramach podatków dochodowych w Polsce i w Wielskiej Brytanii”. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 451, 145-161, 2016.10.15611/pn.2016.451.12Search in Google Scholar

[15] K.J. Klassen, J.A. Pittman, M.P. Reed. “A cross-national comparison of R&D expenditure decisions: tax incentives and financial constraints”. Contemporary Accounting Research, 21(3), 639-680, 2004.10.1506/CF2E-HUVC-GAFY-5H56Search in Google Scholar

[16] D. Mangala, M. Dhanda. “Earnings management: conceptual framework and research developments”. The IUP Journal of \Accounting Research & Audit Practices, XVII(4), 7-20, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[17] J.W. Medcof, T. Lee. “The effects of the chief technology officer and firm and industry R&D intensity on organizational performance”. R&D Management, 47(5), 767-781, 2017. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/radm.1227510.1111/radm.12275Search in Google Scholar

[18] A. Odrobina. „Kierunki i tendencje procesu koncentracji działalności badawczo-rozwojowej korporacji transnarodowych”. International Business and Global Economy, 35(2), 379-391, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[19] A. Odrobina. „Korporacje transnarodowe a globalna dzia-łalność badawczo-rozwojowa”. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 267, 144-154, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

[20] A. Odrobina, P. Folfas. „Intensywność nakładów na badania i rozwój w regionach Unii Europejskiej w ujęciu przestrzennym”. International Business and Global Economy, 37, 142-156, 2018.10.4467/23539496IB.18.010.9383Search in Google Scholar

[21] OECD’s Frascati Manual. https://www.oecd.org, 2015. [September 01, 2019]Search in Google Scholar

[22] B.G. Osma. “Board independence and real earnings management: the case of R&D expenditure”. Corporate Governance, 16(2), 116-131, 2008.10.1111/j.1467-8683.2008.00672.xSearch in Google Scholar

[23] R. Petrella. “Internationalization, multinationalization and globalization of R&D: toward new division of labor in science and technology?” Knowledge and Policy: The International Journal of Knowledge Transfer and Utilization, 5(3), 3-25, 1992.10.1007/BF02692808Search in Google Scholar

[24] M. Piekut, J. Pacian. „Przestrzenne zróżnicowanie nakładów na działalność badawczo-rozwojową na przełomie wieków”. Economics and Management, 4, 205-224, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Y. Wu. “The effect of state R&D tax credits in stimulating private R&D expenditure: a cross-state empirical analysis”. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 24(4), 785-802, 2005.10.1002/pam.20138Search in Google Scholar

[26] A. Zygmunt. „Poziom nakładów na B+R w Polsce na tle pozostałych państw Unii Europejskiej”. Prace Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego we Wrocławiu, 393, 163-171, 2015.10.15611/pn.2015.393.16Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo