1. bookVolume 12 (2021): Issue 1 (May 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2336-3037
First Published
16 Apr 2017
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Examination of the Development of New Bus Registrations with Alternative Powertrains in Europe

Published Online: 26 Oct 2021
Page range: 147 - 158
Received: 18 Jan 2021
Accepted: 10 Jun 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2336-3037
First Published
16 Apr 2017
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The setting of minimum targets for EU member states to procure green vehicles within two reference periods ending in 2025 and 2030, should help to promote mobility with low, respectively zero emissions. The research results reveal that the V4 countries (Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary) will find it very difficult to meet the set minimum targets for the share of ecological buses in the total number of buses included in the sum of all contracts subject to EU Directive 2019/1161 concluded from 2 August 2021. The share of buses with alternative powertrains in the V4 countries in 2019 was only 12.79% (with the minimum target being much higher). The Nordic countries are best placed to meet the minimum targets for the share of green buses (in 2019, the share of such buses was almost 19%). The crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has and continues to affect bus demand across Europe, may have a significant impact on meeting the minimum targets, especially by the end of the first reference period.

Keywords

[1] European Commission. (2011, March). White paper - Roadmap to a Single European Transport Area - Towards a Competitive and Resource Efficient Transport System. Retrieved March 27, 2020, from https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/SK/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:52011DC0144&from=SK Search in Google Scholar

[2] European Parliament. (2019, June). Directive (EU) 2019/1161 of the European parliament and of the council of 20 June 2019 amending Directive 2009/33/EC on the promotion of clean and energy-efficient road transport vehicles. Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://eurlex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32019L1161&qid=1610109503291&from=SK Search in Google Scholar

[3] Ľupták, V., Hlatká, M. & Kampf, R. (2018). Energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions on relation Brno-Jihlava. Paper presented at the MATEC Web of Conferences, 235. DOI:10.1051/matecconf/201823500011.10.1051/matecconf/201823500011 Search in Google Scholar

[4] Rybicka, I., Stopka, O., Ľupták, V., Chovancová, M. & Droždziel, P. (2018). Application of the methodology related to the emission standard to specific railway line in comparison with parallel road transport: A case study. Paper presented at the MATEC Web of Conferences, 244. DOI:10.1051/matecconf/201824403002.10.1051/matecconf/201824403002 Search in Google Scholar

[5] Chang, Ch., Liao, Y. & Chang, Y. (2019). Life cycle assessment of alternative energy types e including hydrogen e for public city buses in Taiwan. ScienceDirect. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 44, 18472-18482. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.073.10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.073 Search in Google Scholar

[6] Correa, G., Munoz, P.M. & Rodriguez, C.R. (2019). A comparative energy and environmental analysis of a diesel, hybrid, hydrogen and electric urban bus. Energy 187, 115906. DOI: 10.1016/j.energy.2019.115906.10.1016/j.energy.2019.115906 Search in Google Scholar

[7] Ľupták, V., Stopková, M. & Jeřábek, K. (2019). Comparative analysis in terms of environmental impact assessment between railway and road passenger transport operation: A case study. Paper presented at the Transport Means - Proceedings of the International Conference, October 2019 (pp. 1330-1334). Search in Google Scholar

[8] Mutter, A. (2019). Obduracy and Change in Urban Transport - Understanding Competition Between Sustainable Fuels in Swedish Municipalities. Sustainability 11(21):6092. DOI: 10.3390/su11216092.10.3390/su11216092 Search in Google Scholar

[9] Rupp, M., Handschuh, N., Rieke, CH. & Kuperjans, I. (2019). Contribution of country-specific electricity mix and charging time to environmental impact of battery electric vehicles: A case study of electric buses in Germany. Applied Energy 237, 618-634. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.059.10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.01.059 Search in Google Scholar

[10] Islam, A. & Lownes, N. (2019). When to go electric? A parallel bus fleet replacement study. Transportation Research Part D 72, 299-311. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2019.05.007.10.1016/j.trd.2019.05.007 Search in Google Scholar

[11] Csiszár, C., Csonka, B., Földes, D., Wirth, E. & Lovas, T. (2019). Urban public charging station locating method for electric vehicles based on land use approach. J. Transp. Geogr. 2019, 74, 173–180. DOI: 10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.11.016.10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2018.11.016 Search in Google Scholar

[12] Gallet, M., Massier, T. & Hamacher, T. (2018). Estimation of the energy demand of electric buses based on real-world data for large-scale public transport networks. Applied Energy 230, 344-356. DOI: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.08.086.10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.08.086 Search in Google Scholar

[13] Hamurcu, M. & Eren, T. (2020). Electric Bus Selection with Multicriteria Decision Analysis for Green Transportation. Sustainability 12(7):2777. DOI: 10.3390/su12072777.10.3390/su12072777 Search in Google Scholar

[14] Xu, X. & Han, L. (2020). Operational Lifecycle Carbon Value of Bus Electrification in Macau. Sustainability 12(9):3784. DOI: 10.3390/su12093784.10.3390/su12093784 Search in Google Scholar

[15] Peng, J., Jiang, J., Ding, F. & Tan, H. (2020). Development of Driving Cycle Construction for Hybrid Electric Bus: A Case Study in Zhengzhou, China. Sustainability 12(17):7188. DOI: 10.3390/su12177188.10.3390/su12177188 Search in Google Scholar

