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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1337-9569
ISSN
1337-6853
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Jun 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (June 2012)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1337-9569
ISSN
1337-6853
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Jun 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 47 - 58

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Though various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. Modulation of cellular thiols for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been used as a therapeutic strategy against lead poisoning. N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, quercetin and a few herbal extracts show prophylaxis against the majority of lead mediated injury in both invitro and in vivo studies. This review provides a comprehensive account of recent updates describing health effects of lead exposure, relevant biomarkers and mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. It also updates the readers about recent advances in chelation therapy and newer therapeutic strategies, like nanoencapsulation, to treat lead induced toxic manifestations.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • reactive oxygen species
  • lead toxicity
Otwarty dostęp

Decreased activity and accelerated apoptosis of neutrophils in the presence of natural polyphenols

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 59 - 64

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prolonged or excessive formation and liberation of cytotoxic substances from neutrophils intensifies inflammation and the risk of tissue damage. From this perspective, administration of substances which are able to reduce activity of neutrophils and to enhance apoptosis of these cells may improve the therapy of pathological states connected with persistent inflammation. In this short review, neutrophil oxidative burst and apoptosis are presented as potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Effects of natural polyphenols (resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin, piceatannol, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) are summarised, considering the ability of these compounds to affect inflammation and particularly neutrophil activity. The intended neutrophil inhibition is introduced as a part of a new strategy for pharmacological modulation of chronic inflammatory processes, focused on supporting innate antiinflammatory mechanisms and enhancing resolution of inflammation.

Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • oxidative burst
  • apoptosis
  • natural polyphenols
  • resolution of inflammation
Otwarty dostęp

Polyphenol derivatives – potential regulators of neutrophil activity

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 65 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study provides new information on the effect of natural polyphenols (derivatives of stilbene - resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin and piceatannol and derivatives of ferulic acid - curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) on the activity of human neutrophils in influencing oxidative burst. All the polyphenols tested were found to reduce markedly the production of reactive oxygen species released by human neutrophils on extra-and intracellular levels as well as in cell free system. Moreover, pinosylvin, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin and resveratrol decreased protein kinase C activity involved in neutrophil signalling and reactive oxygen species production. Our results suggest that due to their anti-neutrophil activity, the polyphenols tested might be attractive candidates in therapeutic development.

Keywords

  • activity of neutrophils
  • reactive oxygen species
  • natural polyphenols
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of stilbene derivative on superoxide generation and enzyme release from human neutrophils in vitro

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 71 - 75

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutrophils represent the body´s primary line of defense against invading pathogens. They most rapidly reach the site of injury or infection, liberate antimicrobial proteins, proteases and produce reactive oxygen species. Prolonged or excessive liberation of these very effective and toxic substances could intensify the inflammatory process and enhance tissue damage in many diseases, such as allergies, infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Pterostilbene belongs to stilbenoids, structural analogues of resveratrol, which act as natural protective agents in defending the plant against viral and microbial attack. It possesses anticancerous, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties.

The study provides new information on the effect of pterostilbene [0.01-100 μmol/l] on superoxide generation in and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from azurophil granules of isolated human neutrophils. PMA [1 μmol/l], which activates NADPH-oxidase via protein kinase C, was used for stimulation of neutrophils Unstimulated cells showed neither superoxide generation nor myelopereoxidase release after preincubation with the drug studied. Pterostilbene dose dependently decreased superoxide generation in and MPO release from stimulated human neutrophils, however a significant decrease was recorded only in the concentration 100 μmol/l. The effect of pterostilbene was more pronounced on superoxide generation in comparison to MPO release. Our results suggest that the effect of pterostilbene may prove beneficial in controlling inflammation.

Keywords

  • pterostilbene
  • human neutrophils
  • superoxide generation
  • myeloperoxidase
Otwarty dostęp

Involvement of caspase-3 in stilbene derivatives induced apoptosis of human neutrophils in vitro

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 76 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chronic inflammatory diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis or cystic fibrosis, are characterised by neutrophil infiltration in inflamed tissues. Dysregulated neutrophil death may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases where neutrophils play a role. Stilbene derivatives are reported to activate apoptosis in different cell lines. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated in vitro with resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin or piceatannol (1-100 μmol/l), and cytotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by luminometry and flow cytometry, respectively. Enhancement and/or inhibition of human recombinant caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured by luminometry. None of the stilbene derivatives tested increased ATP liberation from human neutrophils, thus showing no direct cytotoxicity effect. Resveratrol and piceatannol (100 μmol/l) treated neutrophils had a higher rate of apoptosis compared to non-treated cells. Pterostilbene and pinosylvin (1 μmol/l), yet not resveratrol or piceatannol, increased the activity of caspase-3. However in the concentration of 100 μmol/l, all stilbene derivatives tested inhibited caspase-3 activity. Their effects on human neutrophil apoptosis differed according to the structure of the molecule. Additional studies are required to get insight into the mechanisms involved in the effects of the substances tested on neutrophil viability.

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • caspase-3
  • neutrophils
  • stilbene derivat
Otwarty dostęp

Quercetin inhibits degranulation and superoxide generation in PMA stimulated neutrophils

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 81 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

Activated neutrophils represent the main source of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide (SO) and subsequently derived oxygen metabolites. They have important microbicidal activities, however in inflammatory conditions they may secondarily attack surrounding tissues. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, prolonged or excessive liberation of MPO and other effective yet also toxic substances from neutrophils may participate in disturbed apoptosis, intensify the inflammatory processes and result in serious human diseases. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on PMA stimulated SO generation in isolated human neutrophils was found to be dosedependent, without affecting the activity of intact isolated neutrophils. At comparable conditions, quercetin was more potent in inhibiting MPO release than SO generation. Our results indicate that quercetin could support resolution of inflammation through decreased activity of neutrophils, i.e. respiratory burst and degranulation.

Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • quercetin
  • superoxide generation
  • myeloperoxidase
Otwarty dostęp

Pharmacological influence on processes of adjuvant arthritis: effect of the combination of an antioxidant active substance with methotrexate

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 84 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. A certain correlation was observed between oxidative stress, arthritis and the immune system. Reactive oxygen species produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative burst, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. The excessive production of ROS can damage protein, lipids, nucleic acids, and matrix components. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered antioxidant defense capacity barrier. In the present study the effect of substances with antioxidative properties, i.e. pinosylvin and carnosine, was determined in monotherapy for the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Moreover carnosine was evaluated in combination therapy with methotrexate. Rats with AA were administered first pinosylvin (30 mg/kg body mass daily per os), second carnosine (150 mg/kg body mass daily per os) in monotherapy for a period of 28 days. Further, rats with AA were administered methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body mass 2-times weekly per os), and a combination of methotrexate+carnosine, with the carnosine dose being the same as in the previous experiment. Parameters, i.e. changes in hind paw volume and arthritic score were determined in rats as indicators of destructive arthritis-associated clinical changes. Plasmatic levels of TBARS and lag time of Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation (tau-FeLP) in plasma and brain were specified as markers of oxidation. Plasmatic level of CRP and activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in spleen and joint were used as inflammation markers. In comparison to pinosylvin, administration of carnosine monotherapy led to a significant decrease in the majority of the parameters studied. In the combination treatment with methotrexate+carnosine most parameters monitored were improved more remarkably than by methotrexate alone. Carnosine can increase the disease-modifying effect of methotrexate treatment in rat AA.

Keywords

  • arthritis
  • oxidative stress
  • pinosylvin
  • carnosine
  • methotrexate
  • combination therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 92 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined.

Keywords

  • selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin
  • noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors
  • venlafaxine
  • pregnancy
  • fetus
  • pups
  • postnatal development
  • rat
Otwarty dostęp

Review of skin irritation/corrosion hazards on the basis of human data: a regulatory perspective

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 98 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

Regulatory classification of skin irritation has historically been based on rabbit data, however current toxicology processes are transitioning to in vitro alternatives. The in vitro assays have to provide sufficient level of sensitivity as well as specificity to be accepted as replacement methods for the existing in vivo assays. This is usually achieved by comparing the in vitro results to classifications obtained in animals. Significant drawback of this approach is that neither in vivo nor in vitro methods are calibrated against human hazard data and results obtained in these assays may not correspond to situation in human.

The main objective of this review was to establish an extended database of substances classified according to their human hazard to serve for further development of alternative methods relevant to human health as well as resource for improved regulatory classification. The literature has been reviewed to assemble all the available information on the testing of substances in the human 4 h human patch test, which is the only standardized protocol in humans matching the exposure conditions of the regulatory accepted in vivo rabbit skin irritation test.

A total of 81 substances tested according to the defined 4 h human patch test protocol were found and collated into a dataset together with their existing in vivo classifications published in the literature. While about 50% of the substances in the database are classified as irritating based on the rabbit skin test, on using the 4 h HPT test, less than 20% were identified as acutely irritant to human skin. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the rabbit skin irritation test largely over-predicts human responses for the evaluated chemicals. Correct classification of the acute skin irritation hazard will only be possible if newly developed in vitro toxicology methods will be calibrated to produce results relevant to man.

Keywords

  • skin irritation hazard
  • human 4 h human patch test
  • regulatory toxicology
Otwarty dostęp

Some linguistic and pragmatic considerations affecting science reporting in English by non-native speakers of the language

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 105 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication.

Keywords

  • English academic discourse
  • non-native speakers
  • language barrier
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Toxicity of lead: a review with recent updates

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 47 - 58

Abstrakt

Abstract

Lead poisoning has been recognized as a major public health risk, particularly in developing countries. Though various occupational and public health measures have been undertaken in order to control lead exposure, cases of lead poisoning are still reported. Exposure to lead produces various deleterious effects on the hematopoietic, renal, reproductive and central nervous system, mainly through increased oxidative stress. These alterations play a prominent role in disease manifestations. Modulation of cellular thiols for protection against reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been used as a therapeutic strategy against lead poisoning. N-acetylcysteine, α-lipoic acid, vitamin E, quercetin and a few herbal extracts show prophylaxis against the majority of lead mediated injury in both invitro and in vivo studies. This review provides a comprehensive account of recent updates describing health effects of lead exposure, relevant biomarkers and mechanisms involved in lead toxicity. It also updates the readers about recent advances in chelation therapy and newer therapeutic strategies, like nanoencapsulation, to treat lead induced toxic manifestations.

Keywords

  • antioxidants
  • reactive oxygen species
  • lead toxicity
Otwarty dostęp

Decreased activity and accelerated apoptosis of neutrophils in the presence of natural polyphenols

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 59 - 64

Abstrakt

Abstract

Prolonged or excessive formation and liberation of cytotoxic substances from neutrophils intensifies inflammation and the risk of tissue damage. From this perspective, administration of substances which are able to reduce activity of neutrophils and to enhance apoptosis of these cells may improve the therapy of pathological states connected with persistent inflammation. In this short review, neutrophil oxidative burst and apoptosis are presented as potential targets for pharmacological intervention. Effects of natural polyphenols (resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin, piceatannol, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) are summarised, considering the ability of these compounds to affect inflammation and particularly neutrophil activity. The intended neutrophil inhibition is introduced as a part of a new strategy for pharmacological modulation of chronic inflammatory processes, focused on supporting innate antiinflammatory mechanisms and enhancing resolution of inflammation.

Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • oxidative burst
  • apoptosis
  • natural polyphenols
  • resolution of inflammation
Otwarty dostęp

Polyphenol derivatives – potential regulators of neutrophil activity

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 65 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study provides new information on the effect of natural polyphenols (derivatives of stilbene - resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin and piceatannol and derivatives of ferulic acid - curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin) on the activity of human neutrophils in influencing oxidative burst. All the polyphenols tested were found to reduce markedly the production of reactive oxygen species released by human neutrophils on extra-and intracellular levels as well as in cell free system. Moreover, pinosylvin, curcumin, N-feruloylserotonin and resveratrol decreased protein kinase C activity involved in neutrophil signalling and reactive oxygen species production. Our results suggest that due to their anti-neutrophil activity, the polyphenols tested might be attractive candidates in therapeutic development.

Keywords

  • activity of neutrophils
  • reactive oxygen species
  • natural polyphenols
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of stilbene derivative on superoxide generation and enzyme release from human neutrophils in vitro

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 71 - 75

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutrophils represent the body´s primary line of defense against invading pathogens. They most rapidly reach the site of injury or infection, liberate antimicrobial proteins, proteases and produce reactive oxygen species. Prolonged or excessive liberation of these very effective and toxic substances could intensify the inflammatory process and enhance tissue damage in many diseases, such as allergies, infections and rheumatoid arthritis. Pterostilbene belongs to stilbenoids, structural analogues of resveratrol, which act as natural protective agents in defending the plant against viral and microbial attack. It possesses anticancerous, antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory properties.

The study provides new information on the effect of pterostilbene [0.01-100 μmol/l] on superoxide generation in and myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from azurophil granules of isolated human neutrophils. PMA [1 μmol/l], which activates NADPH-oxidase via protein kinase C, was used for stimulation of neutrophils Unstimulated cells showed neither superoxide generation nor myelopereoxidase release after preincubation with the drug studied. Pterostilbene dose dependently decreased superoxide generation in and MPO release from stimulated human neutrophils, however a significant decrease was recorded only in the concentration 100 μmol/l. The effect of pterostilbene was more pronounced on superoxide generation in comparison to MPO release. Our results suggest that the effect of pterostilbene may prove beneficial in controlling inflammation.

Keywords

  • pterostilbene
  • human neutrophils
  • superoxide generation
  • myeloperoxidase
Otwarty dostęp

Involvement of caspase-3 in stilbene derivatives induced apoptosis of human neutrophils in vitro

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 76 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

Chronic inflammatory diseases, e.g. rheumatoid arthritis or cystic fibrosis, are characterised by neutrophil infiltration in inflamed tissues. Dysregulated neutrophil death may contribute to the pathogenesis of diseases where neutrophils play a role. Stilbene derivatives are reported to activate apoptosis in different cell lines. Neutrophils from healthy volunteers were incubated in vitro with resveratrol, pterostilbene, pinosylvin or piceatannol (1-100 μmol/l), and cytotoxicity and apoptosis were measured by luminometry and flow cytometry, respectively. Enhancement and/or inhibition of human recombinant caspase-3 enzyme activity were measured by luminometry. None of the stilbene derivatives tested increased ATP liberation from human neutrophils, thus showing no direct cytotoxicity effect. Resveratrol and piceatannol (100 μmol/l) treated neutrophils had a higher rate of apoptosis compared to non-treated cells. Pterostilbene and pinosylvin (1 μmol/l), yet not resveratrol or piceatannol, increased the activity of caspase-3. However in the concentration of 100 μmol/l, all stilbene derivatives tested inhibited caspase-3 activity. Their effects on human neutrophil apoptosis differed according to the structure of the molecule. Additional studies are required to get insight into the mechanisms involved in the effects of the substances tested on neutrophil viability.

Keywords

  • apoptosis
  • caspase-3
  • neutrophils
  • stilbene derivat
Otwarty dostęp

Quercetin inhibits degranulation and superoxide generation in PMA stimulated neutrophils

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 81 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

Activated neutrophils represent the main source of myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide (SO) and subsequently derived oxygen metabolites. They have important microbicidal activities, however in inflammatory conditions they may secondarily attack surrounding tissues. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, prolonged or excessive liberation of MPO and other effective yet also toxic substances from neutrophils may participate in disturbed apoptosis, intensify the inflammatory processes and result in serious human diseases. The inhibitory effect of quercetin on PMA stimulated SO generation in isolated human neutrophils was found to be dosedependent, without affecting the activity of intact isolated neutrophils. At comparable conditions, quercetin was more potent in inhibiting MPO release than SO generation. Our results indicate that quercetin could support resolution of inflammation through decreased activity of neutrophils, i.e. respiratory burst and degranulation.

Keywords

  • neutrophils
  • quercetin
  • superoxide generation
  • myeloperoxidase
Otwarty dostęp

Pharmacological influence on processes of adjuvant arthritis: effect of the combination of an antioxidant active substance with methotrexate

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 84 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

Oxygen metabolism has an important role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. A certain correlation was observed between oxidative stress, arthritis and the immune system. Reactive oxygen species produced in the course of cellular oxidative phosphorylation and by activated phagocytic cells during oxidative burst, exceed the physiological buffering capacity and result in oxidative stress. The excessive production of ROS can damage protein, lipids, nucleic acids, and matrix components. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an altered antioxidant defense capacity barrier. In the present study the effect of substances with antioxidative properties, i.e. pinosylvin and carnosine, was determined in monotherapy for the treatment of adjuvant arthritis (AA). Moreover carnosine was evaluated in combination therapy with methotrexate. Rats with AA were administered first pinosylvin (30 mg/kg body mass daily per os), second carnosine (150 mg/kg body mass daily per os) in monotherapy for a period of 28 days. Further, rats with AA were administered methotrexate (0.3 mg/kg body mass 2-times weekly per os), and a combination of methotrexate+carnosine, with the carnosine dose being the same as in the previous experiment. Parameters, i.e. changes in hind paw volume and arthritic score were determined in rats as indicators of destructive arthritis-associated clinical changes. Plasmatic levels of TBARS and lag time of Fe2+- induced lipid peroxidation (tau-FeLP) in plasma and brain were specified as markers of oxidation. Plasmatic level of CRP and activity of γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) in spleen and joint were used as inflammation markers. In comparison to pinosylvin, administration of carnosine monotherapy led to a significant decrease in the majority of the parameters studied. In the combination treatment with methotrexate+carnosine most parameters monitored were improved more remarkably than by methotrexate alone. Carnosine can increase the disease-modifying effect of methotrexate treatment in rat AA.

Keywords

  • arthritis
  • oxidative stress
  • pinosylvin
  • carnosine
  • methotrexate
  • combination therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of prenatal administration of venlafaxine on postnatal development of rat offspring

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 92 - 97

Abstrakt

Abstract

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined.

Keywords

  • selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin
  • noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors
  • venlafaxine
  • pregnancy
  • fetus
  • pups
  • postnatal development
  • rat
Otwarty dostęp

Review of skin irritation/corrosion hazards on the basis of human data: a regulatory perspective

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 98 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

Regulatory classification of skin irritation has historically been based on rabbit data, however current toxicology processes are transitioning to in vitro alternatives. The in vitro assays have to provide sufficient level of sensitivity as well as specificity to be accepted as replacement methods for the existing in vivo assays. This is usually achieved by comparing the in vitro results to classifications obtained in animals. Significant drawback of this approach is that neither in vivo nor in vitro methods are calibrated against human hazard data and results obtained in these assays may not correspond to situation in human.

The main objective of this review was to establish an extended database of substances classified according to their human hazard to serve for further development of alternative methods relevant to human health as well as resource for improved regulatory classification. The literature has been reviewed to assemble all the available information on the testing of substances in the human 4 h human patch test, which is the only standardized protocol in humans matching the exposure conditions of the regulatory accepted in vivo rabbit skin irritation test.

A total of 81 substances tested according to the defined 4 h human patch test protocol were found and collated into a dataset together with their existing in vivo classifications published in the literature. While about 50% of the substances in the database are classified as irritating based on the rabbit skin test, on using the 4 h HPT test, less than 20% were identified as acutely irritant to human skin. Based on the presented data, it can be concluded that the rabbit skin irritation test largely over-predicts human responses for the evaluated chemicals. Correct classification of the acute skin irritation hazard will only be possible if newly developed in vitro toxicology methods will be calibrated to produce results relevant to man.

Keywords

  • skin irritation hazard
  • human 4 h human patch test
  • regulatory toxicology
Otwarty dostęp

Some linguistic and pragmatic considerations affecting science reporting in English by non-native speakers of the language

Data publikacji: 09 Nov 2012
Zakres stron: 105 - 115

Abstrakt

Abstract

Approximately 50% of publications in English peer reviewed journals are contributed by non-native speakers (NNS) of the language. Basic thought processes are considered to be universal yet there are differences in thought patterns and particularly in discourse management of writers with different linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The study highlights some areas of potential incompatibility in native and NNS processing of English scientific papers. Principles and conventions in generating academic discourse are considered in terms of frequently occurring failures of NNS to meet expectations of editors, reviewers, and readers. Major problem areas concern organization and flow of information, principles of cohesion and clarity, cultural constraints, especially those of politeness and negotiability of ideas, and the complicated area of English modality pragmatics. The aim of the paper is to sensitize NN authors of English academic reports to problem areas of discourse processing which are stumbling blocks, often affecting acceptance of manuscripts. The problems discussed are essential for acquiring pragmalinguistic and sociocultural competence in producing effective communication.

Keywords

  • English academic discourse
  • non-native speakers
  • language barrier

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