Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 12 (2019): Zeszyt 4 (December 2019)

Tom 12 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (November 2019)

Tom 12 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (October 2019)

Tom 12 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (September 2019)

Tom 11 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Tom 11 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (October 2018)

Tom 11 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (August 2018)

Tom 11 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (May 2018)

Tom 10 (2017): Zeszyt 4 (December 2017)

Tom 10 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (November 2017)

Tom 10 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (October 2017)

Tom 10 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (September 2017)

Tom 9 (2016): Zeszyt 3-4 (December 2016)

Tom 9 (2016): Zeszyt 2 (June 2016)

Tom 9 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (March 2016)

Tom 8 (2015): Zeszyt 4 (December 2015)

Tom 8 (2015): Zeszyt 3 (September 2015)

Tom 8 (2015): Zeszyt 2 (June 2015)

Tom 8 (2015): Zeszyt 1 (March 2015)

Tom 7 (2014): Zeszyt 4 (December 2014)

Tom 7 (2014): Zeszyt 3 (September 2014)

Tom 7 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (June 2014)

Tom 7 (2014): Zeszyt 1 (March 2014)

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 4 (December 2013)

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (September 2013)

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 2 (June 2013)

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 1 (March 2013)

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 4 (December 2012)

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 3 (September 2012)

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 2 (June 2012)

Tom 5 (2012): Zeszyt 1 (March 2012)

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 4 (December 2011)

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 3 (September 2011)

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 2 (June 2011)

Tom 4 (2011): Zeszyt 1 (March 2011)

Tom 3 (2010): Zeszyt 4 (December 2010)

Tom 3 (2010): Zeszyt 3 (September 2010)

Tom 3 (2010): Zeszyt 2 (June 2010)

Tom 3 (2010): Zeszyt 1 (March 2010)

Tom 2 (2009): Zeszyt 4 (December 2009)

Tom 2 (2009): Zeszyt 3 (September 2009)

Tom 2 (2009): Zeszyt 2 (June 2009)

Tom 2 (2009): Zeszyt 1 (March 2009)

Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 3-4 (December 2008)

Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 2 (September 2008)

Tom 1 (2008): Zeszyt 1 (June 2008)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1337-9569
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Jun 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 11 (2018): Zeszyt 4 (December 2018)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1337-9569
Pierwsze wydanie
19 Jun 2009
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Zika virus infection from a newborn point of view. TORCH or TORZiCH?

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 241 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the group of viruses called arboviruses. Congenital Zika syndrome is a new disease with infectious teratogenic aetiology. The clinical symptoms are divided into morphological and functional. Most severe complication is the foetal brain disruption sequence that includes severe microcephaly, anomalies of the eyes and congenital contractions of joints. The aim of this paper was to review available facts about Zika virus infection from a newborn point of view in a form of the summary of all important information. Zika virus infection is a problem of past, present and future. Epidemics may occur because of global climate changes, also in countries where natural conditions for life of mosquitos are not present. This clearly indicates the need to continue developing of vaccines and specific antiviral drugs. Until this happens, we must adhere individual preventive measures. Zika virus has proven to us how it can affect the health of adults and neonates but also thinking of healthy people. Newborns with microcephaly on the front pages of the media caused in 2015 panic and fear around the world – for this reason education of people is necessary. Due to serious congenital disorders associated with ZIKV infection and global impact of virus we suggest modifying old acronym TORCH for new TORZiCH to accent the position of Zika virus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • newborn
  • Zika virus
  • complications
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Medicinal plants and natural products can play a significant role in mitigation of mercury toxicity

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 247 - 254

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mercury is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity. Scientific literature reveals various plants and plant derived natural products, i.e., phytochemicals, which can alleviate experimentally induced mercury toxicity in animals. The present review attempts to collate those experimental studies on medicinal plants and phytochemicals with ameliorative effects on mercury toxicity. A literature survey was carried out by using Google, Scholar Google, Scopus and Pub-Med. Only the scientific journal articles found in the internet for the last two decades (1998–2018) were considered. Minerals and semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs of natural products were excluded. The literature survey revealed that in pre-clinical studies 27 medicinal plants and 27 natural products exhibited significant mitigation from mercury toxicity in experimental animals. Clinical investigations were not found in the literature. Admissible research in this area could lead to development of a potentially effective agent from the plant kingdom for clinical management of mercury toxicity in humans.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mercury
  • ascorbic acid
  • natural products
  • oxidative stress
  • quercetin
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of the time-dependent dermatotoxicity of mechlorethamine using the mouse ear vesicant model

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 255 - 266

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechlorethamine (HN2) is an alkylating agent and sulfur mustard gas mimetic which is also used in anticancer therapy. HN2 is associated with skin inflammation and blistering which can lead to secondary infections. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent dermatotoxicity of HN2 using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM). To this end, our operational definition of dermatotoxicity included tissue responses to HN2 consistent with an increase in the wet weights of mouse ear punch biopsies, an increase in the morphometric thickness of H&E stained ear sections and histopathologic observations including tissue edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vesication. The ears of male Swiss Webster mice were topically exposed to a single dose of HN2 (0.5 µmol/ear) or DMSO vehicle (5 µl/ear) or left untreated (naive). Mice were then euthanized at 15 min, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 24 hr following HN2 exposure. Compared to control ears, mouse ears exposed to HN2 at all time points showed an increase in wet weights, morphometric thickness, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and signs of vesication. The incidence in tissue vesication sharply increased between 4 and 8 hr after exposure, revealing that tissue vesication is well established by 8 hr and remains elevated at 24 hr after exposure. It is noteworthy that, compared to control ears, mouse ears treated with DMSO vehicle alone also exhibited an increase in wet weights and morphometric thickness at 15 min, 1, 2 and 4 hr following treatment; however, these vehicle effects begin to subside after 4 hr. The results obtained here using the MEVM provide a more holistic understanding of the kinetics of vesication, and indicate that time points earlier than 24 hr may prove useful not only for investigating the complex mechanisms involved in vesication but also for assessing the effects of vesicant countermeasures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mechlorethamine
  • mouse ear vesicant model
  • MMP-9
  • dermatotoxicity
  • vesication
Otwarty dostęp

Antiproliferative, neurotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of toxic cyanobacterial extracts

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 267 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cyanobacteria are the rich resource of various secondary metabolites including toxins with broad pharmaceutical significance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative, neurotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of cyanobacterial extracts containing Microcystin-LR (MCLR) in vitro. ELISA analysis results showed that MCLR contents of five cyanobacterial extracts were 2.07 ng/mL, 1.43 ng/mL, 1.41 ng/mL, 1.27 ng/mL, and 1.12 ng/mL for Leptolyngbya sp. SB1, Phormidium sp. SB4, Oscillatoria earlei SB5, Phormidium sp. SB2, Uncultured cyanobacterium, respectively. Phormidium sp. SB4 and Phormidium sp. SB2 extracts had the lowest neurotoxicity (86% and 79% cell viability, respectively) and Oscillatoria earlei SB5 extracts had the highest neurotoxicity (47% cell viability) on PC12 cell at 1000 µg/ml extract concentration. Leptolyngbya sp. SB1 and Phormidium sp. SB2 showed the highest antiproliferative effect (92% and 77% cell death) on HT29 cell. On the other hand, all concentrations of five toxic cyanobacterial extracts induced DNA damage between 3.0% and 1.3% of tail intensity and did not cause any direct mutagenic effect at the 1000 µg/plate cyanobacterial extracts. These results suggest that cyanobacteria-derived MCLR is a promising candidate for development of effective agents against colon cancer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cyanobacteria
  • Microcystin-LR
  • HT29 cells
  • HeLa cells
  • PC12 cells
Otwarty dostęp

Novel pentacyclic triterpene isolated from seeds of Euryale Ferox Salisb. ameliorates diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 275 - 288

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present research was carried out to study the effect of 2β-hydroxybetulinic acid 3β-oleiate (HBAO), a novel compound isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox salisb. on glycemic control, antioxidant status and histopathological morphological alterations in the liver, pancreas, kidney and heart in streptozotocin induced type-2 diabetes in rats. HBAO was isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox salisb. according to Lee. Isolation of the active principle HBAO was performed for the first time. To date there are no reports on the isolation and evaluation of 2β-hydroxybetulinic acid 3β-oleiate (HBAO) from Euryale ferox salisb. Assessment of different biochemical parameters like the effect of HBAO on glycemic control, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, hepatic hexokinase, lipid profile, antioxidant marker and histopathology of pancreas, liver and kidney examination was done at the end of the experimentation, i.e. on day 45. HBAO exhibited remarkable improvement in glycemic control, lipid levels, plasma insulin, glycogenic liver enzymes and antioxidant activity in diabetic rats, along with progressive enhancement of distortive histopathological morphology of liver, pancreas and kidney. The results strongly suggest that HBAO could be a potential therapeutic agent in diabetes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Diabetes
  • HBAO
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of AgNPs on the human reconstructed epidermis

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 289 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nanoparticles are utilized in a wide range of industries. The most studied silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in medicine and also in several wound dressings due to their antimicrobial properties. The inflammatory response or potential morphological changes of skin cells after their application are not well known yet. In our study we used the model of human reconstructed epidermis (RHE), prepared in our laboratory, to evaluate whether the AgNPs penetrate through RHE, induce some morphological changes of keratinocytes or influence the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). After the application of three different concentrations (25 ppm, 2.5 ppm, 0.25 ppm) of AgNPs to of RHE for 24 hours we verified that AgNPs did not affect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) and neither did they influence the expression of keratin K14 and loricrin. The morphology of the cells was likewise unchanged. Based on these results we conclude that AgNPs do not have any negative effect on the morphological changes and do not increase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Słowa kluczowe

  • human reconstructed epidermis
  • AgNPs
  • IL-6
  • IL-8
  • loricrin
  • keratin K14
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of quercetin on tight junctional proteins and BDNF signaling molecules in hippocampus of PCBs-exposed rats

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 294 - 305

Abstrakt

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) consist of a range of toxic substances which are directly proportional to carcinogenesis and tumor-promoting factors as well as having neurotoxic properties. Reactive oxygen species, which are produced from PCBs, alter blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which is paralleled by cytoskeletal rearrangements and redistribution and disappearance of tight junction proteins (TJPs) like claudin-5 and occludin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), plays an important role in the maintenance, survival of neurons and synaptic plasticity. It is predominant in the hippocampal areas vital to learning, memory and higher thinking. Quercetin, a flavonoid, had drawn attention to its neurodefensive property. The study is to assess the role of quercetin on serum PCB, estradiol and testosterone levels and mRNA expressions of estrogen receptor α and β, TJPs and BDNF signaling molecules on the hippocampus of PCBs-exposed rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Group I rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered corn oil (vehicle). Group II received quercetin 50 mg/kg/bwt (gavage). Group III received PCBs (Aroclor 1254) at 2 mg/kg bwt (i.p). Group IV received quercetin 50 mg/kg bwt (gavage) simultaneously with PCBs 2 mg/kg bwt (i.p.). The treatment was given daily for 30 days. The rats were euthanized 24 h after the experimental period. Blood was collected for quantification of serum PCBs estradiol and testosterone. The hippocampus was dissected and processed for PCR and Western blot; serum PCB was observed in PCB treated animals, simultaneously quercetin treated animals showed PCB metabolites. Serum testosterone and estradiol were decreased after PCB exposure. Quercetin supplementation brought back normal levels. mRNA expressions of estrogen α and β were decreased in the hippocampus of PCB treated rats. TJPS and BDNF signalling molecules were decreased in hippocampus of PCB treated rats. Quercetin supplementation retrieved all the parameters. Quercetin alone treated animals showed no alteration. Thus in PCB caused neurotoxicity, quercetin protects and prevents neuronal damage in the hippocampus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • TJPs
  • BDNF
  • PCBs
  • Quercetin
  • GC-MS
Otwarty dostęp

Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition and Na+K+ATPase dysfunction are determinant factors modulating the toxicity of nickel in the brain of indian catfish Clarias batrachus L.

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 306 - 315

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nickel is a potential neurotoxic pollutant inflicting damage in living organisms, including fish, mainly through oxidative stress. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of nickel toxicity on mitochondrial function, but there remain lacunae on the damage inflicted at mitochondrial respiratory level. Deficient mitochondrial function usually affects the activities of important adenosinetriphosphatases responsible for the maintenance of normal neuronal function, namely Na+K+ATPase, as explored in our study. Previous reports demonstrated the dysfunction of this enzyme upon nickel exposure but the contributing factors for the inhibition of this enzyme remained unexplored. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of nickel neurotoxicity on mitochondrial respiratory complexes and Na+K+ATPase in the piscine brain and to determine the contributing factors that had an impact on the same. Adult Clarias batrachus were exposed to nickel treated water at 10% and 20% of the 96 h LC50 value (41 mg.l−1) respectively and sampled on 20, 40 and 60 days. Exposure of fish brain to nickel led to partial inhibition of complex IV of mitochondrial respiratory chain, however, the activities of complex I, II and III remained unaltered. This partial inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain might have been sufficient to lower mitochondrial energy production in mitochondria that contributed to the partial dysfunction of Na+K+ATPase. Besides energy depletion other contributing factors were involved in the dysfunction of this enzyme, like loss of thiol groups for enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation-derived end products that might have induced conformational and functional changes. However, providing direct evidence for such conformational and functional changes of Na+K+ATPase was beyond the scope of the present study. In addition, immunoblotting results also showed a decrease in Na+K+ATPase protein expression highlighting the impact of nickel neurotoxicity on the expression of the enzyme itself. The implication of the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and Na+K+ATPase dysfunction was the neuronal death as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Thus, this study established the deleterious impact of nickel neurotoxicity on mitochondrial functions in the piscine brain and identified probable contributing factors that can act concurrently in the inhibition of Na+K+ATPase. This study also provided a vital clue about the specific areas that the therapeutic agents should target to counter nickel neurotoxicity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mitochondrial respiratory chain
  • complex IV
  • sodium potassium ATPase
  • nickel
  • neurotoxicity
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of melamine migration from melamine-ware products by designed HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of migration

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 316 - 320

Abstrakt

Abstract

Melamine-ware is widely used around the world. There is a public health concern as regards the safety of melamine when exposed to food. This study was carried out to measure the level of melamine migration in melamine-ware products by HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of melamine migration. In food control laboratories in Iran, there is no common method to measure and monitor melamine migration, hence a method using HPLC technique was adopted and validated to solve this problem. The validation results showed the reliability with 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.145 and 0.435 µg/ml, which for a new method were within acceptable ranges. Melamine migrations from 4 most available melamine wares were measured. Distilled water, 3% acetic acid and 15% ethanol were used as food simulant at 30 °C for 90 min. Although melamine migration occurred in all samples and acidic conditions had a significant effect, the values were not higher than the European standard (30 µg/ml). The study revealed that the HPLC method was valid and could be applied and developed to measure melamine migration. However, precautions should be considered while choosing melamine-ware utensil as long-term exposure to this substance has a negative effect on health, especially on the kidneys.

Słowa kluczowe

  • melamine
  • migration
  • HPLC
  • food type
Otwarty dostęp

Alteration in MDA, GSH level and hematological changes due to thiamine deficiency in Mus musculus

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 321 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is known that thiamine deficiency may lead to Alzheimer’s diseases in humans. The present study has thus been conducted to understand the role of thiamine deficiency with respect to alteration in the peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (6–8 week old) were divided into three groups. The first group was control; the second (group II) and the third group (group III) were made thiamine deficient for 08 and 10 days respectively. Thiamine deficiency was induced in mice by injecting pyrithiamine (5 µg/10 g bwt) and feeding a thiamine deficient diet. The erythrocytes, leukocytes count, hemoglobin, hematocrit value, mass cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin in blood of mice were determined by hematoanalyzer. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level was also determined in serum of treated and non-treated groups. A significant reduction in leukocyte and erythrocyte count was observed in both the thiamine deficient groups as compared to control. Levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit value were also declined in the thiamine deficient groups. Enhancement in mass cell volume (MCV) level and decline in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels were observed in both thiamine deficient groups with respect to control. Inter-group comparison of all parameters also showed a significant value at p<0.01. In comparison with the control group, elevation in MDA and decline in GSH level was observed in both thiamine deficient groups which were statistically significant. These data indicate that thiamine deficiency leads to significant alterations in the hematological parameters as well as in MDA and GSH level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • blood
  • hematological alterations
  • thiamine deficiency
  • Alzheimer’s diseases
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Zika virus infection from a newborn point of view. TORCH or TORZiCH?

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 241 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

Zika virus (ZIKV) belongs to the group of viruses called arboviruses. Congenital Zika syndrome is a new disease with infectious teratogenic aetiology. The clinical symptoms are divided into morphological and functional. Most severe complication is the foetal brain disruption sequence that includes severe microcephaly, anomalies of the eyes and congenital contractions of joints. The aim of this paper was to review available facts about Zika virus infection from a newborn point of view in a form of the summary of all important information. Zika virus infection is a problem of past, present and future. Epidemics may occur because of global climate changes, also in countries where natural conditions for life of mosquitos are not present. This clearly indicates the need to continue developing of vaccines and specific antiviral drugs. Until this happens, we must adhere individual preventive measures. Zika virus has proven to us how it can affect the health of adults and neonates but also thinking of healthy people. Newborns with microcephaly on the front pages of the media caused in 2015 panic and fear around the world – for this reason education of people is necessary. Due to serious congenital disorders associated with ZIKV infection and global impact of virus we suggest modifying old acronym TORCH for new TORZiCH to accent the position of Zika virus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • newborn
  • Zika virus
  • complications
  • diagnosis
  • treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Medicinal plants and natural products can play a significant role in mitigation of mercury toxicity

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 247 - 254

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mercury is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity. Scientific literature reveals various plants and plant derived natural products, i.e., phytochemicals, which can alleviate experimentally induced mercury toxicity in animals. The present review attempts to collate those experimental studies on medicinal plants and phytochemicals with ameliorative effects on mercury toxicity. A literature survey was carried out by using Google, Scholar Google, Scopus and Pub-Med. Only the scientific journal articles found in the internet for the last two decades (1998–2018) were considered. Minerals and semi-synthetic or synthetic analogs of natural products were excluded. The literature survey revealed that in pre-clinical studies 27 medicinal plants and 27 natural products exhibited significant mitigation from mercury toxicity in experimental animals. Clinical investigations were not found in the literature. Admissible research in this area could lead to development of a potentially effective agent from the plant kingdom for clinical management of mercury toxicity in humans.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mercury
  • ascorbic acid
  • natural products
  • oxidative stress
  • quercetin
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of the time-dependent dermatotoxicity of mechlorethamine using the mouse ear vesicant model

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 255 - 266

Abstrakt

Abstract

Mechlorethamine (HN2) is an alkylating agent and sulfur mustard gas mimetic which is also used in anticancer therapy. HN2 is associated with skin inflammation and blistering which can lead to secondary infections. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the time-dependent dermatotoxicity of HN2 using the mouse ear vesicant model (MEVM). To this end, our operational definition of dermatotoxicity included tissue responses to HN2 consistent with an increase in the wet weights of mouse ear punch biopsies, an increase in the morphometric thickness of H&E stained ear sections and histopathologic observations including tissue edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and vesication. The ears of male Swiss Webster mice were topically exposed to a single dose of HN2 (0.5 µmol/ear) or DMSO vehicle (5 µl/ear) or left untreated (naive). Mice were then euthanized at 15 min, 1, 2, 4, 8 or 24 hr following HN2 exposure. Compared to control ears, mouse ears exposed to HN2 at all time points showed an increase in wet weights, morphometric thickness, edema, inflammatory cell infiltration and signs of vesication. The incidence in tissue vesication sharply increased between 4 and 8 hr after exposure, revealing that tissue vesication is well established by 8 hr and remains elevated at 24 hr after exposure. It is noteworthy that, compared to control ears, mouse ears treated with DMSO vehicle alone also exhibited an increase in wet weights and morphometric thickness at 15 min, 1, 2 and 4 hr following treatment; however, these vehicle effects begin to subside after 4 hr. The results obtained here using the MEVM provide a more holistic understanding of the kinetics of vesication, and indicate that time points earlier than 24 hr may prove useful not only for investigating the complex mechanisms involved in vesication but also for assessing the effects of vesicant countermeasures.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mechlorethamine
  • mouse ear vesicant model
  • MMP-9
  • dermatotoxicity
  • vesication
Otwarty dostęp

Antiproliferative, neurotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of toxic cyanobacterial extracts

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 267 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cyanobacteria are the rich resource of various secondary metabolites including toxins with broad pharmaceutical significance. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antiproliferative, neurotoxic, genotoxic and mutagenic effects of cyanobacterial extracts containing Microcystin-LR (MCLR) in vitro. ELISA analysis results showed that MCLR contents of five cyanobacterial extracts were 2.07 ng/mL, 1.43 ng/mL, 1.41 ng/mL, 1.27 ng/mL, and 1.12 ng/mL for Leptolyngbya sp. SB1, Phormidium sp. SB4, Oscillatoria earlei SB5, Phormidium sp. SB2, Uncultured cyanobacterium, respectively. Phormidium sp. SB4 and Phormidium sp. SB2 extracts had the lowest neurotoxicity (86% and 79% cell viability, respectively) and Oscillatoria earlei SB5 extracts had the highest neurotoxicity (47% cell viability) on PC12 cell at 1000 µg/ml extract concentration. Leptolyngbya sp. SB1 and Phormidium sp. SB2 showed the highest antiproliferative effect (92% and 77% cell death) on HT29 cell. On the other hand, all concentrations of five toxic cyanobacterial extracts induced DNA damage between 3.0% and 1.3% of tail intensity and did not cause any direct mutagenic effect at the 1000 µg/plate cyanobacterial extracts. These results suggest that cyanobacteria-derived MCLR is a promising candidate for development of effective agents against colon cancer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Cyanobacteria
  • Microcystin-LR
  • HT29 cells
  • HeLa cells
  • PC12 cells
Otwarty dostęp

Novel pentacyclic triterpene isolated from seeds of Euryale Ferox Salisb. ameliorates diabetes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 275 - 288

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present research was carried out to study the effect of 2β-hydroxybetulinic acid 3β-oleiate (HBAO), a novel compound isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox salisb. on glycemic control, antioxidant status and histopathological morphological alterations in the liver, pancreas, kidney and heart in streptozotocin induced type-2 diabetes in rats. HBAO was isolated from the seeds of Euryale ferox salisb. according to Lee. Isolation of the active principle HBAO was performed for the first time. To date there are no reports on the isolation and evaluation of 2β-hydroxybetulinic acid 3β-oleiate (HBAO) from Euryale ferox salisb. Assessment of different biochemical parameters like the effect of HBAO on glycemic control, plasma insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, hepatic glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1-6-biphosphatase, hepatic hexokinase, lipid profile, antioxidant marker and histopathology of pancreas, liver and kidney examination was done at the end of the experimentation, i.e. on day 45. HBAO exhibited remarkable improvement in glycemic control, lipid levels, plasma insulin, glycogenic liver enzymes and antioxidant activity in diabetic rats, along with progressive enhancement of distortive histopathological morphology of liver, pancreas and kidney. The results strongly suggest that HBAO could be a potential therapeutic agent in diabetes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Diabetes
  • HBAO
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of AgNPs on the human reconstructed epidermis

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 289 - 293

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nanoparticles are utilized in a wide range of industries. The most studied silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are used in medicine and also in several wound dressings due to their antimicrobial properties. The inflammatory response or potential morphological changes of skin cells after their application are not well known yet. In our study we used the model of human reconstructed epidermis (RHE), prepared in our laboratory, to evaluate whether the AgNPs penetrate through RHE, induce some morphological changes of keratinocytes or influence the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8). After the application of three different concentrations (25 ppm, 2.5 ppm, 0.25 ppm) of AgNPs to of RHE for 24 hours we verified that AgNPs did not affect the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and IL-8) and neither did they influence the expression of keratin K14 and loricrin. The morphology of the cells was likewise unchanged. Based on these results we conclude that AgNPs do not have any negative effect on the morphological changes and do not increase the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Słowa kluczowe

  • human reconstructed epidermis
  • AgNPs
  • IL-6
  • IL-8
  • loricrin
  • keratin K14
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of quercetin on tight junctional proteins and BDNF signaling molecules in hippocampus of PCBs-exposed rats

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 294 - 305

Abstrakt

Abstract

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) consist of a range of toxic substances which are directly proportional to carcinogenesis and tumor-promoting factors as well as having neurotoxic properties. Reactive oxygen species, which are produced from PCBs, alter blood–brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which is paralleled by cytoskeletal rearrangements and redistribution and disappearance of tight junction proteins (TJPs) like claudin-5 and occludin. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), plays an important role in the maintenance, survival of neurons and synaptic plasticity. It is predominant in the hippocampal areas vital to learning, memory and higher thinking. Quercetin, a flavonoid, had drawn attention to its neurodefensive property. The study is to assess the role of quercetin on serum PCB, estradiol and testosterone levels and mRNA expressions of estrogen receptor α and β, TJPs and BDNF signaling molecules on the hippocampus of PCBs-exposed rats. Rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each. Group I rats were intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered corn oil (vehicle). Group II received quercetin 50 mg/kg/bwt (gavage). Group III received PCBs (Aroclor 1254) at 2 mg/kg bwt (i.p). Group IV received quercetin 50 mg/kg bwt (gavage) simultaneously with PCBs 2 mg/kg bwt (i.p.). The treatment was given daily for 30 days. The rats were euthanized 24 h after the experimental period. Blood was collected for quantification of serum PCBs estradiol and testosterone. The hippocampus was dissected and processed for PCR and Western blot; serum PCB was observed in PCB treated animals, simultaneously quercetin treated animals showed PCB metabolites. Serum testosterone and estradiol were decreased after PCB exposure. Quercetin supplementation brought back normal levels. mRNA expressions of estrogen α and β were decreased in the hippocampus of PCB treated rats. TJPS and BDNF signalling molecules were decreased in hippocampus of PCB treated rats. Quercetin supplementation retrieved all the parameters. Quercetin alone treated animals showed no alteration. Thus in PCB caused neurotoxicity, quercetin protects and prevents neuronal damage in the hippocampus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • TJPs
  • BDNF
  • PCBs
  • Quercetin
  • GC-MS
Otwarty dostęp

Mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition and Na+K+ATPase dysfunction are determinant factors modulating the toxicity of nickel in the brain of indian catfish Clarias batrachus L.

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 306 - 315

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nickel is a potential neurotoxic pollutant inflicting damage in living organisms, including fish, mainly through oxidative stress. Previous studies have demonstrated the impact of nickel toxicity on mitochondrial function, but there remain lacunae on the damage inflicted at mitochondrial respiratory level. Deficient mitochondrial function usually affects the activities of important adenosinetriphosphatases responsible for the maintenance of normal neuronal function, namely Na+K+ATPase, as explored in our study. Previous reports demonstrated the dysfunction of this enzyme upon nickel exposure but the contributing factors for the inhibition of this enzyme remained unexplored. The main purpose of this study was to elucidate the impact of nickel neurotoxicity on mitochondrial respiratory complexes and Na+K+ATPase in the piscine brain and to determine the contributing factors that had an impact on the same. Adult Clarias batrachus were exposed to nickel treated water at 10% and 20% of the 96 h LC50 value (41 mg.l−1) respectively and sampled on 20, 40 and 60 days. Exposure of fish brain to nickel led to partial inhibition of complex IV of mitochondrial respiratory chain, however, the activities of complex I, II and III remained unaltered. This partial inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory chain might have been sufficient to lower mitochondrial energy production in mitochondria that contributed to the partial dysfunction of Na+K+ATPase. Besides energy depletion other contributing factors were involved in the dysfunction of this enzyme, like loss of thiol groups for enzyme activity and lipid peroxidation-derived end products that might have induced conformational and functional changes. However, providing direct evidence for such conformational and functional changes of Na+K+ATPase was beyond the scope of the present study. In addition, immunoblotting results also showed a decrease in Na+K+ATPase protein expression highlighting the impact of nickel neurotoxicity on the expression of the enzyme itself. The implication of the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration and Na+K+ATPase dysfunction was the neuronal death as evidenced by enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 activities. Thus, this study established the deleterious impact of nickel neurotoxicity on mitochondrial functions in the piscine brain and identified probable contributing factors that can act concurrently in the inhibition of Na+K+ATPase. This study also provided a vital clue about the specific areas that the therapeutic agents should target to counter nickel neurotoxicity.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mitochondrial respiratory chain
  • complex IV
  • sodium potassium ATPase
  • nickel
  • neurotoxicity
Otwarty dostęp

Measurement of melamine migration from melamine-ware products by designed HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of migration

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 316 - 320

Abstrakt

Abstract

Melamine-ware is widely used around the world. There is a public health concern as regards the safety of melamine when exposed to food. This study was carried out to measure the level of melamine migration in melamine-ware products by HPLC method and the effect of food-type on the level of melamine migration. In food control laboratories in Iran, there is no common method to measure and monitor melamine migration, hence a method using HPLC technique was adopted and validated to solve this problem. The validation results showed the reliability with 94.9% accuracy and 95.3% precision. Furthermore, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.145 and 0.435 µg/ml, which for a new method were within acceptable ranges. Melamine migrations from 4 most available melamine wares were measured. Distilled water, 3% acetic acid and 15% ethanol were used as food simulant at 30 °C for 90 min. Although melamine migration occurred in all samples and acidic conditions had a significant effect, the values were not higher than the European standard (30 µg/ml). The study revealed that the HPLC method was valid and could be applied and developed to measure melamine migration. However, precautions should be considered while choosing melamine-ware utensil as long-term exposure to this substance has a negative effect on health, especially on the kidneys.

Słowa kluczowe

  • melamine
  • migration
  • HPLC
  • food type
Otwarty dostęp

Alteration in MDA, GSH level and hematological changes due to thiamine deficiency in Mus musculus

Data publikacji: 18 Oct 2019
Zakres stron: 321 - 325

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is known that thiamine deficiency may lead to Alzheimer’s diseases in humans. The present study has thus been conducted to understand the role of thiamine deficiency with respect to alteration in the peripheral blood of Swiss albino mice. For this purpose, adult Swiss albino mice (6–8 week old) were divided into three groups. The first group was control; the second (group II) and the third group (group III) were made thiamine deficient for 08 and 10 days respectively. Thiamine deficiency was induced in mice by injecting pyrithiamine (5 µg/10 g bwt) and feeding a thiamine deficient diet. The erythrocytes, leukocytes count, hemoglobin, hematocrit value, mass cell volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin in blood of mice were determined by hematoanalyzer. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) level was also determined in serum of treated and non-treated groups. A significant reduction in leukocyte and erythrocyte count was observed in both the thiamine deficient groups as compared to control. Levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit value were also declined in the thiamine deficient groups. Enhancement in mass cell volume (MCV) level and decline in mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) levels were observed in both thiamine deficient groups with respect to control. Inter-group comparison of all parameters also showed a significant value at p<0.01. In comparison with the control group, elevation in MDA and decline in GSH level was observed in both thiamine deficient groups which were statistically significant. These data indicate that thiamine deficiency leads to significant alterations in the hematological parameters as well as in MDA and GSH level.

Słowa kluczowe

  • blood
  • hematological alterations
  • thiamine deficiency
  • Alzheimer’s diseases

Zaplanuj zdalną konferencję ze Sciendo