[16] Blaž, J., Zupan, S. & Ambrož, M. (2019). Study on the Eligibility of Introducing Hybrid-Drive Buses into the Public Passenger Transport. Stroj. Vestn. J. Mech. Eng. 65, 12–20. DOI: 10.5545/sv-jme.2018.5637.10.5545/sv-jme.2018.5637 Search in Google Scholar

[17] Harris, A., Soban, D., Smyth, B.M. & Best, R. (2018). Assessing life cycle impacts and the risk and uncertainty of alternative bus technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 97, 569-579. DOI: 10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.045.10.1016/j.rser.2018.08.045 Search in Google Scholar

[18] Ivkovic, I., Kaplanovic, S. & Sekulic, D. (2019). Analysis of External Costs of CO2 Emissions For CNG Buses in Intercity Bus Service. TRANSPORT 34(5), 529-538. DOI: 10.3846/transport.2019.11473.10.3846/transport.2019.11473 Search in Google Scholar

[19] Gustafsson, M., Svensson, N. & Anderberg, S. (2018). Energy performance indicators as policy support for public bus transport – The case of Sweden. Transportation Research Part D (65), 697-709. DOI: 10.1016/j.trd.2018.10.008.10.1016/j.trd.2018.10.008 Search in Google Scholar

[20] Brdulak, A., Chaberek, G. & Jagodziński, J. (2020). Development Forecasts for the Zero-Emission Bus Fleet in Servicing Public Transport in Chosen EU Member Countries. Energies 13(16):4239. DOI: 10.3390/en13164239.10.3390/en13164239 Search in Google Scholar

[21] Konečný, V., Gnap, J., Settey, T., Petro, F., Skrúcaný, T. & Figlus T. (2020). Environmental Sustainability of the Vehicle Fleet Change in Public City Transport of Selected City in Central Europe. Energies. 13(15):3869. DOI: 10:3390/en/13153869. Search in Google Scholar

[22] Saz-Salazar, S., Feo-Valero, M. & Vazquez-Paja, B. (2020). Valuing public acceptance of alternative-fuel buses using a Latent Class Tobit model: A case study in Valencia. Journal of Cleaner Production 261, 121-199. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121199.10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121199 Search in Google Scholar

[23] Gnap, J., Konečný, V. & Poliak, M. (2006). Demand elasticity of public transport. Ekon. Cas. 2006, 54, 667–684. Retrieved November 16, 2020, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/292548426_Demand_elasticity_of_public_transport Search in Google Scholar

[24] Poliak, M., Poliaková, A., Mrníková, M., Šimurková, P., Jaskiewicz, M. & Rafał, J. (2017). The Competitiveness of Public Transport. J. Compet. 81(9). DOI: 10.744/joc.2017.03.06. Search in Google Scholar

[25] Konečný, V. & Bridzíková, M. (2020). The Impact of the State of Emergency on the Supply of Services and Passenger Demand for Public Transport. LOGI – Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics. 11(2), 56-65. DOI: 10.2478/logi-2020-0015.10.2478/logi-2020-0015 Search in Google Scholar

[26] Ministry of Interior of the Slovak Republic (2020, October). Central Register of Vehicles of the Slovak Republic. Retrieved October 14, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

[27] Polish Association of Automotive Industry, Warsaw. First registrations of new buses January to October 2020. Retrieved November 26, 2020. Search in Google Scholar

[28] European Automobile Manufacturers Association. (2020, April). Medium and heavy buses (over 3.5 t) new registrations by fuel type in the European Union. Retrieved January 7, 2021, from https://www.acea.be/uploads/press_releases_files/ACEA_buses_by_fuel_type_full-year_2019.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[29] European Automobile Manufacturers Association. (2019, December). Vehicles in use Europe 2019. Retrieved December 18, 2020, from https://www.acea.be/uploads/publications/ACEA_Report_Vehicles_in_use-Europe_2019.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[30] Eurostat. (2020, March). New registrations of motor coaches, buses and trolley buses by type of motor energy. Retrieved December 18, 2020, from https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=road_eqr_busmot&lang=en Search in Google Scholar

[31] European Automobile Manufacturers Association. (2020, November). New commercial vehicle registrations European Union. Retrieved January 07, 2021, from https://www.acea.be/uploads/press_releases_files/20201222_PRCV_2011_FINAL.pdf Search in Google Scholar

[32] Eurostat. (2021, January). GDP and main components (output, expenditure and income). Retrieved January 04, 2021, from https://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=nama_10_gdp&lang=en Search in Google Scholar

[33] Šulyová, D., Vodák, J. & Koman, G. (2020). Implementation Smart City Concepts for Mobility, Case Study of World Logistic Models on the Smart Principles. LOGI – Scientific Journal on Transport and Logistics. 11(2), 110-119. DOI: 10.2478/logi-2020-0020.10.2478/logi-2020-0020 Search in Google Scholar

[34] Stopka, O., Zitricky, V., Abramovic, A., Marinov, M. & Ricci, S. (2019). Innovative Technologies for Sustainable Passenger Transport. Hindawi J. Adv. Transp., 2019, 4197246. DOI: 10.1155/2019/4197246.10.1155/2019/4197246 Search in Google Scholar

[35] Lupták, V., Drozdziel, P., Stopka, O., Stopková, M. & Rybicka, I. (2019). Approach Methodology for Comprehensive Assessing the Public Passenger Transport Timetable Performances at a Regional Scale. Sustainability 1, DOI: 10.3390/su11133532.10.3390/su11133532 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo