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Tom 76 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)

Tom 75 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (January 2021)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1732-2693
Pierwsze wydanie
20 Dec 2021
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 76 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (January 2022)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1732-2693
Pierwsze wydanie
20 Dec 2021
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

52 Artykułów

Original Study

Otwarty dostęp

Long-term results of Boston keratoprosthesis surgery in Polish patients

Data publikacji: 14 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

To evaluate the long-term (10 year) outcomes of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (BKPro; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA) surgery performed in 6 Polish patients.

Materials and Methods

6 eyes of 6 patients (1 female and 5 males; mean age 49,5±6,34 years) were qualified for the surgery. Indications for BKPro surgery in the study group included: corneal graft failure (3 patients), chemical ocular burns (2 patients), and post-herpetic keratitis vascularized leucoma (1 patient). Visual acuity, slit-lamp examination with ocular surface assessment, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT), fundoscopy, and intraocular digital pressure measurement were performed at each visit.

Results

Retention of keratoprosthesis was achieved in all patients during the follow-up period. At last recorded visits VA≥0,2 was observed in 3 patients, LP in one patient and NLP in 2 patients. The complications which occurred in our case series were: glaucoma (4 patients preoperatively, 6 patients postoperatively), retroprosthetic membrane formation (1 patient), epimacular membrane formation (2 patients) and severe Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (3 patients). OCT analysis allowed imaging of anterior iris synechiae, AGV tube, protrusion of the BKPro and retroprosthetic membrane not visible on the slit lamp examination.

Conclusions

BKPro surgery should be considered as a surgery of choice in patients who have high risk of PK failure. OCT plays a role in anterior eye segment monitoring and detection of complications not visible on the slit lamp examination in the follow up period. Implementing the dry eye disease treatment should be recommended in all patients undergoing BKPro surgery.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cornea
  • keratoprosthesis
  • optical coherence tomography
  • dry eye disease
Otwarty dostęp

The effect of lipoic acid on the content of SOD-1 and TNF-α in rat striated muscle

Data publikacji: 21 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 11 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

The aim of the study was to present the effect of lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Materials/Methods

The studies were conducted on male rats of the Wistar strain. The animals were divided into four groups. I: the controls received saline (0.2 ml); II: LPS, received LPS (Escherichia coli 026: B6) at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight; III: LA, received LA at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight; IV: LA + LPS, received LA (60 mg/kg b.w.) and after 30 min received LPS (6 mg/kg b.w.). All compounds were administered to the tail vein. After 5 hours of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and striated muscle from the thigh was prepared. The isolated muscle was homogenized. Concentrations of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in the homogenates with the application of ELISA.

Results

The study showed a significant decrease in SOD-1 content and an increase in TNF-α in striated muscle after LPS administration. LA given 30 min before administration of LPS caused a significant increase in the level of SOD-1 and decreased levels of TNF-α in homogenates.

Conclusion

LA reduced the parameters of LPS oxidative stress, thus contributing to an increase in the body's antioxidant defense.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lipoic acid
  • oxidative stress
  • SOD-1
  • TNF-α
  • lipopolysaccharide
Otwarty dostęp

Exenatide improves antioxidant capacity and reduces the expression of LDL receptors and PCSK9 in human insulin-secreting 1.1E7 cell line subjected to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 16 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

GLP-1 receptor agonists (e.g., exenatide) are novel drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. These drugs, working with other mechanisms of action, improve glycemic control by increasing secretion of insulin and improving survival of pancreatic islet beta cells. Alterations in the oxidative stress level or the expression of proteins associated with cholesterol uptake might be responsible for those findings. Currently, there are few in vitro studies on the impact of exenatide antioxidant capacity in human islet beta cell lines and none that assess the influence of exenatide on LDL receptors and PCSK9 under hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of exenatide on antioxidant capacity, insulin secretion, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism.

Materials and Method

An in vitro culture of insulin-secreting cells 1.1E7 was subjected to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Assessment was made of the expression of enzymes associated with oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, iNOS) and cholesterol uptake (LDL receptors, PCSK9). Additionally, insulin and nitrite levels in culture media were quantified.

Results

We showed that exenatide improves expression of catalase and reduces the amount of nitrite in cell cultures in a protein kinase A–dependent manner. Those results were accompanied by a drop in the expression of LDL receptors and PCSK9. Insulin secretion was modestly increased in the culture condition.

Conclusions

Our findings show potential protective mechanisms exerted by exenatide in human insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell line (1.1E7), which may be exerted through increased antioxidant capacity and reduced accumulation of cholesterol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Exenatide
  • GLP-1
  • pancreatic beta cell
  • oxidative stress
  • insulin
  • PCSK9
  • LDL receptor
Otwarty dostęp

Electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization in the obese population: A descriptive review

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 24 - 29

Abstrakt

Abstract

Obesity is a global epidemiological problem that significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is a proven factor for an increased risk of overall mortality and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The disease is accompanied by a structural and functional myocardium remodeling, which often results in ventricular repolarization abnormalities and contributes to the triggering of life-threatening arrhythmias. This heightened state of readiness for proarrhythmia is the cause of the sudden cardiac deaths which are recorded in this group of patients and which often constitute the first manifestation of ongoing cardiac pathology. One of the reasons for these arrhythmias may be abnormalities of ventricular muscle repolarization. In this descriptive review, we demonstrate electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization (J point, QT/QTc/QTc-d, JT/JTc/JTc-d, ST segment, T wave and Tp-e/Tp-ed/Tp-e/QT), analyze their abnormalities in the obese population, and discuss their changes after weight loss.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ECG
  • ventricular repolarization
  • obesity
  • sudden cardiac death
Otwarty dostęp

MTHFD1 c.1958G>A and TCN2 c.776G>C polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes and their implication for oral cavity cancer

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 30 - 38

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Cancers of the head and neck can damage the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, as well as the sense organs responsible for contact with the outside world. Oncogenic transformation occurs following mutations that change the function of specific genes, such tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, and their encoded protein products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the occurrence of MTHFD1 c.1958G>A and TCN2 c.776G>C gene polymorphisms and the risk of oral cavity cancer.

Materials and methods

The study population consisted of 439 patients and 200 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and from paraffin-embedded tissue. Analysis of the gene polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Results

Statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of genotypes of the rs2236225 and rs1801198 polymorphisms between patients and controls. Regarding MTHFD1 c.1958G>A, the GA genotype (p<0.0001, OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.88–4.49-GA) was more common among patients than healthy subjects. Regarding TCN2 c.776G>C, the frequency of CC genotype (p< 0.0001, OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.10–0.33-CC) was significantly less common among patients than healthy subjects. Tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and male gender (p<0.0001) were found to be predictors of the disease.

Conclusion

The results suggest that the MTHFD1 c.1958G>A polymorphism may be associated with a greater risk of oral cavity cancer, whereas a protective effect has been found for the TCN2 c.776G>C polymorphism.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • gene
  • gene
  • oral cavity cancer
Otwarty dostęp

Socioeconomic aspect of breast cancer incidence and mortality in women in Lower Silesia (Poland) in 2005–2014

Data publikacji: 14 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 62 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract Objective

Identifying breast cancer-specific (BC) correlations between socioeconomic factors and population health is important for the optimization of womens cancer screening programs.

Materials/Methods

The research was based on data of 14,158 BC cases and 4096 deaths from BC in women registered at the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry in 2005–2014 and data from Statistical Office.

Results

We found a negative impact of female unemployment on the incidence of BC, and a positive impact on women's deaths due to BC. The performed spatiotemporal disease clusters’ analysis of BC data discovered a statistically significant (p<0.05) 2 “hot” and 3 “cold spots” in incidence and only 1 “hot” disease cluster in mortality.

Conclusion

The state of health of a society is strictly associated with socio-economic conditions; one of the prognostic factors in the epidemiology of BC is the unemployment rate among women. Broadly understood urban-rural conditions affect the assessment of incidence and mortality from BC.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast cancer
  • incidence rate
  • mortality rate
  • unemployment
  • urban-rural conditions
Otwarty dostęp

Evidence of retinal arteriolar narrowing in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 82 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to examine retinal vessels in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function and without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods

We enrolled 39 adult individuals with ADPKD and 45 gender- and age-matched individuals as controls. A full ophthalmologic examination, including retinal vessel caliber and reactions to flicker stimulation analysis and grading of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification, was performed.

Results

Multivariable analysis of ADPKD patients and controls, adjusted for age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and the presence of hypertension, revealed that ADPKD was an independent factor associated with lower arteriovenous ratio (AVR) values (by 0.069 on average, β = −0.50, p < 0.0001). The severity of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification appeared to be more advanced in the ADPKD group than in the controls, despite the lack of vascular abnormalities, such as retinal hemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots or papilledema, as well as microaneurysms, which are very characteristic signs of ADPKD in other vascular beds.

Conclusions

Lower AVR values could be a specific pathophysiological ocular manifestation of systemic vasculopathy in the course of ADPKD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • arteriolar narrowing
  • arteriovenous ratio
  • retinal vessel analysis (RVA)
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of a multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous, Rapid Screening of Common Viral Infections of Central Nervous System: A Prospective Study for Enteroviruses and Herpesviruses

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 91 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Acute meningitis is a common neurological disorder that affects both children and adults and has a high mortality rate. This study aimed to create a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR system for screening clinical samples for the presence of the two viruses currently considered to be the most common causes of acute meningitis in Asia.

Materials and Methods

A single-tube RT multiplex PCR assay was developed and tested for sensitivity and specificity using primers that have been commonly used to screen for herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) and enterovirus (EV) in clinical samples. The procedure was then used to screen 303 clinical samples for the target viruses, which included 101 feces samples, 101 throat swabs, and 101 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 101 hospitalized Iranian children with suspected viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis, and the findings were compared to those of an RT monoplex PCR method.

Results

The RT-PCR approach demonstrated high precision, with no non-target virus amplification. The results of using this assay to screen clinical samples revealed that RT monoplex PCR had the same sensitivity as RT multiplex PCR for the three different types of specimens.

Conclusions

This newly developed multiplex RT-PCR method is a simple, fast diagnostic tool that can be used to screen clinical samples for viruses that cause acute meningitis/meningoencephalitis in children.

Słowa kluczowe

  • multiplex PCR
  • central nervous system disease
  • meningitis
  • children
  • enteroviruses
  • herpes simplex virus-1/2
Otwarty dostęp

Expression and biochemical significance of Piwil2 in stem cell lines

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 97 - 103

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

P-element induced wimpy testis-like 2 (Piwil2) is in the Piwi gene family. Piwil2 has important roles in the self-renewal mechanism of stem cell induction and progression of numerous types of human malignancies such as lung, breast, colon, prostate, and cervical cancers. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) acts as detoxification in cancer metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the stem cell protein Piwil2 on MCF10A and MCF-7 at the GST activity levels.

Materials/Methods

MCF-7/Piwil2 and MCF10A/Piwil2, transfected with a plasmid carrying the Piwil2 gene, and non-transfected MCF-7 and MCF10A were cultured in a complete DMEM/F12 medium. GST A1 and P1 activity was determined in these cell lines using as substrates CDNB, EA respectively.

Results

According to experimental results, GST P1 activity decreased in the MCF-7/Piwil2 cells as compared with the non-transfected MCF-7 cells, however, MCF-7/Piwil2 cells demonstrated increases in GST A1 (total GST) activity. The statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of non-transfected MCF-7 and MCF-7/Piwil2 (p<0,0001), for GST enzyme activities by using CDNB and EA as substrates. These results were the same for the MCF10A cell line.

Discussion

It is shown for the first time that transfection studies may affect GST activity at the cellular mechanism level. The study contributes to determining the effect of transfection on GST isoenzymes and also how the Piwil2 gene may affect GST activity in the stem cell line.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cancer stem cell
  • ethacrynic acid
  • glutathione -transferase
  • piwil2
Otwarty dostęp

The relationship of quality of life and selected sociodemographic factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 111 - 116

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with relapsing-remitting episodes that are very burdensome for the patient. Understanding the sociodemographic factors that affect a patient’s quality of life helps us to better understand the behavior and life circumstances of the patient as well as the patient’s ability to cope with the stresses caused by IBD.

Aim

The aim of the study was to identify factors that affect the quality of life of patients with IBD.

Material and methods

The study involved 100 patients with confirmed IBD (50 subjects with Crohn’s disease and 50 subjects with ulcerative colitis). Women constituted 45% (n=45) of the study group, while the remaining 55% (n=55) of the group were men. The mean age of the respondents participating in the study was 37.27±13.38. The youngest patient was 20 years old and the oldest was 76. The respondents were treated at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery and at the Department of Digestive Tract Diseases (both at Medical University in Łódź, Poland). Data were collected using the SF-36 general questionnaire, the IBDQ specific questionnaire, and the original author’s questionnaire. Participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis.

Results

The study showed that the quality of life of IBD patients is reduced. The psychosocial factors influencing the quality of life of IBD patients include education, place of residence, professional activity, having a spouse, and lack of surgical intervention. However, no significant relationship was found between the respondents’ gender and age and their quality of life in any of the domains of the SF-36 and IBDQ questionnaire.

Conclusions

The occurrence of IBD, a chronic and incurable disease, reduces the quality of life of those patients. However, a higher level of education, living in a larger community, and increased physical activity all have a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with IBD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • quality of life
  • functioning
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between skin conductance measurements and subjective pain scales in children after otolaryngological procedures

Data publikacji: 08 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 117 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Pain assessment in children is crucial in managing postoperative analgesia; it is therefore necessary to determine the most accurate tool for assessing pain in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between skin conductance measurements and self-reporting pain scales in children after otolaryngology procedures.

Materials and methods

Thirty-three children (N=33) were assessed for eligibility for the research. Postoperative pain was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale; the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale; the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability scale; and a skin conductance algesimeter. The postoperative pain was measured 1 and 2 hours after the surgery.

Results

There was no statistically significant correlation between self-reported pain scores and the skin conductance fluctuations in the children studied, regardless of gender or age. A statistically significant correlation was found between the existing subjective pain scales in children.

Conclusions

The skin conductance measurements do not provide an additional reliable tool for assessing pain in patients after otolaryngological procedures. The existing self-reported pain scales are sufficient to assess postoperative pain in children.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pain
  • skin conductance
  • pain scale
  • postoperative pain
  • pediatric
Otwarty dostęp

Development of a method for isolation of melanin from archival FFPE tissues of human melanoma for structural studies by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Data publikacji: 08 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 122 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

There is some evidence that pheomelanin produced in skin melanocytes may be involved in the development of cutaneous melanoma, particularly in individuals with a light skin/red hair phenotype. However, nothing is known about possible correlation between the type and/or clinical stage of melanoma and the content of pheomelanin in the tumor tissue. We believe that archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) melanoma tissues could be a good source of melanin pigment for future large-scale research on that issue.

Aim

The aim of this work was to develop a method for isolation and purification of melanin from FFPE samples of human melanoma. To test the suitability of the isolation protocol for planned structural studies, the obtained melanin was analyzed for pheomelanin content by the method based on pyrolysis (Py) coupled with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS).

Material and methods

For melanin isolation, microtome sections of FFPE tissue of primary lesion and lymph node metastases were subjected to a multistep procedure of paraffin removal, tissue rehydration, homogenization, and digestion with the set of proteolytic enzymes. The pigment samples were then pyrolyzed at 500 °C, and the GC-separated thermal degradation products were identified using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

Results

GC/MS/MS analysis of the pyrolysis products revealed the presence of pheomelanin markers, which allowed quantitation of a pheomelanin component of each of the isolated pigments. Melanin from the FFPE primary melanoma was found to contain 6.6%, and the pigment from FFPE metastatic lymph node 7.5% of pheomelanin.

Conclusions

The developed protocol allows for the isolation of melanin from FFPE melanoma specimens. The pigment can be successfully studied for pheomelanin content by Py-GC/MS/MS method. The results of our study indicate that archival FFPE tumor tissues can be used as a good source of melanin for future structural studies aimed at shedding more light on the role of pheomelanin in the pathomechanism of cutaneous melanoma.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FFPE
  • melanoma
  • pheomelanin
  • pyrolysis
  • GC/MS/MS
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of amygdalin on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cells in the in vitro study

Data publikacji: 25 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 132 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Amygdalin is a chemical compound found in the seeds of many edible plants. Different studies using cancer cell cultures in vitro indicate its potential anti-cancer activity. Various types of cancer cells showed different responses to different doses of amygdalin. This may suggest many in vitro models of the activity of this compound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of amygdalin on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D breast cancer cells and on HFF-1 normal dermal fibroblasts (control cell culture) in vitro. Cell proliferation, viability, and the changes in mRNA transcript levels of basic proteins (BAX, caspase 3 and BCL-2) involved in apoptosis were analyzed.

Materials and Methods

MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T-47D, and HFF-1 cell lines were purchased from the ATCC. Amygdalin derived from apricot kernels was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. CVDE, WST-1, and LDH assays were used to evaluate the effects of amygdalin on cell proliferation and viability. Molecular evaluation of gene transcription levels was performed using the RT-qPCR technique.

Results

Amygdalin causes a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D cells in the in vitro cultures. In all cell cultures amygdalin affects the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and caspase 3 proteins and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein.

Conclusions

Amygdalin anti-cancer activity may be selective in relation to different cell types. It seems that examined breast cancer cells are more sensitive to amygdalin than normal cells.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast cancer
  • amygdalin
  • cell culture
  • T-47D
  • MDA-MB-231
  • MCF-7
  • HFF-1
  • BAX
  • BCL-2
  • caspase 3
Otwarty dostęp

Salivary HPV infection in healthy people

Data publikacji: 29 May 2022
Zakres stron: 143 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

In recent years, interest in human papillomavirus infections as a causative factor in epithelial cancer development has grown. Literature indicates that HPV involvement in malignant transformations in oral mucosa can vary significantly, from 0 up to 87%. The aim of our study was to detect the prevalence of salivary HPV infection among generally healthy adults.

Materials and Methods

The examination involved 139 patients, from whom 139 whole, 1.5ml saliva samples were obtained. HPV DNA was detected by the nested PCR technique. To visualize the PCR products electrophoresis reactions were carried out.

Results

Sample analysis showed that DNA for HPV was detected in 14 patients: 11 positive results were obtained from men, and 3 from women. This yields a high infection rate: 10.07%.

Conclusions

The HPV prevalence in the male group was more than twice as high as in the female group. Also, subclinical oral HPV infection was detected more frequently in young (19–39 years old) and older (=>60 years old) adults.

Słowa kluczowe

  • human papillomavirus
  • saliva
  • healthy adults
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between brush cytology results and histopathological examination in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer: A prospective study

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 149 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of the paper was to demonstrate that brush cytology can be useful in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous states and laryngeal cancer.

Materials and Methods

Ninety-two patients were analyzed. The control group included patients with benign laryngeal lesions, while the study group was composed of patients in whom a precancerous condition or laryngeal cancer was suspected. Material for histopathological and cytological examination was collected during a laryngeal microsurgery. The authors analyzed the consistency of the results of cytological and histopathological examination in the diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer.

Results

Comparing diagnoses based on cytological examination with the results of histopathological examinations, the authors observed that there was a strong and statistically significant (p<0.001) correlation between the results. The accuracy of brush cytology in the conducted study indicates that the sensitivity and specificity of the test reaches 90.09% and 93.5% with 4 false negative and 3 false positive results. Positive prediction reached 93% and negative prediction reached 91.5%.

Conclusions

Brush cytology of the larynx may be useful in screening and as an auxiliary test in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • brush cytology
  • histopathological examination
  • dysplasia
  • laryngeal squamous carcinoma
  • screening
Otwarty dostęp

Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as alternative methods of early identification of pathogens causing catheter-related bloodstream infections of patients in ICU

Data publikacji: 13 May 2022
Zakres stron: 157 - 164

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Vascular catheters are an indispensable element of the therapy of patients in intensive care. Their use is associated with the possibility of complications, including infectious. According to various sources, the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) ranges from 0.1 to 22.7 per 1,000 catheter days.

Materials and Methods

The central venous catheter tip culture samples were collected from 24 patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection, from three intensive care units (ICUs). The results of microscopic examinations: atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were compared with the results of microbiological analysis of the central venous catheter tip and blood collected from the catheter.

Results

The microscopic examination and microbiological analysis of both the blood and central venous catheter samples confirmed the presence of microorganisms in 16 cases (double positive result). Our study was conducted in a short period of time (up to 6 hours) and it gave an initial answer to the question about the type of microorganisms colonising the central venous catheter. In one patient the infection was not caused by removal of the central venous catheter. However, not all results were fully consistent within the two diagnostic methods. The colonisation of the central venous catheter with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis was microbiologically confirmed, but it was not confirmed by the microscopic examination of the sample collected from patient No. 20. However, the examination enabled preliminary assessment of the microorganism colonising the catheter, which may have caused the blood infection. It cannot be ruled out that Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacilli were grown on the catheter that came into contact with blood from another source of infection, e.g. the respiratory, nervous or urinary systems. Information on the presence of cocci-shaped bacteria forming characteristic clusters or rods may enable initial diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection if it is accompanied by typical clinical symptoms. Alternative diagnostics also provides valuable information on the presence of biofilm, which is a factor hindering the body’s response to infection and penetration of antibiotics.

Conclusions

Our pilot study presents new diagnostic possibilities of microscopic imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify pathogens on routinely used disposable medical devices, such as the central venous catheter. On the other hand, this range of diagnostics reveals the potential to constantly improve medical materials which come into direct contact with patients’ tissues. It is important to create a database of microscopic images, which would be a repeatable diagnostic pattern and fully correlated with the results of microbiological analysis, because it would facilitate initial quick diagnosis of a potential CRBSI.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microbiological analysis
  • microscopic examination
  • microscopy and scanning
  • alternative methods
Otwarty dostęp

Cadmium in herbal weight loss products as a health risk factor for consumers

Data publikacji: 13 May 2022
Zakres stron: 165 - 173

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Herbal weight loss remedies are produced from various plant species which could accumulate heavy metals from the environment. The consumption of contaminated herbal preparations could be a source of consumer exposure to toxic metals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of cadmium in selected herbal weight loss products available on the Polish market, to determine exposure of consumers to the heavy metal included in herbal infusions prepared from the studied products and the related health risk.

Materials and Methods

The study included 29 herbal weight loss products available on the Polish market. The content of cadmium in the analyzed dried herbs and herbal infusions was analyzed. Based on the obtained results, the exposure of consumers to cadmium and the related health risks were estimated.

Results

Cadmium concentration in dried herbs did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration.

Conclusions

The exposure of consumers of the most contaminated herbal infusions to cadmium could be equal to half of the reference dose, which is an acceptable exposure threshold.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblast growth factors
  • endocrine
  • metabolic disorders
  • obesity
  • mineral balance
Otwarty dostęp

Is combined physical therapy more effective than topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers? Preliminary study

Data publikacji: 04 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 199 - 208

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Recently, increased frequency of chronic leg ulcers has been observed. The aim of the study was to compare therapeutic efficacy of combined physical therapy to topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

Materials and Methods

Participants included 36 patients (14 females and 22 males) between 18 and 80 years of age with chronic venous leg ulcers. They were randomly divided into two study groups. Group I underwent topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy; group II underwent combined physical therapy. Before and after the therapeutic cycle (15 procedures) measurement of ulceration size by planimetry and analysis of laboratory parameters of blood was performed.

Results

In both groups, a statistically significant reduction of ulcer surface area was obtained (25.11±17.8cm2 to 16.93±13.89cm2, p=0.000196) vs. (34.17±14.82cm2 to 23.99±15.15cm2, p=0.004337). Blood morphology revealed a statistically significant reduction in patients from group II who underwent combined physical therapy (p=0.01). In both groups, statistically significant reduction of fibrinogen level (p=0.01 and p<0.001), and total protein level (p=0.01) was achieved. In group II reduction of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) was noted.

Conclusions

Topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy and combined physical therapy had statistically significant effects on the reduction of surface area of treated venous leg ulcers. The changes in morphological and biochemical parameters may indicate the anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting action effects of combined physical therapy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biochemical blood parameters
  • venous leg ulcers
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  • combined physical therapy
  • treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with muse cell analyzer and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining method

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 209 - 219

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Mistletoe has been used alone or as a complementary therapy in the treatment of different diseases for years. In this study, the antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells was evaluated.

Materials and Methods

EAT cells from preformed stock mice were transferred to culture dishes containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mistletoe extracts at different doses (100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/ml). These cells were incubated at 37 °C in an environment with 95% humidity and 5% CO2. At the end of the incubations, the apoptosis status of the cells, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and proliferation status with the argyrophilic (Ag) nucleolar organizer region staining (NORs) method were evaluated.

Results

As a result, it was observed that the mistletoe fruit extract and 5-FU induce apoptosis of EAT cells. It was concluded that the 5-FU substance arrests the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage, while the mistletoe arrests the cell cycle at the S and G2/M stages. The depolarization rate of the mistletoe treated cells was higher. As a result of the evaluation made with the AgNORs method, it was seen that mistletoe and 5-FU could be effective in reducing the proliferation of EAT cells.

Conclusions

It was seen that mistletoe fruit extract could be effective in stimulating the apoptosis and depolarization of cancer cells. The results of other studies in the literature and our study support each other. It was concluded that the mistletoe plant may be useful in cancer treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mistletoe
  • Ehrlich ascites tumor
  • apoptosis
  • cell proliferation
  • AgNORs
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human breast milk

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 220 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Women who have problems with lactation can use human milk banks. Mainly this human milk is provided to premature babies and sick newborns. Human milk is the most suitable food for newborns and infants, recommended by WHO (World Health Organization). Human milk has anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and anti-allergic properties, and also works for immunomodulation. Melatonin has a special, underestimated importance in the composition of breast milk. It is a hormone that has many body functions and, for several decades, its antioxidant potential has been increasingly talked about.

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Holder pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human milk.

Materials and Methods

18 samples of human milk from donors from the human milk bank were used for the analysis. Melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization was determined by ELISA. In addition, the nutritional content composition of milk was analyzed using MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and correlations examined.

Results

Melatonin concentration in human milk before pasteurization was 0.65–26.24 pg/mL (Me=9.58, IQR=12.72), while after pasteurization 0.80–29.58 pg/mL (Me=9.98, IQR=11.26). There was a positive correlation between melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization (r=0.797, p<0.001).

Conclusions

The Holder pasteurization process does not affect the concentration of melatonin in milk samples, which may be a recommendation for human milk banks.

Słowa kluczowe

  • melatonin
  • Holder pasteurization
  • human milk
  • donor milk
  • human milk bank
  • lactation
  • newborn
Otwarty dostęp

The association of air pollutants (CO2, MTBE) on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata drug resistance

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 243 - 253

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Therapeutic methods are very important in the prevalence of opportunistic fungal infections, which are an important cause of human diseases. In this study, air pollution agents that are in direct contact with microorganisms, and the effects of carbon sources using CO2 and MTBE on growth of fungi, and particularly the evaluation of changes in the expression of interfering genes in susceptibility and drug resistance in these fungi, were investigated.

Materials and Methods

Collecting samples and isolating Candida glabrata and Candida albicans with phenotypic methods were accomplished. We then evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the M27A4 protocol of CLSI. We adjusted 20 strains of C. albicans and 10 strains of C. glabrata whose sensitivity was evaluated in the MIC test with 5% CO2 and 5mg/ml methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) considered as air pollutants, and followed by re-evaluating MIC testing to separate azole-resistant strains. Interfering agents were also considered.

Results

Upregulation of some genes on the two mentioned yeasts had led to drug resistance in them; they were previously sensitive to both drugs. Correspondingly, 41% of C. glabrata samples in sputum showed sensitivity to these drugs. Upregulation of ERG11 (71%) and EPA1 (90%) were observed in resistant strains. Upregulation of genes associated with aspartate proteins and downregulation of SAP3 genes were recognized in C. glabrata in sputum and a 15% downregulation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) isolate and 50% upregulation of SAP1 gene in C. albicans sensitive samples were observed and compared to fluconazole and itraconazole with the oral and joint sources. Remarkably, decreased SAP2 expression in oral sources and a 60% increase in resistant strains in C. albicans were observed. The downregulation of SAP3 expression showed in the joint samples. An increase in HWP1 expression (30%) was noted in isolated and drug-sensitive samples at the sputum and BAL source. CDR1 expression was increased in MTBE-affected species; however, it decreased in the vicinity of CT.

Conclusions

Air pollutants such as CO2 and MTBE eventually caused drug resistance in Candida, which can be one of the causes of drug resistance in candidiasis infections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • air pollutant
  • CO
  • MTBE
  • drug resistance
  • molecular investigation
Otwarty dostęp

Epidemiology of infections and colonization caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017

Data publikacji: 04 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 275 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of antimicrobial-resistant opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients. Due to acquired resistance to multiple antimicrobials, K. pneumoniae is a particular threat in health care. The aim of this study was the assessment of the epidemiological situation related to the spread of symptomatic infections and colonization caused by K. pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017.

Materials and Methods

The study included data collected between 2016 and 2017 from 168 hospitals located in and outside of Warsaw but limited to the Mazovian Voivodeship. Data was extracted from reports on suspected epidemic outbreaks and the elimination of outbreaks as well as annual reports on nosocomial infections and alarm pathogens.

Results

The incidence of infections caused by K. pneumoniae NDM (symptomatic and asymptomatic) was 0.96/1,000 hospitalizations in 2016 and 2.04/1,000 hospitalizations in 2017. In 2016, hospitals in the Mazovian Voivodeship reported 50 transmissions of K. pneumoniae NDM. In 2017, this value increased to 74. The risk of symptomatic infection was higher in hospitals outside of Warsaw than in hospitals in Warsaw, while risk of colonization was higher in hospitals in Warsaw.

Conclusions

The epidemiological situation related to infections and colonization caused by K. pneumoniae NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship is disadvantageous, which implies the necessity to monitor anti-epidemic measures. The epidemic situation in hospitals outside of Warsaw seems to be worse compared to hospitals in Warsaw, which have higher risks of symptomatic infection caused by K. pneumoniae NDM.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • epidemiology
  • New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase
  • pathogen transmission
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of advancement of otitis media with effusion on vestibular organ condition in children

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 300 - 306

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common otorhinolaryngological (ENT) disorders in childhood. This study aimed to investigate the vestibular organ condition in children with OME and whether the presence of vestibular disturbances depends on the advancement of OME.

Materials and Methods

Subjects were 53 children between 4 and 14 years old with bilateral OME and treated with middle ear drainage. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the advancement of the disease. The participants were submitted to an evaluation consisting of anamnesis, ENT evaluation, static posturography, and electronystagmography (ENG). Examination was performed before surgery and one month after drainage.

Results

The posturography revealed the presence of disturbances before and after ME drainage. After drainage, the assessed parameters improved; they still, however, remained elevated. Disturbances in posturography, both before and after drainage, were expressed more fully in the subgroup with stage II compared to the stage I subgroup, especially before drainage. The analysis of the ENG confirmed that the stage of clinical advancement affects the severity of vestibular disorders in children with OME. Greater vestibular disorders in the form of the presence of spontaneous nystagmus and position were more frequent in the subgroup with stage II.

Conclusions

ME effusion affects the vestibular organ in children with OME. The degree of vestibular disturbances depends on the clinical advancement of the disease. The assessment of the vestibular organ condition is beneficial and should be included in the OME diagnostic and for qualification for surgical treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • vertigo
  • balance disorders
  • otitis media with effusion
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of dietary intake by self-report in adult patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a personal insulin pump

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 315 - 323

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Appropriate nutrition is an element affecting the metabolic control of patients with diabetes. There are only a few studies assessing the implementation of dietary recommendations in adult patients with type 1 diabetes; none of them assessed the implementation of nutritional standards. Our study aimed to assess the implementation of dietary recommendations and their relation to metabolic control in adults with T1DM treated with personal insulin pumps.

Materials and Methods

The study included 48 adult patients who were divided into two subgroups and compared, based on HbA1c above and below 6.5%. Each patient's nutrient, vitamin, and mineral intake was assessed on self-reported 3-day 24-hour surveys of food consumption. Records were introduced into the dietetic software DietaPro, (source: http://www.dietapro.eu/) which revealed nutrient content. We evaluated the percentage of patients with nutrient consumption below recommended values based on current recommendations.

Results

The studied population was characterized by insufficient consumption of most nutrients and vitamins: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C. Patients’ diet did supply correct amounts of phosphorus, and too much fatty acid and cholesterol. There were no statistically significant differences in most of the nutrient intakes across the two groups. Nevertheless, we observed a significant difference in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium, niacin, and calcium intakes.

Conclusions

The studied patients consumed too much saturated fatty acid and dietary cholesterol. The consumption amounts of most nutrients and vitamins were associated with the risk of deficiency. The obtained results indicate the need for further dietary education for patients with T1DM.

Słowa kluczowe

  • diabetes type 1
  • dietary recommendations
  • personal insulin pumps
  • hemoglobin A1C
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • nutrients
Otwarty dostęp

Prognostic value of SMAD4 in resectable pancreatic cancer

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 324 - 332

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The tumor gene SMAD4 was genetically inactivated in approximately half of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. The correlation of SMAD4 gene expression in PC and its prognosis remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between loss of SMAD4 expression and the outcome of resectable PC.

Materials and Methods

A systematic review of the relevant electronic databases was conducted between SMAD4 expression and the outcome of PC patients until December 2020, including PubMed, Web of Science, and the China Journal Net. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association between SMAD4 gene expression and the prognosis of PC patients.

Results

Twelve studies were included. Our meta-analysis illustrated that there were no significant associations between the loss of SMAD4 gene expression and overall survival in resectable PC (HR=1.38, 95% CI 0.98–1.81). In addition, there was no evidence of publication bias, as showed by Begg's and Egger's test. There was no correlation between the loss of SMAD4 expression and local recurrence (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.52–1.80, p=0.914), while the loss of SMAD4 gene expression was associated with increased risk of distant recurrence (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.70, p=0.008).

Conclusions

After PC resection, the loss of SMAD4 gene expression was correlated with higher risk of distant recurrence, but not with local recurrence nor overall survival.

Słowa kluczowe

  • SMAD4 gene
  • resection
  • pancreatic cancer
  • recurrence
  • overall survival
Otwarty dostęp

Ketamine used in the therapy of depressive disorders impacts protein profile, proliferation rate, and phagocytosis resistance of enterococci

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 333 - 338

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

A low concentration of ketamine is used to cause an anti-depressive effect. The mechanism of ketamine's action in depression is believed to result, among others, from its anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the fact that only high concentrations of ketamine inhibit bacterial growth, it is clear that even a sub-inhibitory concentration of chemicals may change bacterial properties. Considering the above, in the current study we aimed to evaluate the in vitro influence of ketamine on proliferation of enterococci and their interactions with monocytes.

Materials and Methods

The studied strains were isolated as etiological agents of infection at Medical University of Gdansk. The proliferation and metabolic activity were determined using the FACSVerse flow cytometer after addition of CFDA-SE to bacterial suspension. For the determination of phagocytosis resistance, THP-1 human monocytes cell line was used. Suspension of monocytes which engulfed CFDA-SE–stained bacteria was then stained with propidium iodide to evaluate cytotoxicity of enterococci.

Results

The result of the study showed unexpected response of bacterial cells to ketamine at an early stage of culture. In 57.7% of strains, both proliferation rate and metabolic activity were boosted. This group of strains was also less susceptible to phagocytosis than in culture without ketamine. Different response of isolates to ketamine was also visible in changes of proteins’ profile determined by MALDI-TOF.

Conclusions

The analysis of bacteria at an early stage in the growth curve demonstrated the bacterial diversity in response to ketamine and let us set the hypothesis that microbiome susceptibility to ketamine may be one of the elements which should be taken into consideration when planning the successful pharmacotherapy of depression

Słowa kluczowe

  • proliferation
  • phagocytosis resistance
  • enterococci
  • ketamine
Otwarty dostęp

The effect of curcumin on symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 345 - 350

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the cause of numerous gastroenterological consultations. Due to multifactorial pathogenesis, treatment of IBS is difficult. Even the management with new medications appears unsatisfactory. Recent reports on IBS therapy highlight the possible beneficial effect of curcumin. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in IBS patients.

Materials and Methods

Our non-controlled study included 51 patients: 30 (58.8%) women and 21 (41.2%) men diagnosed with IBS based on Roman Criteria IV, 35 patients with diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D) variant and 16 with constipation-predominant (IBS-C) variant. The quality of life and severity of symptoms were assessed with the IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) and IBS Quality of Life Instrument (IBS-QoL) questionnaires in all patients at: 0, 4, and 12-week time points.

Results

A statistically significantly lower IBS-SSS score was found after 4 and 12 weeks of using curcumin (p < 0.01), especially in the category of bloating and severity of abdominal pain. After 4 weeks of using curcumin, a reduction in the mean IBS-SSS score decreased from 279.7 to 202.2 points (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the overall score obtained with IBS-QoL questionnaire after the first 4 weeks of taking curcumin compared to baseline visit (41,9 vs. 53,4; p < 0.05). No side effects have been reported associated with the curcumin use.

Conclusions

In summary, curcumin is effective in reducing the IBS clinical symptoms and improving the patients’ quality of life. It also has a high safety profile.

Słowa kluczowe

  • curcumin
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • quality of life
  • IBS treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Infection complicating 794 primary and revision arthroscopies. Accuracy of actual prophylactic procedures against infection and results from a single orthopedic center in Poland

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 351 - 357

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Septic arthritis after arthroscopy (SAAA) is a devasting complication which reported frequency varies about 0.04%–5.7%. The aim of the study is to analyze frequency of SAAA at one orthopedic center, risk factors and accuracy of actual prophylactic measures.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective study (level of evidence: V) includes 794 (665 primary and 129 revision) “clean” arthroscopies performed in the years 2017–2018 with confirmed joint infection during 30 days after operation without the use of non-resorbable implants and up to 1 year after procedures with non-resorbable implants. Demographic and medical data about potential risk factors of SAAA were analyzed: patients age, sex, operated joint, type of procedure, primary or revision procedure, the use of drains, usage of non-absorbable implant, time of surgery, BMI, time lapse from index operation to diagnosis of SAAA, length of hospital stay, causative microorganisms. All operations were performed by eight different but experienced surgeons, in operation theatre with vertical laminar flow with the capacity of 50 air exchanges per hour. The perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis consisted of one preoperative dose 1 g cefazolin in simple arthroscopies, which was prolonged to 24 hours with 3 doses in cases of implantation of non-absorbable implant (55.8% of patients).

Results

From 794 cases 4 have been infected: 2 after knee arthrolysis, one after ACL reconstruction and one after rotator cuff repair. There were 2 early, with manifestation within 30 days, and 2 late-onset SAAA. Infections occurred in 0.5% of all arthroscopies and in 0.47% of knee arthroscopies alone. Patients age and time of surgery have not been found significantly different in infected and non-infected cases, whereas age and time of surgery have been significantly different in revision and non-revision cases.

Conclusions

Primarily aseptic arthroscopic procedures performed with respect to actual perioperative preventive measures have a low risk of postoperative septic arthritis. The risk increases with patients age and time of operation, but not significantly.

Słowa kluczowe

  • septic arthritis
  • postoperative infection
  • arthroscopy
  • surgical site infection
Otwarty dostęp

Cotinine as an indicator of fetal exposure to active and passive smoking in pregnant women

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 358 - 368

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Within 5 years, the number of pregnant smokers in Poland decreased by 5%. Still, 6% of pregnant women are active and 18% are passive smokers, and 5% smoke and drink alcohol. The study examined the levels of cotinine concentration in the blood of pregnant women and in the umbilical cord blood of their children in relation to the number of cigarettes smoked; the places and persons conducive to exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke were determined.

Materials and Methods

The study included 123 women who have entered medical facilities for childbirth during physiological pregnancy, who filled out a questionnaire about their lifestyle. Moreover, venous and umbilical blood was collected from them and their newborns for cotinine evaluation. The nicotine marker was determined by the UPLC/MS/MS analytical method.

Results

When examining the frequency of smoking and exposure to smoke, it was found that 38% of the respondents concealed their smoking status by giving false answers, as shown by the biochemical analysis of the presence of cotinine in the blood. A significant correlation was found between the cotinine levels of exposed and smoking mothers and their babies. Pregnant smokers were in the presence of smokers more often (p = 0.019). Moreover, it was found that the presence of women in the company of smokers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day resulted in a significant (p = 0.011) increase of cotinine in the umbilical blood in 31.5% of newborns, higher than the concentration in mothers.

Conclusions

Protecting women from passive smoking requires extensive educational measures. The inclusion of cotinine level assessment in pregnant women in the program of the standard of perinatal examinations should be considered in order to protect children from diseases resulting from the effects of nicotine in the embryonic period.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cotinine in cord blood
  • smoking during pregnancy
  • passive smoking
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of different insulation temperatures of an inflatable insulation system on patients receiving right hemicolectomy using the laparoscopic caudal approach

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 395 - 401

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The study assesses the effects of different insulation temperatures of an inflatable insulation system on right hemicolectomy.

Materials and Methods

A total of 132 patients receiving right hemicolectomy using the laparoscopic caudal approach were randomly divided into four groups. The inflatable insulation system was used immediately after they entered the operating room. The perioperative core body temperature, blood coagulation index, stress index, recovery time from anesthesia, and postoperative BIS recovery were recorded 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately (T1), 30 minutes (T2), 60 minutes (T3), and 120 minutes after induction of general anesthesia (T4), and at the end of operation (T5).

Results

Group C had significantly lower IL1, IL-6, IL-23, IL-13, IL-17A, TNF-α, and CRP levels but a higher IL-12 level than those of other three groups (P < 0.05). The MAP and HR values of groups A and C were significantly lower than those of groups B and D at T2, T3 and T4, which were lowest in group C (P < 0.05). The blood glucose levels of groups A and C during and after operation were lower than those of groups B and D, being lowest in group C (P < 0.05). The anesthesia recovery time and extubation time of groups A and C were shorter than those of groups B and D, being shortest in group C (P < 0.05). The time from discontinuation to BIS>80 of group C was significantly shorter than those of other three groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Comprehensive insulation (43°C automatically adjusted to 38°C after 1 hour) exerts satisfactory effects on right hemicolectomy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • insulation temperature
  • inflatable insulation system
  • colorectal cancer
  • surgery
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of the effect of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) on Ehrlich ascites tumor

Data publikacji: 20 Oct 2022
Zakres stron: 431 - 443

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

One of the most important health problems today is cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of yarrow (Y) with known anticarcinogenic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT).

Materials and Methods

The above-ground part (300 g) of Y was macerated with water and extracted three times for 24 hours at 37°C in a shaking water bath. In the study, EAT cells were divided into control, DMSO group 5-FU, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml YP groups.

Results

At the end of the hour, it was observed that total apoptosis increased significantly in Y groups (especially 50 μg/ml) compared to the control group (p<0.05). It was observed that Y slowed the division of EAT cells (especially 800 μg/ml) by stopping the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage. It was concluded that Y (especially at high doses) triggered apoptosis by significantly increasing the percentage of total depolarized cells (p<0.001) in all three time periods.

Conclusions

The results obtained showed that Y extract may have an antitumoral effect on EAT cells. It is thought that this study will contribute to studies on cancer treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • animal
  • cell
  • yarrow
  • EAT
  • apoptosis
Otwarty dostęp

Risk factors of inability to live independently in the course of lung cancer

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 402 - 406

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

A number of articles focus on functioning with lung cancer. However, there are no articles on factors which result in the inability to live independently in the course of this disease. This study assesses risk factors regarding the inability to live independently among individuals with lung cancer.

Materials and Methods

This study included 134 patients who displayed interest in obtaining a certificate of the inability to live independently.

Results

Over the study period, 75% of the patients obtained the certificate of inability to live independently (group A) and 25% of them did not obtain the certificate (group B). In group A, 56.4% of individuals were men, and in group B, 42.4% of them were men. In group A, 11.8% of patients were diagnosed with small cell lung cancer; no such case was found in group B. Metastases were revealed in 83.2% of patients from group A and in 57.6% from group B. Patients from group A had a significantly lower score in the Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living and lower body mass index compared with those from group B.

Conclusions

Information on body mass index, histopathological diagnosis, and the presence of metastases is useful in assessing the risk of being unable to live independently in patients with lung cancer. The Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living is helpful in assessing the inability to live independently.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lung
  • cancer
  • disability
  • epidemiology
  • palliative
Otwarty dostęp

Subjective, but not documented, lactose intolerance accompanies irritable bowel syndrome

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 444 - 449

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Lactose intolerance, due to lactase deficiency, may overlap with the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or lead to an incorrect diagnosis of IBS. Identification of lactose intolerance and lactase deficiency enables targeted treatment to be implemented.

The aim of the study was to search for a frequency of a lactose intolerance symptoms in patients with IBS, depending on the results of hydrogen breath test (HBT).

Materials and Methods

The study involved 56 patients with IBS and 23 healthy people. Both, IBS patients and healthy controls, were asked to complete a survey about IBS symptoms and tolerance of lactose-containing products. A HBT was performed on all subjects.

Results

Lactase deficiency was diagnosed in 60.7% of patients with IBS and 43.5% of control group. The differences between the study groups were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were observed between the incidence of lactase deficiency depending on the type of IBS.

In the group of patients with IBS and normal HBT results, as well as in patients with IBS and lactase deficiency, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of lactose intolerance symptoms. However, among people with normal HBT results, patients with IBS reported symptoms of intolerance after consuming lactose-containing foods significantly more often compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusions

Frequency of lactase deficiency does not differ between IBS patients and healthy individuals. Patients with IBS are more likely to report symptoms of lactose intolerance, regardless of the HBT result, compared to healthy individuals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • lactose intolerance
  • lactase deficiency
  • hydrogen breath test (HBT)

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Physiological and pathophysiological role of endocrine fibroblast growth factors

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 39 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The endocrine subfamily of fibroblast growth factors (FGF) includes three factors: FGF19, FGF21, FGF23. They act on distal tissues through FGF receptors (FGFRs). The FGFR activation requires two cofactors: α- and β-Klotho, which are structurally related single-pass transmembrane proteins. The endocrine FGFs regulate various metabolic processes involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as bile acid circulation, vitamin D modulation, and phosphate homeostasis. The FGF-FGFR dysregulation is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders. Significant alterations in plasma FGF concentration are associated with the most prevalent chronic diseases, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diseases of the biliary tract, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, osteomalacia, various malignancies, and depression. Therefore, the endocrine FGFs may serve as disease predictors or biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Currently, numerous analogues and inhibitors of endocrine FGFs are under development for treatment of various disorders, and recently, a human monoclonal antibody against FGF23 has been approved for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia. The aim of this review is to summarize the current data on physiological and pathophysiological actions of the endocrine FGF subfamily and recent research concerning the therapeutic potential of the endocrine FGF pathways.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblast growth factors
  • endocrine
  • metabolic disorders
  • obesity
  • mineral balance
Otwarty dostęp

Encephalitozoon spp. as a potential human pathogen

Data publikacji: 29 May 2022
Zakres stron: 54 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

Encephalitzoon spp. are microsporidia, and intracellular opportunistic pathogens. The hosts of these pathogens include vertebrates, invertebrates, and certain protozoa. In people microsporidia may be opportunistic pathogens for immunocompromised patients (with AIDS or after organ transplantation). Infection with these microorganisms was also described in persons with diarrhea and corneal diseases.

The species causing rare infections in humans, Encephalitozooncuniculi, had previously been described from animal hosts. However, several new microsporidial species, including E. intestinalis and E. hellem, have been discovered in humans, raising the question of their natural origin. Vertebrate animals are now identified as hosts for all three microsporidial species infecting humans, implying a zoonotic nature of these microorganisms. Molecular studies have identified phenotypic and/or genetic variability within these species, indicating that they are not uniform, and have allowed the question of their zoonotic potential to be addressed. The focus of this review is to present the zoonotic potential of E. intestinalis, E. cuniculi, and E. hellem.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp
  • zoonosis
  • immunodeficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Intestinal barrier disorders and metabolic endotoxemia in obesity: Current knowledge

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 71 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

The World Health Organization reports that the prevalent problem of excessive weight and obesity currently affects about 1.9 billion people worldwide and is the fifth most common death factor among patients. In view of the growing number of patients with obesity, attention is drawn to the insufficient effectiveness of behavioral treatment methods. In addition to genetic and environmental factors leading to the consumption of excess energy in the diet and the accumulation of adipose tissue, attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining a normal body weight. Dysbiosis – a disorder in the composition of the gut microbiota – is mentioned as one of the contributing factors to the development of metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized largely by a group of Gram-negative bacteria that are indicated to be a source of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), associated with inducing systemic inflammation and endotoxemia. Research suggests that disturbances in the gut microbiota, leading to damage to the intestinal barrier and an increase in circulating LPS, are implicated in obesity and other metabolic disorders. Plasma LPS and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels have been shown to be elevated in individuals with excess body weight. Bariatric surgery has become a popular treatment option, leading to stable weight loss and an improvement in obesity-related conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the factors that promote the induction of metabolic endotoxemia and its associated health consequences, along with the presentation of their changes after bariatric surgery.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gut microbiome
  • dysbiosis
  • lipopolysaccharide
  • endotoxemia
  • obesity
  • bariatric surgery
  • tight junction
Otwarty dostęp

Yersiniosis: a forgotten mimicker and confounder of Crohn’s disease

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 104 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Yersiniosis is a zoonosis caused by the Yersinia bacterium. The route of infection is most commonly oral and is caused by consumption of Yersinia-contaminated food. The clinical presentations of chronic yersiniosis are abdominal pain, diarrhea, relapsing arthritis, and skin lesions, that is, nodular erythema. The diagnosis is based on culture-dependent identification of Yersinia in stool, positive serologic test results, or molecular techniques. The treatment of choice is combination antibiotic therapy. Mild forms of the disease do not usually require treatment. Yersiniosis frequently mimics or confounds other chronic intestinal and extraintestinal inflammatory conditions, particularly Crohn’s disease. Therefore, diagnosis of yersiniosis may be a challenge for medical practitioners. Not including Yersinia infection in the differential diagnosis of abdominal symptoms can lead to an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This review summarises the current knowledge of Yersinia enterocolitica and pseudotuberculosis infection, with special focus on differential diagnosis between this infection and Crohn’s disease.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Yersiniosis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • diarrhea
Otwarty dostęp

S100 Beta Protein as a Marker of Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Breakthrough in Diagnostics or a False Trail? Review of the Literature.

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 128 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy is a dysfunction of the central nervous system caused by chronic and acute liver disease. The dysfunction presents a wide spectrum of symptoms—from the undetectable in a standard clinical examination to hepatic coma—and could be caused by both chronic and acute liver diseases. For many years research has been conducted to find a marker that would allow for the accurate, quick, and possibly inexpensive detection of hepatic encephalopathy. Due to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, researchers’ attention is focused on markers of damage to the central nervous system. One of the markers of astrocyte damage, known from research in neurology and neurosurgery, is the protein S100B. Published research results so far are inconclusive, but they allow us to look with optimism at the role of S100B as a marker of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE).

Słowa kluczowe

  • hepatic encephalopathy
  • SB100 protein
  • chronic liver diseases
  • biomarkers
  • astrocytes edema
Otwarty dostęp

The impact of external factors on psoriasis

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 177 - 187

Abstrakt

Abstract

Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, constituting a significant health and socioeconomic problem. Despite numerous therapeutic options, the results of treatment very often remain insufficient. It is extremely important to remember that many external factors impact the effectiveness of therapy. This article discusses the importance of emollients in therapy and the influence of infectious agents and injuries on the course of psoriasis. Understanding the above-mentioned factors in the treatment of psoriasis is critical to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • psoriasis
  • psoriatic arthritis
  • lifestyle
  • emollients
  • mechanical trauma
  • Koebner syndrome
  • infectious agents
Otwarty dostęp

A review of natural foods consumed during the COVID-19 pandemic life

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 188 - 198

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has brought life to a standstill around the world. Until a vaccine was found to combat COVID-19, the world conducted research and made recommendations for nutritional natural foods. Considering the risks incurred by contracting the disease, even though the production of various vaccines and vaccination of healthy people has started in some countries, individuals need useful foods to be ready for the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, nutrient contents such as antioxidant compounds, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics that contribute to the immune system have been investigated. This paper attempts to determine the role of these dietary supplements in reducing the risk of COVID-19 and/or changing the course of the disease in COVID-19 patients and their effects on mortality. Supplements used and recommended for the COVID-19 pandemic life were investigated. In conclusion, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants used during the COVID-19 pandemic to inhibit the effect of SARS-CoV-2. In order to overcome the new global crisis, nutritional cures and treatments should be upgraded. However, additional research on the subject is needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Covid-19
  • nutrients
  • probiotics
  • vitamins
Otwarty dostęp

The role of a recently discovered peptide—irisin—in physiological and pathological processes

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 228 - 233

Abstrakt

Abstract

Irisin, a cleaved fragment of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), was originally described as a factor stimulating browning of white adipose tissue, produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscles. However, irisin is not only a new and promising biomarker of metabolism; its expression has been found in a wide variety of tissues and organs such as the peripheral nerves, stomach, pancreas, and skin, and recent data also indicate its role in cancer. Numerous studies focus on the protective role of this protein, which could become an important factor in predicting disease risk, disease prognosis, or possible metastases in cancer patients. Possible use of irisin in therapy is also worth considering. The aim of this paper is to systematize knowledge on the role of irisin in patients and to draw attention to its role in skin diseases including acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, and hidradenitis suppurativa.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adipose tissue
  • cancer
  • irisin
  • metabolism
  • skin
Otwarty dostęp

The potential impact of the ketogenic diet on gut microbiota in the context of neurological disorders

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 234 - 242

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the most important functional parts of a human intestinal tract is the microscopic intestinal barrier. Its function is to ensure the correct nutrient absorption and to protect against multiple pathogens, xenobiotics, and environmental toxins. Intestinal microbiota is an integral part of the intestinal epithelium. Human microbiota and their host interact with each other, both directly and indirectly, via multiple intermediates and metabolites. Some dietary fat that is not fully digested reaches the distal parts of the intestinal tract, where an interaction with gut microbiota takes place. Studies have shown that an animal-product based diet that provides a greater supply of saturated fat increases the number of bile-resistant microorganisms, including Bilophila. The total amount of Alistipes and Bacteroides is also increased. Long-term consumption of animal-based foods contributes to the formation of the enterotype described as the Bacteroides type. The ketogenic diet is mainly based on animal fats. The changes induced by this higher consumption of animal fats are associated with unfavorable metabolic changes. However, more and more research has shown evidence of the therapeutic properties of a ketogenic diet as far as neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases are concerned. Recent reports suggest that the protective effect of a ketogenic diet is highly dependent on the gut microbiota. This review focuses on the correlation between the influence of ketogenic diet on the intestinal microbiota changes observed while analyzing patients with diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ketogenic diet
  • intestinal microbiota
  • intestinal barrier
  • metabolomics
Otwarty dostęp

The functional role of miRNAs in inflammatory pathways associated with intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier regulation in IBD

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 254 - 267

Abstrakt

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease – Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis – is an immune-mediated chronic disorder with still not fully elucidated complex mechanisms of pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysregulation is one of the major underlying mechanisms of inflammatory process induction in IBD. Proper IEB integrity is maintained to a large extent by intercellular tight junctions, the function of which can be modified by many molecules, including miRNAs. MiRNAs belong to noncoding and non-messenger RNAs, which can modulate gene expression by binding predicted mRNAs.

In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways affecting the function of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD, with particular emphasis on therapeutic potentials. The aim of the review is also to determine the further development directions of the studies on miRNA in the modulation of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • microRNA
  • tight junction protein
  • intestinal barrier
  • intestinal inflammation
  • tissue therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Methods for sentinel lymph node mapping in oral cancer: a literature review

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 268 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

Oral cancers, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, are the most common cancers of the head and neck. Of these, 90% are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Surgery, which consists of dissection of the primary tumor and lymphadenectomy, is considered a radical method of treatment. There are several ranges of cervical lymphadenectomy: selective neck dissection (SND), modified radical neck dissection (MRND), and radical neck dissection (RND). The extension of surgery depends on the stage of clinical advancement, which can be determined by TNM classification, among other methods. The greatest controversy is related to SND in patients with cN0 (no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis), which is currently standard procedure. This approach is dictated by the possibility of hidden or subclinical metastases. The use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in patients with early stage of oral cancer and appropriate methods of its mapping may lead to a reduction in the extent of the lymphadenectomy procedure, thus reducing postoperative mortality and maintaining the patient’s function and quality of life, with correct oncological results. So far, available methods for SLN mapping are based on use of markers: methylene blue dye (MBD), metastable radioactive isotope Technetium (99mTc), or the fluorescent substance indocyanine green (ICG).

Słowa kluczowe

  • sentinel lymph node
  • head and neck cancer
  • lymphadenectomy
Otwarty dostęp

Atopic dermatitis: Current standards of diagnosis and treatment, including the latest methods of management

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 282 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing disease which causes characteristic eczematous skin lesions. The most common symptoms of atopic dermatitis are persistent pruritus, xerosis, and skin lesions with a typical location and appearance that changes with the patient’s age. The prevalence of the disease in the pediatric population is estimated at 10% to 30%, while in adults it ranges from 1% to 3%. The number of people who suffer from AD is rising every year. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and multifactorial. It involves elements of epidermal barrier dysfunction, alterations in cellular immune response, IgE hypersensitivity, and environmental factors. AD significantly reduces the quality of life of both patients and their families. Patients with AD are at higher risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and headaches. The decreased quality of life of AD patients and their families is associated with the discomfort of recurrent and chronic inflammatory skin lesions, persistent pruritus, and the inconvenience of long-term therapy. It also affects the psychological development of children, contributes to behavioral disorders (hyperactivity, hypersensitivity) and impacts many areas of family life such as sleep, leisure activities, and relationships between family members. The basic treatment of AD is avoidance of potential harmful factors, proper care in the treatment of exacerbations, topical corticosteroids, and calcineurin inhibitors in proactive therapy. In some patients who meet age criteria, phototherapy and cyclosporine should be considered. In individuals with severe AD who do not respond to topical treatment and who will not benefit from general therapy, dupilumab, a biologic drug, is the treatment of choice. Biologic treatment has an increasingly important place in the effective and modern therapy of AD. Currently, new biologic drugs are being researched, which may bring a therapeutic revolution in AD in the future. Allergen immunotherapy in patients with AD should be carefully evaluated on an individual basis, as proper selection of patients with documented IgE-dependent sensitization is important for the success of this therapy. Close collaboration with the patient and their caregivers, education, and psychological support as appropriate are integral to the treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atopic dermatitis
  • diagnosis of atopic dermatitis
  • treatment of atopic dermatitis
Otwarty dostęp

Cardiac fibrosis and atrial fibrillation

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 307 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the imbalance of production and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The result of this process is an accumulation of scar tissue, which is associated with many pathological processes such as excessive mechanical stress on the heart, inflammation, ischemia, oxidative stress, or excessive neurohormonal activation. Fibrotic response results in damaged heart architecture and dysfunction of the heart. Cardiac fibrosis leads to increased stiffness of the left ventricle and arteries, promotes disorders of contraction and relaxation of the heart, disrupts electrophysiology of heart cells, and induces arrhythmias.

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias. It is associated with a deterioration in the quality of life and more frequent use of medical assistance. It is also an instantaneous risk factor for many diseases, including stroke. The underlying cause of this arrhythmia is electrical and structural remodeling induced by cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, much attention is paid to the search for biochemical markers that would allow non-invasive determination of the degree of this fibrosis.

The promising markers include galectin-3, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum soluble ST2, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Studies have shown that plasma concentrations of these substances reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis and are indirectly associated with AF.

There are high hopes for the use of these markers in patients undergoing arrhythmia ablation. More research is needed to confirm that these markers can be used to estimate the chance of maintaining sinus rhythm in patients after ablation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atrial fibrillation
  • cardiac fibrosis
  • galectin-3
  • sST2
  • AGTL
  • HE4
  • TGF-β
  • FGF-23
  • PICP
  • PIIINP
  • CITP
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): The most common molecular changes in patients with normal karyotype

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 339 - 344

Abstrakt

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder that results from errors in proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells from myeloid lineage. According to the Gilliland “two-hit” model, genes of both groups related to proliferation (e.g., FLT3) and differentiation (e.g., CEBPA) must be mutated for full development of AML. The genetic background of AML is very complicated and varied, from single nucleotide mutations or changes in gene expression to cytogenetic aberrations. The DNA sequencing results enable identification of important gene alterations that occur first and may lead the whole leukemogenesis (driver mutations). Some of them have prognostic significance – that is, they are related to the overall survival (OS), complete remission rate, and event-free survival (EFS). The most common molecular changes in AML are mutations in NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and DNMT3A. Alterations in NPM1 gene are associated with a good prognosis but simultaneous mutation in FLT3 may change this prognosis. DNMT3A mutations are very often correlated with NPM1 mutations and are associated with short OS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acute myeloid leukemia
  • prognostic factor
  • driver mutation
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic and immunophenotypic diversity of acute leukemias in children

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 369 - 379

Abstrakt

Abstract

Acute leukemias are the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in children. Acute leukemias constitute a heterogeneous group of cancers resulting from clonal outgrowth and accumulation of immature precursor cells of different hematologic lineages. Cancerous transformation begins with disruption of cell maturation mechanisms triggered by particular environmental or endogenic factors, including innate and acquired immunodeficiencies as well as autoimmune diseases.

Research in the field of acute leukemias has revealed many possible genetic abnormalities in leukemic cells, including both structural and numerical aberrations. The former can produce some particular fusion genes, yielding fusion protein products which can have an oncogenic potential in hematopoietic cells. Some of them, including translocations resulting in fusion product formation BCR-ABL1 and different fusion products involving the KMT2A gene, are markers of adverse prognosis, whereas numerical aberrations with high hyperdiploidy and chromosome number exceeding 51 are markers of favorable prognosis. Detection of these aberrations already has a well-grounded clinical significance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and plays an important role in patient risk stratification. The appearance of particular genetic changes often correlates with the expression of certain markers on the surface of leukemic cells. Determination of expression or lack of specific antigens, that is, immunophenotyping, is possible with the use of the flow cytometry technique. Flow cytometry is currently considered as a fast and broadly available technique which can provide clinically useful information in a relatively short time after biological specimen collection. Flow cytometry also enables appropriate classification of acute leukemias.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acute leukemia
  • children
  • DNA index
  • aneuploidy
  • prognostic factor
  • immunophenotype
Otwarty dostęp

What do experimental animal models of mood disorders tell clinicians about influence of probiotics on the gut-brain axis?

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 380 - 394

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is commonly pointed out that enteric microbiota have a significant impact on the behavioral and neurophysiological parameters relevant to brain-gut axis disorders. Accordingly, many data have demonstrated that probiotics can alter the central nervous system function via this gut-brain axis and commensal bacteria consumption can ameliorate stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, modulating the enteric microbiota is increasingly considered a new therapeutic approach for these disorders, although so far there is a lack of reliable pre-clinical and clinical data confirming the usefulness of probiotics in the treatment of affective disorders. In this review, we discuss various mechanisms linking specific probiotic bacteria with behaviors related to anhedonia and the exact mechanisms of their action, including data provided by using animal models and tests. Finally, we point to potential clinical impact resulting from future studies investigating the gut-brain axis activity with respect to the efficacy of probiotic treatment of mental disorders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • probiotics
  • anhedonia
  • gut-brain axis
  • animal models
  • chronic stress
Otwarty dostęp

Spinal muscular atrophy: Where are we now? Current challenges and high hopes

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 407 - 419

Abstrakt

Abstract

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness. It causes movement issues and severe physical disability. SMA is classified into four types based on the level of function achieved, age of onset, and maximum function achieved. The deletion or point mutation in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes SMA. As a result, no full-length protein is produced. A nearly identical paralog, SMN2, provides enough stable protein to prevent death but not enough to compensate for SMN1's loss. The difference between SMN1 and SMN2 is due to different exon 7 alternative splicing patterns. SMA molecular therapies currently focus on restoring functional SMN protein by splicing modification of SMN2 exon 7 or elevated SMN protein levels. Nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting the ISS-N1 sequence in SMN2 intron 7, was the first drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Risdiplam, a novel therapeutic that acts as an SMN2 exon 7 splicing modifier, was recently approved. All of these drugs result in the inclusion of SMN2 exon 7, and thus the production of functional SMN protein. Onasemnogene abeparvovec is a gene therapy that uses a recombinant adeno-associated virus that encodes the SMN protein. There are also experimental therapies available, such as reldesemtiv and apitegromab (SRK-015), which focus on improving muscle function or increasing muscle tissue growth, respectively. Although approved therapies have been shown to be effective, not all SMA patients can benefit from them due to age or weight, but primarily due to their high cost. This demonstrates the significance of continuous treatment improvement in today's medical challenges.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spinal muscular atrophy
  • drug treatment
  • nusinersen
  • AAV9
  • risdiplam
  • experimental therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Diagnostic challenges in postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis in critically ill patients: When to reoperate?

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2022
Zakres stron: 420 - 430

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper was done to review common diagnostic techniques used to help surgeons find the most suitable way to diagnose postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS). The topic was searched on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Collected articles were classified and checked for their quality. Findings of selected research were included in this study and analyzed to find the best diagnostic method for intra-abdominal sepsis. IAS presents severe morbidity and mortality, and its early diagnosis can improve the outcome. Currently, there is no consensus among surgeons on a single diagnostic modality that should be used while deciding reoperation in patients with postoperative IAS. Though it has a high sensitivity for abdominal infections, computed tomography has limited applications due to mobility and time constraints. Diagnostic laparoscopy is a safe process that produces usable images, and can be used at the bedside. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has high sensitivity, and the patients testing positive through DPL can be subjected to exploratory laparotomy, depending on severity. Abdominal Reoperation Predictive Index (ARPI) is the only index reported as an aid for this purpose. Serial intra-abdominal pressure measurement has also emerged as a potential diagnostic tool. A proper selection of diagnostic modality is expected to improve the outcome in IAS, which presents high mortality risk and a limited time frame.

Słowa kluczowe

  • intra-abdominal sepsis
  • diagnostic laparoscopy
  • diagnostic peritoneal lavage
  • Abdominal Reoperation Predictive Index (ARPI)
  • Serial Intra-abdominal pressure

Erratum

Otwarty dostęp

Evidence of retinal arteriolar narrowing in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

Data publikacji: 27 May 2022
Zakres stron: 174 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to examine retinal vessels in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function and without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods

We enrolled 39 adult individuals with ADPKD and 45 gender- and age-matched individuals as controls. A full ophthalmologic examination, including retinal vessel caliber and reactions to flicker stimulation analysis and grading of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification, was performed.

Results

Multivariable analysis of ADPKD patients and controls, adjusted for age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and the presence of hypertension, revealed that ADPKD was an independent factor associated with lower arteriovenous ratio (AVR) values (by 0.069 on average, β = −0.50, p < 0.0001). The severity of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification appeared to be more advanced in the ADPKD group than in the controls, despite the lack of vascular abnormalities, such as retinal hemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots or papilledema, as well as microaneurysms, which are very characteristic signs of ADPKD in other vascular beds.

Conclusions

Lower AVR values could be a specific pathophysiological ocular manifestation of systemic vasculopathy in the course of ADPKD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • arteriolar narrowing
  • arteriovenous ratio
  • retinal vessel analysis (RVA)
52 Artykułów

Original Study

Otwarty dostęp

Long-term results of Boston keratoprosthesis surgery in Polish patients

Data publikacji: 14 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 10

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

To evaluate the long-term (10 year) outcomes of Boston type 1 keratoprosthesis (BKPro; Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA) surgery performed in 6 Polish patients.

Materials and Methods

6 eyes of 6 patients (1 female and 5 males; mean age 49,5±6,34 years) were qualified for the surgery. Indications for BKPro surgery in the study group included: corneal graft failure (3 patients), chemical ocular burns (2 patients), and post-herpetic keratitis vascularized leucoma (1 patient). Visual acuity, slit-lamp examination with ocular surface assessment, anterior segment optical coherence tomography (AS OCT), fundoscopy, and intraocular digital pressure measurement were performed at each visit.

Results

Retention of keratoprosthesis was achieved in all patients during the follow-up period. At last recorded visits VA≥0,2 was observed in 3 patients, LP in one patient and NLP in 2 patients. The complications which occurred in our case series were: glaucoma (4 patients preoperatively, 6 patients postoperatively), retroprosthetic membrane formation (1 patient), epimacular membrane formation (2 patients) and severe Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (3 patients). OCT analysis allowed imaging of anterior iris synechiae, AGV tube, protrusion of the BKPro and retroprosthetic membrane not visible on the slit lamp examination.

Conclusions

BKPro surgery should be considered as a surgery of choice in patients who have high risk of PK failure. OCT plays a role in anterior eye segment monitoring and detection of complications not visible on the slit lamp examination in the follow up period. Implementing the dry eye disease treatment should be recommended in all patients undergoing BKPro surgery.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cornea
  • keratoprosthesis
  • optical coherence tomography
  • dry eye disease
Otwarty dostęp

The effect of lipoic acid on the content of SOD-1 and TNF-α in rat striated muscle

Data publikacji: 21 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 11 - 15

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

The aim of the study was to present the effect of lipoic acid (LA) on oxidative stress induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).

Materials/Methods

The studies were conducted on male rats of the Wistar strain. The animals were divided into four groups. I: the controls received saline (0.2 ml); II: LPS, received LPS (Escherichia coli 026: B6) at a dose of 6 mg/kg body weight; III: LA, received LA at a dose of 60 mg/kg body weight; IV: LA + LPS, received LA (60 mg/kg b.w.) and after 30 min received LPS (6 mg/kg b.w.). All compounds were administered to the tail vein. After 5 hours of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and striated muscle from the thigh was prepared. The isolated muscle was homogenized. Concentrations of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined in the homogenates with the application of ELISA.

Results

The study showed a significant decrease in SOD-1 content and an increase in TNF-α in striated muscle after LPS administration. LA given 30 min before administration of LPS caused a significant increase in the level of SOD-1 and decreased levels of TNF-α in homogenates.

Conclusion

LA reduced the parameters of LPS oxidative stress, thus contributing to an increase in the body's antioxidant defense.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lipoic acid
  • oxidative stress
  • SOD-1
  • TNF-α
  • lipopolysaccharide
Otwarty dostęp

Exenatide improves antioxidant capacity and reduces the expression of LDL receptors and PCSK9 in human insulin-secreting 1.1E7 cell line subjected to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress

Data publikacji: 20 Feb 2022
Zakres stron: 16 - 23

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

GLP-1 receptor agonists (e.g., exenatide) are novel drugs used in the treatment of diabetes. These drugs, working with other mechanisms of action, improve glycemic control by increasing secretion of insulin and improving survival of pancreatic islet beta cells. Alterations in the oxidative stress level or the expression of proteins associated with cholesterol uptake might be responsible for those findings. Currently, there are few in vitro studies on the impact of exenatide antioxidant capacity in human islet beta cell lines and none that assess the influence of exenatide on LDL receptors and PCSK9 under hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of exenatide on antioxidant capacity, insulin secretion, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism.

Materials and Method

An in vitro culture of insulin-secreting cells 1.1E7 was subjected to hyperglycemia and oxidative stress. Assessment was made of the expression of enzymes associated with oxidative stress (NADPH oxidase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, iNOS) and cholesterol uptake (LDL receptors, PCSK9). Additionally, insulin and nitrite levels in culture media were quantified.

Results

We showed that exenatide improves expression of catalase and reduces the amount of nitrite in cell cultures in a protein kinase A–dependent manner. Those results were accompanied by a drop in the expression of LDL receptors and PCSK9. Insulin secretion was modestly increased in the culture condition.

Conclusions

Our findings show potential protective mechanisms exerted by exenatide in human insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cell line (1.1E7), which may be exerted through increased antioxidant capacity and reduced accumulation of cholesterol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Exenatide
  • GLP-1
  • pancreatic beta cell
  • oxidative stress
  • insulin
  • PCSK9
  • LDL receptor
Otwarty dostęp

Electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization in the obese population: A descriptive review

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 24 - 29

Abstrakt

Abstract

Obesity is a global epidemiological problem that significantly contributes to the development of cardiovascular diseases. It is a proven factor for an increased risk of overall mortality and the occurrence of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The disease is accompanied by a structural and functional myocardium remodeling, which often results in ventricular repolarization abnormalities and contributes to the triggering of life-threatening arrhythmias. This heightened state of readiness for proarrhythmia is the cause of the sudden cardiac deaths which are recorded in this group of patients and which often constitute the first manifestation of ongoing cardiac pathology. One of the reasons for these arrhythmias may be abnormalities of ventricular muscle repolarization. In this descriptive review, we demonstrate electrocardiographic markers of ventricular repolarization (J point, QT/QTc/QTc-d, JT/JTc/JTc-d, ST segment, T wave and Tp-e/Tp-ed/Tp-e/QT), analyze their abnormalities in the obese population, and discuss their changes after weight loss.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ECG
  • ventricular repolarization
  • obesity
  • sudden cardiac death
Otwarty dostęp

MTHFD1 c.1958G>A and TCN2 c.776G>C polymorphisms of folate metabolism genes and their implication for oral cavity cancer

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 30 - 38

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Cancers of the head and neck can damage the brain, spinal cord, and nerves, as well as the sense organs responsible for contact with the outside world. Oncogenic transformation occurs following mutations that change the function of specific genes, such tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes, and their encoded protein products. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the occurrence of MTHFD1 c.1958G>A and TCN2 c.776G>C gene polymorphisms and the risk of oral cavity cancer.

Materials and methods

The study population consisted of 439 patients and 200 healthy subjects. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and from paraffin-embedded tissue. Analysis of the gene polymorphisms was performed using polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism.

Results

Statistically significant differences were found in the distribution of genotypes of the rs2236225 and rs1801198 polymorphisms between patients and controls. Regarding MTHFD1 c.1958G>A, the GA genotype (p<0.0001, OR = 2.91, 95% CI = 1.88–4.49-GA) was more common among patients than healthy subjects. Regarding TCN2 c.776G>C, the frequency of CC genotype (p< 0.0001, OR = 0.17, 95% CI = 0.10–0.33-CC) was significantly less common among patients than healthy subjects. Tobacco smoking, alcohol use, and male gender (p<0.0001) were found to be predictors of the disease.

Conclusion

The results suggest that the MTHFD1 c.1958G>A polymorphism may be associated with a greater risk of oral cavity cancer, whereas a protective effect has been found for the TCN2 c.776G>C polymorphism.

Słowa kluczowe

  • polymorphism
  • gene
  • gene
  • oral cavity cancer
Otwarty dostęp

Socioeconomic aspect of breast cancer incidence and mortality in women in Lower Silesia (Poland) in 2005–2014

Data publikacji: 14 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 62 - 70

Abstrakt

Abstract Objective

Identifying breast cancer-specific (BC) correlations between socioeconomic factors and population health is important for the optimization of womens cancer screening programs.

Materials/Methods

The research was based on data of 14,158 BC cases and 4096 deaths from BC in women registered at the Lower Silesian Cancer Registry in 2005–2014 and data from Statistical Office.

Results

We found a negative impact of female unemployment on the incidence of BC, and a positive impact on women's deaths due to BC. The performed spatiotemporal disease clusters’ analysis of BC data discovered a statistically significant (p<0.05) 2 “hot” and 3 “cold spots” in incidence and only 1 “hot” disease cluster in mortality.

Conclusion

The state of health of a society is strictly associated with socio-economic conditions; one of the prognostic factors in the epidemiology of BC is the unemployment rate among women. Broadly understood urban-rural conditions affect the assessment of incidence and mortality from BC.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast cancer
  • incidence rate
  • mortality rate
  • unemployment
  • urban-rural conditions
Otwarty dostęp

Evidence of retinal arteriolar narrowing in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 82 - 90

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to examine retinal vessels in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function and without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods

We enrolled 39 adult individuals with ADPKD and 45 gender- and age-matched individuals as controls. A full ophthalmologic examination, including retinal vessel caliber and reactions to flicker stimulation analysis and grading of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification, was performed.

Results

Multivariable analysis of ADPKD patients and controls, adjusted for age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and the presence of hypertension, revealed that ADPKD was an independent factor associated with lower arteriovenous ratio (AVR) values (by 0.069 on average, β = −0.50, p < 0.0001). The severity of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification appeared to be more advanced in the ADPKD group than in the controls, despite the lack of vascular abnormalities, such as retinal hemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots or papilledema, as well as microaneurysms, which are very characteristic signs of ADPKD in other vascular beds.

Conclusions

Lower AVR values could be a specific pathophysiological ocular manifestation of systemic vasculopathy in the course of ADPKD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • arteriolar narrowing
  • arteriovenous ratio
  • retinal vessel analysis (RVA)
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of a multiplex RT-PCR for Simultaneous, Rapid Screening of Common Viral Infections of Central Nervous System: A Prospective Study for Enteroviruses and Herpesviruses

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 91 - 96

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Acute meningitis is a common neurological disorder that affects both children and adults and has a high mortality rate. This study aimed to create a multiplex reverse transcriptase PCR system for screening clinical samples for the presence of the two viruses currently considered to be the most common causes of acute meningitis in Asia.

Materials and Methods

A single-tube RT multiplex PCR assay was developed and tested for sensitivity and specificity using primers that have been commonly used to screen for herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1/2) and enterovirus (EV) in clinical samples. The procedure was then used to screen 303 clinical samples for the target viruses, which included 101 feces samples, 101 throat swabs, and 101 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from 101 hospitalized Iranian children with suspected viral meningitis/meningoencephalitis, and the findings were compared to those of an RT monoplex PCR method.

Results

The RT-PCR approach demonstrated high precision, with no non-target virus amplification. The results of using this assay to screen clinical samples revealed that RT monoplex PCR had the same sensitivity as RT multiplex PCR for the three different types of specimens.

Conclusions

This newly developed multiplex RT-PCR method is a simple, fast diagnostic tool that can be used to screen clinical samples for viruses that cause acute meningitis/meningoencephalitis in children.

Słowa kluczowe

  • multiplex PCR
  • central nervous system disease
  • meningitis
  • children
  • enteroviruses
  • herpes simplex virus-1/2
Otwarty dostęp

Expression and biochemical significance of Piwil2 in stem cell lines

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 97 - 103

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

P-element induced wimpy testis-like 2 (Piwil2) is in the Piwi gene family. Piwil2 has important roles in the self-renewal mechanism of stem cell induction and progression of numerous types of human malignancies such as lung, breast, colon, prostate, and cervical cancers. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) acts as detoxification in cancer metabolism. This study aimed to investigate the effects of the stem cell protein Piwil2 on MCF10A and MCF-7 at the GST activity levels.

Materials/Methods

MCF-7/Piwil2 and MCF10A/Piwil2, transfected with a plasmid carrying the Piwil2 gene, and non-transfected MCF-7 and MCF10A were cultured in a complete DMEM/F12 medium. GST A1 and P1 activity was determined in these cell lines using as substrates CDNB, EA respectively.

Results

According to experimental results, GST P1 activity decreased in the MCF-7/Piwil2 cells as compared with the non-transfected MCF-7 cells, however, MCF-7/Piwil2 cells demonstrated increases in GST A1 (total GST) activity. The statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of non-transfected MCF-7 and MCF-7/Piwil2 (p<0,0001), for GST enzyme activities by using CDNB and EA as substrates. These results were the same for the MCF10A cell line.

Discussion

It is shown for the first time that transfection studies may affect GST activity at the cellular mechanism level. The study contributes to determining the effect of transfection on GST isoenzymes and also how the Piwil2 gene may affect GST activity in the stem cell line.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cancer stem cell
  • ethacrynic acid
  • glutathione -transferase
  • piwil2
Otwarty dostęp

The relationship of quality of life and selected sociodemographic factors in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

Data publikacji: 02 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 111 - 116

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract with relapsing-remitting episodes that are very burdensome for the patient. Understanding the sociodemographic factors that affect a patient’s quality of life helps us to better understand the behavior and life circumstances of the patient as well as the patient’s ability to cope with the stresses caused by IBD.

Aim

The aim of the study was to identify factors that affect the quality of life of patients with IBD.

Material and methods

The study involved 100 patients with confirmed IBD (50 subjects with Crohn’s disease and 50 subjects with ulcerative colitis). Women constituted 45% (n=45) of the study group, while the remaining 55% (n=55) of the group were men. The mean age of the respondents participating in the study was 37.27±13.38. The youngest patient was 20 years old and the oldest was 76. The respondents were treated at the Department of General and Colorectal Surgery and at the Department of Digestive Tract Diseases (both at Medical University in Łódź, Poland). Data were collected using the SF-36 general questionnaire, the IBDQ specific questionnaire, and the original author’s questionnaire. Participation in the study was anonymous and voluntary. A significance level of 0.05 was adopted in the statistical analysis.

Results

The study showed that the quality of life of IBD patients is reduced. The psychosocial factors influencing the quality of life of IBD patients include education, place of residence, professional activity, having a spouse, and lack of surgical intervention. However, no significant relationship was found between the respondents’ gender and age and their quality of life in any of the domains of the SF-36 and IBDQ questionnaire.

Conclusions

The occurrence of IBD, a chronic and incurable disease, reduces the quality of life of those patients. However, a higher level of education, living in a larger community, and increased physical activity all have a positive impact on the quality of life of patients with IBD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • quality of life
  • functioning
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between skin conductance measurements and subjective pain scales in children after otolaryngological procedures

Data publikacji: 08 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 117 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Pain assessment in children is crucial in managing postoperative analgesia; it is therefore necessary to determine the most accurate tool for assessing pain in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between skin conductance measurements and self-reporting pain scales in children after otolaryngology procedures.

Materials and methods

Thirty-three children (N=33) were assessed for eligibility for the research. Postoperative pain was assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale; the Wong-Baker Faces Pain Rating Scale; the Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, and Consolability scale; and a skin conductance algesimeter. The postoperative pain was measured 1 and 2 hours after the surgery.

Results

There was no statistically significant correlation between self-reported pain scores and the skin conductance fluctuations in the children studied, regardless of gender or age. A statistically significant correlation was found between the existing subjective pain scales in children.

Conclusions

The skin conductance measurements do not provide an additional reliable tool for assessing pain in patients after otolaryngological procedures. The existing self-reported pain scales are sufficient to assess postoperative pain in children.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pain
  • skin conductance
  • pain scale
  • postoperative pain
  • pediatric
Otwarty dostęp

Development of a method for isolation of melanin from archival FFPE tissues of human melanoma for structural studies by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

Data publikacji: 08 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 122 - 127

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

There is some evidence that pheomelanin produced in skin melanocytes may be involved in the development of cutaneous melanoma, particularly in individuals with a light skin/red hair phenotype. However, nothing is known about possible correlation between the type and/or clinical stage of melanoma and the content of pheomelanin in the tumor tissue. We believe that archival formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) melanoma tissues could be a good source of melanin pigment for future large-scale research on that issue.

Aim

The aim of this work was to develop a method for isolation and purification of melanin from FFPE samples of human melanoma. To test the suitability of the isolation protocol for planned structural studies, the obtained melanin was analyzed for pheomelanin content by the method based on pyrolysis (Py) coupled with gas chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS).

Material and methods

For melanin isolation, microtome sections of FFPE tissue of primary lesion and lymph node metastases were subjected to a multistep procedure of paraffin removal, tissue rehydration, homogenization, and digestion with the set of proteolytic enzymes. The pigment samples were then pyrolyzed at 500 °C, and the GC-separated thermal degradation products were identified using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the multiple reaction monitoring mode.

Results

GC/MS/MS analysis of the pyrolysis products revealed the presence of pheomelanin markers, which allowed quantitation of a pheomelanin component of each of the isolated pigments. Melanin from the FFPE primary melanoma was found to contain 6.6%, and the pigment from FFPE metastatic lymph node 7.5% of pheomelanin.

Conclusions

The developed protocol allows for the isolation of melanin from FFPE melanoma specimens. The pigment can be successfully studied for pheomelanin content by Py-GC/MS/MS method. The results of our study indicate that archival FFPE tumor tissues can be used as a good source of melanin for future structural studies aimed at shedding more light on the role of pheomelanin in the pathomechanism of cutaneous melanoma.

Słowa kluczowe

  • FFPE
  • melanoma
  • pheomelanin
  • pyrolysis
  • GC/MS/MS
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of amygdalin on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 and T-47D breast cancer cells in the in vitro study

Data publikacji: 25 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 132 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Amygdalin is a chemical compound found in the seeds of many edible plants. Different studies using cancer cell cultures in vitro indicate its potential anti-cancer activity. Various types of cancer cells showed different responses to different doses of amygdalin. This may suggest many in vitro models of the activity of this compound. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of amygdalin on MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D breast cancer cells and on HFF-1 normal dermal fibroblasts (control cell culture) in vitro. Cell proliferation, viability, and the changes in mRNA transcript levels of basic proteins (BAX, caspase 3 and BCL-2) involved in apoptosis were analyzed.

Materials and Methods

MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, T-47D, and HFF-1 cell lines were purchased from the ATCC. Amygdalin derived from apricot kernels was purchased from Sigma-Aldrich. CVDE, WST-1, and LDH assays were used to evaluate the effects of amygdalin on cell proliferation and viability. Molecular evaluation of gene transcription levels was performed using the RT-qPCR technique.

Results

Amygdalin causes a dose-dependent decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity of MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and T-47D cells in the in vitro cultures. In all cell cultures amygdalin affects the mRNA levels of pro-apoptotic BAX and caspase 3 proteins and anti-apoptotic BCL-2 protein.

Conclusions

Amygdalin anti-cancer activity may be selective in relation to different cell types. It seems that examined breast cancer cells are more sensitive to amygdalin than normal cells.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast cancer
  • amygdalin
  • cell culture
  • T-47D
  • MDA-MB-231
  • MCF-7
  • HFF-1
  • BAX
  • BCL-2
  • caspase 3
Otwarty dostęp

Salivary HPV infection in healthy people

Data publikacji: 29 May 2022
Zakres stron: 143 - 148

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

In recent years, interest in human papillomavirus infections as a causative factor in epithelial cancer development has grown. Literature indicates that HPV involvement in malignant transformations in oral mucosa can vary significantly, from 0 up to 87%. The aim of our study was to detect the prevalence of salivary HPV infection among generally healthy adults.

Materials and Methods

The examination involved 139 patients, from whom 139 whole, 1.5ml saliva samples were obtained. HPV DNA was detected by the nested PCR technique. To visualize the PCR products electrophoresis reactions were carried out.

Results

Sample analysis showed that DNA for HPV was detected in 14 patients: 11 positive results were obtained from men, and 3 from women. This yields a high infection rate: 10.07%.

Conclusions

The HPV prevalence in the male group was more than twice as high as in the female group. Also, subclinical oral HPV infection was detected more frequently in young (19–39 years old) and older (=>60 years old) adults.

Słowa kluczowe

  • human papillomavirus
  • saliva
  • healthy adults
Otwarty dostęp

Correlation between brush cytology results and histopathological examination in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer: A prospective study

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 149 - 156

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of the paper was to demonstrate that brush cytology can be useful in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous states and laryngeal cancer.

Materials and Methods

Ninety-two patients were analyzed. The control group included patients with benign laryngeal lesions, while the study group was composed of patients in whom a precancerous condition or laryngeal cancer was suspected. Material for histopathological and cytological examination was collected during a laryngeal microsurgery. The authors analyzed the consistency of the results of cytological and histopathological examination in the diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer.

Results

Comparing diagnoses based on cytological examination with the results of histopathological examinations, the authors observed that there was a strong and statistically significant (p<0.001) correlation between the results. The accuracy of brush cytology in the conducted study indicates that the sensitivity and specificity of the test reaches 90.09% and 93.5% with 4 false negative and 3 false positive results. Positive prediction reached 93% and negative prediction reached 91.5%.

Conclusions

Brush cytology of the larynx may be useful in screening and as an auxiliary test in diagnostic evaluation of precancerous conditions and laryngeal cancer.

Słowa kluczowe

  • brush cytology
  • histopathological examination
  • dysplasia
  • laryngeal squamous carcinoma
  • screening
Otwarty dostęp

Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy as alternative methods of early identification of pathogens causing catheter-related bloodstream infections of patients in ICU

Data publikacji: 13 May 2022
Zakres stron: 157 - 164

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Vascular catheters are an indispensable element of the therapy of patients in intensive care. Their use is associated with the possibility of complications, including infectious. According to various sources, the incidence of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) ranges from 0.1 to 22.7 per 1,000 catheter days.

Materials and Methods

The central venous catheter tip culture samples were collected from 24 patients with suspected catheter-related bloodstream infection, from three intensive care units (ICUs). The results of microscopic examinations: atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were compared with the results of microbiological analysis of the central venous catheter tip and blood collected from the catheter.

Results

The microscopic examination and microbiological analysis of both the blood and central venous catheter samples confirmed the presence of microorganisms in 16 cases (double positive result). Our study was conducted in a short period of time (up to 6 hours) and it gave an initial answer to the question about the type of microorganisms colonising the central venous catheter. In one patient the infection was not caused by removal of the central venous catheter. However, not all results were fully consistent within the two diagnostic methods. The colonisation of the central venous catheter with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis was microbiologically confirmed, but it was not confirmed by the microscopic examination of the sample collected from patient No. 20. However, the examination enabled preliminary assessment of the microorganism colonising the catheter, which may have caused the blood infection. It cannot be ruled out that Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacilli were grown on the catheter that came into contact with blood from another source of infection, e.g. the respiratory, nervous or urinary systems. Information on the presence of cocci-shaped bacteria forming characteristic clusters or rods may enable initial diagnosis of catheter-related bloodstream infection if it is accompanied by typical clinical symptoms. Alternative diagnostics also provides valuable information on the presence of biofilm, which is a factor hindering the body’s response to infection and penetration of antibiotics.

Conclusions

Our pilot study presents new diagnostic possibilities of microscopic imaging with the atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) to identify pathogens on routinely used disposable medical devices, such as the central venous catheter. On the other hand, this range of diagnostics reveals the potential to constantly improve medical materials which come into direct contact with patients’ tissues. It is important to create a database of microscopic images, which would be a repeatable diagnostic pattern and fully correlated with the results of microbiological analysis, because it would facilitate initial quick diagnosis of a potential CRBSI.

Słowa kluczowe

  • microbiological analysis
  • microscopic examination
  • microscopy and scanning
  • alternative methods
Otwarty dostęp

Cadmium in herbal weight loss products as a health risk factor for consumers

Data publikacji: 13 May 2022
Zakres stron: 165 - 173

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Herbal weight loss remedies are produced from various plant species which could accumulate heavy metals from the environment. The consumption of contaminated herbal preparations could be a source of consumer exposure to toxic metals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the content of cadmium in selected herbal weight loss products available on the Polish market, to determine exposure of consumers to the heavy metal included in herbal infusions prepared from the studied products and the related health risk.

Materials and Methods

The study included 29 herbal weight loss products available on the Polish market. The content of cadmium in the analyzed dried herbs and herbal infusions was analyzed. Based on the obtained results, the exposure of consumers to cadmium and the related health risks were estimated.

Results

Cadmium concentration in dried herbs did not exceed the maximum allowable concentration.

Conclusions

The exposure of consumers of the most contaminated herbal infusions to cadmium could be equal to half of the reference dose, which is an acceptable exposure threshold.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblast growth factors
  • endocrine
  • metabolic disorders
  • obesity
  • mineral balance
Otwarty dostęp

Is combined physical therapy more effective than topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers? Preliminary study

Data publikacji: 04 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 199 - 208

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Recently, increased frequency of chronic leg ulcers has been observed. The aim of the study was to compare therapeutic efficacy of combined physical therapy to topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy in the treatment of venous leg ulcers.

Materials and Methods

Participants included 36 patients (14 females and 22 males) between 18 and 80 years of age with chronic venous leg ulcers. They were randomly divided into two study groups. Group I underwent topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy; group II underwent combined physical therapy. Before and after the therapeutic cycle (15 procedures) measurement of ulceration size by planimetry and analysis of laboratory parameters of blood was performed.

Results

In both groups, a statistically significant reduction of ulcer surface area was obtained (25.11±17.8cm2 to 16.93±13.89cm2, p=0.000196) vs. (34.17±14.82cm2 to 23.99±15.15cm2, p=0.004337). Blood morphology revealed a statistically significant reduction in patients from group II who underwent combined physical therapy (p=0.01). In both groups, statistically significant reduction of fibrinogen level (p=0.01 and p<0.001), and total protein level (p=0.01) was achieved. In group II reduction of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) was noted.

Conclusions

Topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy and combined physical therapy had statistically significant effects on the reduction of surface area of treated venous leg ulcers. The changes in morphological and biochemical parameters may indicate the anti-inflammatory and anti-clotting action effects of combined physical therapy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biochemical blood parameters
  • venous leg ulcers
  • hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  • combined physical therapy
  • treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor cells with muse cell analyzer and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region staining method

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 209 - 219

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Mistletoe has been used alone or as a complementary therapy in the treatment of different diseases for years. In this study, the antitumoral effect of mistletoe fruit extract on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells was evaluated.

Materials and Methods

EAT cells from preformed stock mice were transferred to culture dishes containing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mistletoe extracts at different doses (100, 200, 400, and 800 μg/ml). These cells were incubated at 37 °C in an environment with 95% humidity and 5% CO2. At the end of the incubations, the apoptosis status of the cells, cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential, and proliferation status with the argyrophilic (Ag) nucleolar organizer region staining (NORs) method were evaluated.

Results

As a result, it was observed that the mistletoe fruit extract and 5-FU induce apoptosis of EAT cells. It was concluded that the 5-FU substance arrests the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage, while the mistletoe arrests the cell cycle at the S and G2/M stages. The depolarization rate of the mistletoe treated cells was higher. As a result of the evaluation made with the AgNORs method, it was seen that mistletoe and 5-FU could be effective in reducing the proliferation of EAT cells.

Conclusions

It was seen that mistletoe fruit extract could be effective in stimulating the apoptosis and depolarization of cancer cells. The results of other studies in the literature and our study support each other. It was concluded that the mistletoe plant may be useful in cancer treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mistletoe
  • Ehrlich ascites tumor
  • apoptosis
  • cell proliferation
  • AgNORs
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human breast milk

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 220 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Women who have problems with lactation can use human milk banks. Mainly this human milk is provided to premature babies and sick newborns. Human milk is the most suitable food for newborns and infants, recommended by WHO (World Health Organization). Human milk has anti-inflammatory, anti-infective, and anti-allergic properties, and also works for immunomodulation. Melatonin has a special, underestimated importance in the composition of breast milk. It is a hormone that has many body functions and, for several decades, its antioxidant potential has been increasingly talked about.

The aim of the study was to examine the effect of Holder pasteurization on melatonin concentration in human milk.

Materials and Methods

18 samples of human milk from donors from the human milk bank were used for the analysis. Melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization was determined by ELISA. In addition, the nutritional content composition of milk was analyzed using MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and correlations examined.

Results

Melatonin concentration in human milk before pasteurization was 0.65–26.24 pg/mL (Me=9.58, IQR=12.72), while after pasteurization 0.80–29.58 pg/mL (Me=9.98, IQR=11.26). There was a positive correlation between melatonin concentration before and after pasteurization (r=0.797, p<0.001).

Conclusions

The Holder pasteurization process does not affect the concentration of melatonin in milk samples, which may be a recommendation for human milk banks.

Słowa kluczowe

  • melatonin
  • Holder pasteurization
  • human milk
  • donor milk
  • human milk bank
  • lactation
  • newborn
Otwarty dostęp

The association of air pollutants (CO2, MTBE) on Candida albicans and Candida glabrata drug resistance

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 243 - 253

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Therapeutic methods are very important in the prevalence of opportunistic fungal infections, which are an important cause of human diseases. In this study, air pollution agents that are in direct contact with microorganisms, and the effects of carbon sources using CO2 and MTBE on growth of fungi, and particularly the evaluation of changes in the expression of interfering genes in susceptibility and drug resistance in these fungi, were investigated.

Materials and Methods

Collecting samples and isolating Candida glabrata and Candida albicans with phenotypic methods were accomplished. We then evaluated the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) with the M27A4 protocol of CLSI. We adjusted 20 strains of C. albicans and 10 strains of C. glabrata whose sensitivity was evaluated in the MIC test with 5% CO2 and 5mg/ml methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) considered as air pollutants, and followed by re-evaluating MIC testing to separate azole-resistant strains. Interfering agents were also considered.

Results

Upregulation of some genes on the two mentioned yeasts had led to drug resistance in them; they were previously sensitive to both drugs. Correspondingly, 41% of C. glabrata samples in sputum showed sensitivity to these drugs. Upregulation of ERG11 (71%) and EPA1 (90%) were observed in resistant strains. Upregulation of genes associated with aspartate proteins and downregulation of SAP3 genes were recognized in C. glabrata in sputum and a 15% downregulation of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) isolate and 50% upregulation of SAP1 gene in C. albicans sensitive samples were observed and compared to fluconazole and itraconazole with the oral and joint sources. Remarkably, decreased SAP2 expression in oral sources and a 60% increase in resistant strains in C. albicans were observed. The downregulation of SAP3 expression showed in the joint samples. An increase in HWP1 expression (30%) was noted in isolated and drug-sensitive samples at the sputum and BAL source. CDR1 expression was increased in MTBE-affected species; however, it decreased in the vicinity of CT.

Conclusions

Air pollutants such as CO2 and MTBE eventually caused drug resistance in Candida, which can be one of the causes of drug resistance in candidiasis infections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • air pollutant
  • CO
  • MTBE
  • drug resistance
  • molecular investigation
Otwarty dostęp

Epidemiology of infections and colonization caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017

Data publikacji: 04 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 275 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of antimicrobial-resistant opportunistic infections in hospitalized patients. Due to acquired resistance to multiple antimicrobials, K. pneumoniae is a particular threat in health care. The aim of this study was the assessment of the epidemiological situation related to the spread of symptomatic infections and colonization caused by K. pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) in the Mazovian Voivodeship in 2016–2017.

Materials and Methods

The study included data collected between 2016 and 2017 from 168 hospitals located in and outside of Warsaw but limited to the Mazovian Voivodeship. Data was extracted from reports on suspected epidemic outbreaks and the elimination of outbreaks as well as annual reports on nosocomial infections and alarm pathogens.

Results

The incidence of infections caused by K. pneumoniae NDM (symptomatic and asymptomatic) was 0.96/1,000 hospitalizations in 2016 and 2.04/1,000 hospitalizations in 2017. In 2016, hospitals in the Mazovian Voivodeship reported 50 transmissions of K. pneumoniae NDM. In 2017, this value increased to 74. The risk of symptomatic infection was higher in hospitals outside of Warsaw than in hospitals in Warsaw, while risk of colonization was higher in hospitals in Warsaw.

Conclusions

The epidemiological situation related to infections and colonization caused by K. pneumoniae NDM in the Mazovian Voivodeship is disadvantageous, which implies the necessity to monitor anti-epidemic measures. The epidemic situation in hospitals outside of Warsaw seems to be worse compared to hospitals in Warsaw, which have higher risks of symptomatic infection caused by K. pneumoniae NDM.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Enterobacteriaceae
  • epidemiology
  • New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase
  • pathogen transmission
Otwarty dostęp

Impact of advancement of otitis media with effusion on vestibular organ condition in children

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 300 - 306

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Otitis media with effusion (OME) is one of the most common otorhinolaryngological (ENT) disorders in childhood. This study aimed to investigate the vestibular organ condition in children with OME and whether the presence of vestibular disturbances depends on the advancement of OME.

Materials and Methods

Subjects were 53 children between 4 and 14 years old with bilateral OME and treated with middle ear drainage. The study group was divided into two subgroups according to the advancement of the disease. The participants were submitted to an evaluation consisting of anamnesis, ENT evaluation, static posturography, and electronystagmography (ENG). Examination was performed before surgery and one month after drainage.

Results

The posturography revealed the presence of disturbances before and after ME drainage. After drainage, the assessed parameters improved; they still, however, remained elevated. Disturbances in posturography, both before and after drainage, were expressed more fully in the subgroup with stage II compared to the stage I subgroup, especially before drainage. The analysis of the ENG confirmed that the stage of clinical advancement affects the severity of vestibular disorders in children with OME. Greater vestibular disorders in the form of the presence of spontaneous nystagmus and position were more frequent in the subgroup with stage II.

Conclusions

ME effusion affects the vestibular organ in children with OME. The degree of vestibular disturbances depends on the clinical advancement of the disease. The assessment of the vestibular organ condition is beneficial and should be included in the OME diagnostic and for qualification for surgical treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • vertigo
  • balance disorders
  • otitis media with effusion
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of dietary intake by self-report in adult patients with type 1 diabetes treated with a personal insulin pump

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 315 - 323

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Appropriate nutrition is an element affecting the metabolic control of patients with diabetes. There are only a few studies assessing the implementation of dietary recommendations in adult patients with type 1 diabetes; none of them assessed the implementation of nutritional standards. Our study aimed to assess the implementation of dietary recommendations and their relation to metabolic control in adults with T1DM treated with personal insulin pumps.

Materials and Methods

The study included 48 adult patients who were divided into two subgroups and compared, based on HbA1c above and below 6.5%. Each patient's nutrient, vitamin, and mineral intake was assessed on self-reported 3-day 24-hour surveys of food consumption. Records were introduced into the dietetic software DietaPro, (source: http://www.dietapro.eu/) which revealed nutrient content. We evaluated the percentage of patients with nutrient consumption below recommended values based on current recommendations.

Results

The studied population was characterized by insufficient consumption of most nutrients and vitamins: sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, zinc, copper, iodine, manganese, vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, vitamin C. Patients’ diet did supply correct amounts of phosphorus, and too much fatty acid and cholesterol. There were no statistically significant differences in most of the nutrient intakes across the two groups. Nevertheless, we observed a significant difference in the polyunsaturated fatty acids, sodium, niacin, and calcium intakes.

Conclusions

The studied patients consumed too much saturated fatty acid and dietary cholesterol. The consumption amounts of most nutrients and vitamins were associated with the risk of deficiency. The obtained results indicate the need for further dietary education for patients with T1DM.

Słowa kluczowe

  • diabetes type 1
  • dietary recommendations
  • personal insulin pumps
  • hemoglobin A1C
  • vitamins
  • minerals
  • nutrients
Otwarty dostęp

Prognostic value of SMAD4 in resectable pancreatic cancer

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 324 - 332

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The tumor gene SMAD4 was genetically inactivated in approximately half of pancreatic cancer (PC) patients. The correlation of SMAD4 gene expression in PC and its prognosis remains inconclusive. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between loss of SMAD4 expression and the outcome of resectable PC.

Materials and Methods

A systematic review of the relevant electronic databases was conducted between SMAD4 expression and the outcome of PC patients until December 2020, including PubMed, Web of Science, and the China Journal Net. A meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0 and pooled hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to estimate the strength of the association between SMAD4 gene expression and the prognosis of PC patients.

Results

Twelve studies were included. Our meta-analysis illustrated that there were no significant associations between the loss of SMAD4 gene expression and overall survival in resectable PC (HR=1.38, 95% CI 0.98–1.81). In addition, there was no evidence of publication bias, as showed by Begg's and Egger's test. There was no correlation between the loss of SMAD4 expression and local recurrence (OR=0.97, 95% CI 0.52–1.80, p=0.914), while the loss of SMAD4 gene expression was associated with increased risk of distant recurrence (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.08–1.70, p=0.008).

Conclusions

After PC resection, the loss of SMAD4 gene expression was correlated with higher risk of distant recurrence, but not with local recurrence nor overall survival.

Słowa kluczowe

  • SMAD4 gene
  • resection
  • pancreatic cancer
  • recurrence
  • overall survival
Otwarty dostęp

Ketamine used in the therapy of depressive disorders impacts protein profile, proliferation rate, and phagocytosis resistance of enterococci

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 333 - 338

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

A low concentration of ketamine is used to cause an anti-depressive effect. The mechanism of ketamine's action in depression is believed to result, among others, from its anti-inflammatory activity. Despite the fact that only high concentrations of ketamine inhibit bacterial growth, it is clear that even a sub-inhibitory concentration of chemicals may change bacterial properties. Considering the above, in the current study we aimed to evaluate the in vitro influence of ketamine on proliferation of enterococci and their interactions with monocytes.

Materials and Methods

The studied strains were isolated as etiological agents of infection at Medical University of Gdansk. The proliferation and metabolic activity were determined using the FACSVerse flow cytometer after addition of CFDA-SE to bacterial suspension. For the determination of phagocytosis resistance, THP-1 human monocytes cell line was used. Suspension of monocytes which engulfed CFDA-SE–stained bacteria was then stained with propidium iodide to evaluate cytotoxicity of enterococci.

Results

The result of the study showed unexpected response of bacterial cells to ketamine at an early stage of culture. In 57.7% of strains, both proliferation rate and metabolic activity were boosted. This group of strains was also less susceptible to phagocytosis than in culture without ketamine. Different response of isolates to ketamine was also visible in changes of proteins’ profile determined by MALDI-TOF.

Conclusions

The analysis of bacteria at an early stage in the growth curve demonstrated the bacterial diversity in response to ketamine and let us set the hypothesis that microbiome susceptibility to ketamine may be one of the elements which should be taken into consideration when planning the successful pharmacotherapy of depression

Słowa kluczowe

  • proliferation
  • phagocytosis resistance
  • enterococci
  • ketamine
Otwarty dostęp

The effect of curcumin on symptoms and quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 345 - 350

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the cause of numerous gastroenterological consultations. Due to multifactorial pathogenesis, treatment of IBS is difficult. Even the management with new medications appears unsatisfactory. Recent reports on IBS therapy highlight the possible beneficial effect of curcumin. The aim of the study was to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in IBS patients.

Materials and Methods

Our non-controlled study included 51 patients: 30 (58.8%) women and 21 (41.2%) men diagnosed with IBS based on Roman Criteria IV, 35 patients with diarrhea-predominant (IBS-D) variant and 16 with constipation-predominant (IBS-C) variant. The quality of life and severity of symptoms were assessed with the IBS Symptom Severity Score (IBS-SSS) and IBS Quality of Life Instrument (IBS-QoL) questionnaires in all patients at: 0, 4, and 12-week time points.

Results

A statistically significantly lower IBS-SSS score was found after 4 and 12 weeks of using curcumin (p < 0.01), especially in the category of bloating and severity of abdominal pain. After 4 weeks of using curcumin, a reduction in the mean IBS-SSS score decreased from 279.7 to 202.2 points (p < 0.05). There was a significant increase in the overall score obtained with IBS-QoL questionnaire after the first 4 weeks of taking curcumin compared to baseline visit (41,9 vs. 53,4; p < 0.05). No side effects have been reported associated with the curcumin use.

Conclusions

In summary, curcumin is effective in reducing the IBS clinical symptoms and improving the patients’ quality of life. It also has a high safety profile.

Słowa kluczowe

  • curcumin
  • irritable bowel syndrome
  • quality of life
  • IBS treatment
Otwarty dostęp

Infection complicating 794 primary and revision arthroscopies. Accuracy of actual prophylactic procedures against infection and results from a single orthopedic center in Poland

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 351 - 357

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Septic arthritis after arthroscopy (SAAA) is a devasting complication which reported frequency varies about 0.04%–5.7%. The aim of the study is to analyze frequency of SAAA at one orthopedic center, risk factors and accuracy of actual prophylactic measures.

Materials and Methods

A retrospective study (level of evidence: V) includes 794 (665 primary and 129 revision) “clean” arthroscopies performed in the years 2017–2018 with confirmed joint infection during 30 days after operation without the use of non-resorbable implants and up to 1 year after procedures with non-resorbable implants. Demographic and medical data about potential risk factors of SAAA were analyzed: patients age, sex, operated joint, type of procedure, primary or revision procedure, the use of drains, usage of non-absorbable implant, time of surgery, BMI, time lapse from index operation to diagnosis of SAAA, length of hospital stay, causative microorganisms. All operations were performed by eight different but experienced surgeons, in operation theatre with vertical laminar flow with the capacity of 50 air exchanges per hour. The perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis consisted of one preoperative dose 1 g cefazolin in simple arthroscopies, which was prolonged to 24 hours with 3 doses in cases of implantation of non-absorbable implant (55.8% of patients).

Results

From 794 cases 4 have been infected: 2 after knee arthrolysis, one after ACL reconstruction and one after rotator cuff repair. There were 2 early, with manifestation within 30 days, and 2 late-onset SAAA. Infections occurred in 0.5% of all arthroscopies and in 0.47% of knee arthroscopies alone. Patients age and time of surgery have not been found significantly different in infected and non-infected cases, whereas age and time of surgery have been significantly different in revision and non-revision cases.

Conclusions

Primarily aseptic arthroscopic procedures performed with respect to actual perioperative preventive measures have a low risk of postoperative septic arthritis. The risk increases with patients age and time of operation, but not significantly.

Słowa kluczowe

  • septic arthritis
  • postoperative infection
  • arthroscopy
  • surgical site infection
Otwarty dostęp

Cotinine as an indicator of fetal exposure to active and passive smoking in pregnant women

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 358 - 368

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Within 5 years, the number of pregnant smokers in Poland decreased by 5%. Still, 6% of pregnant women are active and 18% are passive smokers, and 5% smoke and drink alcohol. The study examined the levels of cotinine concentration in the blood of pregnant women and in the umbilical cord blood of their children in relation to the number of cigarettes smoked; the places and persons conducive to exposure of pregnant women to tobacco smoke were determined.

Materials and Methods

The study included 123 women who have entered medical facilities for childbirth during physiological pregnancy, who filled out a questionnaire about their lifestyle. Moreover, venous and umbilical blood was collected from them and their newborns for cotinine evaluation. The nicotine marker was determined by the UPLC/MS/MS analytical method.

Results

When examining the frequency of smoking and exposure to smoke, it was found that 38% of the respondents concealed their smoking status by giving false answers, as shown by the biochemical analysis of the presence of cotinine in the blood. A significant correlation was found between the cotinine levels of exposed and smoking mothers and their babies. Pregnant smokers were in the presence of smokers more often (p = 0.019). Moreover, it was found that the presence of women in the company of smokers who smoked more than 20 cigarettes/day resulted in a significant (p = 0.011) increase of cotinine in the umbilical blood in 31.5% of newborns, higher than the concentration in mothers.

Conclusions

Protecting women from passive smoking requires extensive educational measures. The inclusion of cotinine level assessment in pregnant women in the program of the standard of perinatal examinations should be considered in order to protect children from diseases resulting from the effects of nicotine in the embryonic period.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cotinine in cord blood
  • smoking during pregnancy
  • passive smoking
Otwarty dostęp

Effects of different insulation temperatures of an inflatable insulation system on patients receiving right hemicolectomy using the laparoscopic caudal approach

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 395 - 401

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The study assesses the effects of different insulation temperatures of an inflatable insulation system on right hemicolectomy.

Materials and Methods

A total of 132 patients receiving right hemicolectomy using the laparoscopic caudal approach were randomly divided into four groups. The inflatable insulation system was used immediately after they entered the operating room. The perioperative core body temperature, blood coagulation index, stress index, recovery time from anesthesia, and postoperative BIS recovery were recorded 5 minutes before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately (T1), 30 minutes (T2), 60 minutes (T3), and 120 minutes after induction of general anesthesia (T4), and at the end of operation (T5).

Results

Group C had significantly lower IL1, IL-6, IL-23, IL-13, IL-17A, TNF-α, and CRP levels but a higher IL-12 level than those of other three groups (P < 0.05). The MAP and HR values of groups A and C were significantly lower than those of groups B and D at T2, T3 and T4, which were lowest in group C (P < 0.05). The blood glucose levels of groups A and C during and after operation were lower than those of groups B and D, being lowest in group C (P < 0.05). The anesthesia recovery time and extubation time of groups A and C were shorter than those of groups B and D, being shortest in group C (P < 0.05). The time from discontinuation to BIS>80 of group C was significantly shorter than those of other three groups (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Comprehensive insulation (43°C automatically adjusted to 38°C after 1 hour) exerts satisfactory effects on right hemicolectomy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • insulation temperature
  • inflatable insulation system
  • colorectal cancer
  • surgery
Otwarty dostęp

Investigation of the effect of yarrow (Achillea millefolium) on Ehrlich ascites tumor

Data publikacji: 20 Oct 2022
Zakres stron: 431 - 443

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

One of the most important health problems today is cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effect of yarrow (Y) with known anticarcinogenic effect on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT).

Materials and Methods

The above-ground part (300 g) of Y was macerated with water and extracted three times for 24 hours at 37°C in a shaking water bath. In the study, EAT cells were divided into control, DMSO group 5-FU, 50, 100, 200, 400 and 800 μg/ml YP groups.

Results

At the end of the hour, it was observed that total apoptosis increased significantly in Y groups (especially 50 μg/ml) compared to the control group (p<0.05). It was observed that Y slowed the division of EAT cells (especially 800 μg/ml) by stopping the cell cycle at the G0/G1 stage. It was concluded that Y (especially at high doses) triggered apoptosis by significantly increasing the percentage of total depolarized cells (p<0.001) in all three time periods.

Conclusions

The results obtained showed that Y extract may have an antitumoral effect on EAT cells. It is thought that this study will contribute to studies on cancer treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • animal
  • cell
  • yarrow
  • EAT
  • apoptosis
Otwarty dostęp

Risk factors of inability to live independently in the course of lung cancer

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 402 - 406

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

A number of articles focus on functioning with lung cancer. However, there are no articles on factors which result in the inability to live independently in the course of this disease. This study assesses risk factors regarding the inability to live independently among individuals with lung cancer.

Materials and Methods

This study included 134 patients who displayed interest in obtaining a certificate of the inability to live independently.

Results

Over the study period, 75% of the patients obtained the certificate of inability to live independently (group A) and 25% of them did not obtain the certificate (group B). In group A, 56.4% of individuals were men, and in group B, 42.4% of them were men. In group A, 11.8% of patients were diagnosed with small cell lung cancer; no such case was found in group B. Metastases were revealed in 83.2% of patients from group A and in 57.6% from group B. Patients from group A had a significantly lower score in the Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living and lower body mass index compared with those from group B.

Conclusions

Information on body mass index, histopathological diagnosis, and the presence of metastases is useful in assessing the risk of being unable to live independently in patients with lung cancer. The Barthel Index for Activities of Daily Living is helpful in assessing the inability to live independently.

Słowa kluczowe

  • lung
  • cancer
  • disability
  • epidemiology
  • palliative
Otwarty dostęp

Subjective, but not documented, lactose intolerance accompanies irritable bowel syndrome

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 444 - 449

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

Lactose intolerance, due to lactase deficiency, may overlap with the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or lead to an incorrect diagnosis of IBS. Identification of lactose intolerance and lactase deficiency enables targeted treatment to be implemented.

The aim of the study was to search for a frequency of a lactose intolerance symptoms in patients with IBS, depending on the results of hydrogen breath test (HBT).

Materials and Methods

The study involved 56 patients with IBS and 23 healthy people. Both, IBS patients and healthy controls, were asked to complete a survey about IBS symptoms and tolerance of lactose-containing products. A HBT was performed on all subjects.

Results

Lactase deficiency was diagnosed in 60.7% of patients with IBS and 43.5% of control group. The differences between the study groups were not statistically significant. No statistically significant differences were observed between the incidence of lactase deficiency depending on the type of IBS.

In the group of patients with IBS and normal HBT results, as well as in patients with IBS and lactase deficiency, there were no statistically significant differences in the frequency of lactose intolerance symptoms. However, among people with normal HBT results, patients with IBS reported symptoms of intolerance after consuming lactose-containing foods significantly more often compared to the control group (p<0.05).

Conclusions

Frequency of lactase deficiency does not differ between IBS patients and healthy individuals. Patients with IBS are more likely to report symptoms of lactose intolerance, regardless of the HBT result, compared to healthy individuals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)
  • lactose intolerance
  • lactase deficiency
  • hydrogen breath test (HBT)

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Physiological and pathophysiological role of endocrine fibroblast growth factors

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 39 - 53

Abstrakt

Abstract

The endocrine subfamily of fibroblast growth factors (FGF) includes three factors: FGF19, FGF21, FGF23. They act on distal tissues through FGF receptors (FGFRs). The FGFR activation requires two cofactors: α- and β-Klotho, which are structurally related single-pass transmembrane proteins. The endocrine FGFs regulate various metabolic processes involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism as well as bile acid circulation, vitamin D modulation, and phosphate homeostasis. The FGF-FGFR dysregulation is widely implicated in the pathogenesis of various disorders. Significant alterations in plasma FGF concentration are associated with the most prevalent chronic diseases, including dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, diseases of the biliary tract, chronic kidney disease, inflammatory bowel disease, osteomalacia, various malignancies, and depression. Therefore, the endocrine FGFs may serve as disease predictors or biomarkers, as well as potential therapeutic targets. Currently, numerous analogues and inhibitors of endocrine FGFs are under development for treatment of various disorders, and recently, a human monoclonal antibody against FGF23 has been approved for treatment of X-linked hypophosphatemia. The aim of this review is to summarize the current data on physiological and pathophysiological actions of the endocrine FGF subfamily and recent research concerning the therapeutic potential of the endocrine FGF pathways.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fibroblast growth factors
  • endocrine
  • metabolic disorders
  • obesity
  • mineral balance
Otwarty dostęp

Encephalitozoon spp. as a potential human pathogen

Data publikacji: 29 May 2022
Zakres stron: 54 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

Encephalitzoon spp. are microsporidia, and intracellular opportunistic pathogens. The hosts of these pathogens include vertebrates, invertebrates, and certain protozoa. In people microsporidia may be opportunistic pathogens for immunocompromised patients (with AIDS or after organ transplantation). Infection with these microorganisms was also described in persons with diarrhea and corneal diseases.

The species causing rare infections in humans, Encephalitozooncuniculi, had previously been described from animal hosts. However, several new microsporidial species, including E. intestinalis and E. hellem, have been discovered in humans, raising the question of their natural origin. Vertebrate animals are now identified as hosts for all three microsporidial species infecting humans, implying a zoonotic nature of these microorganisms. Molecular studies have identified phenotypic and/or genetic variability within these species, indicating that they are not uniform, and have allowed the question of their zoonotic potential to be addressed. The focus of this review is to present the zoonotic potential of E. intestinalis, E. cuniculi, and E. hellem.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp
  • zoonosis
  • immunodeficiency
Otwarty dostęp

Intestinal barrier disorders and metabolic endotoxemia in obesity: Current knowledge

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2022
Zakres stron: 71 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

The World Health Organization reports that the prevalent problem of excessive weight and obesity currently affects about 1.9 billion people worldwide and is the fifth most common death factor among patients. In view of the growing number of patients with obesity, attention is drawn to the insufficient effectiveness of behavioral treatment methods. In addition to genetic and environmental factors leading to the consumption of excess energy in the diet and the accumulation of adipose tissue, attention is paid to the role of intestinal microbiota in maintaining a normal body weight. Dysbiosis – a disorder in the composition of the gut microbiota – is mentioned as one of the contributing factors to the development of metabolic diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disorders. The human gastrointestinal tract is colonized largely by a group of Gram-negative bacteria that are indicated to be a source of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), associated with inducing systemic inflammation and endotoxemia. Research suggests that disturbances in the gut microbiota, leading to damage to the intestinal barrier and an increase in circulating LPS, are implicated in obesity and other metabolic disorders. Plasma LPS and lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) levels have been shown to be elevated in individuals with excess body weight. Bariatric surgery has become a popular treatment option, leading to stable weight loss and an improvement in obesity-related conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the factors that promote the induction of metabolic endotoxemia and its associated health consequences, along with the presentation of their changes after bariatric surgery.

Słowa kluczowe

  • gut microbiome
  • dysbiosis
  • lipopolysaccharide
  • endotoxemia
  • obesity
  • bariatric surgery
  • tight junction
Otwarty dostęp

Yersiniosis: a forgotten mimicker and confounder of Crohn’s disease

Data publikacji: 10 May 2022
Zakres stron: 104 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

Yersiniosis is a zoonosis caused by the Yersinia bacterium. The route of infection is most commonly oral and is caused by consumption of Yersinia-contaminated food. The clinical presentations of chronic yersiniosis are abdominal pain, diarrhea, relapsing arthritis, and skin lesions, that is, nodular erythema. The diagnosis is based on culture-dependent identification of Yersinia in stool, positive serologic test results, or molecular techniques. The treatment of choice is combination antibiotic therapy. Mild forms of the disease do not usually require treatment. Yersiniosis frequently mimics or confounds other chronic intestinal and extraintestinal inflammatory conditions, particularly Crohn’s disease. Therefore, diagnosis of yersiniosis may be a challenge for medical practitioners. Not including Yersinia infection in the differential diagnosis of abdominal symptoms can lead to an incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatment. This review summarises the current knowledge of Yersinia enterocolitica and pseudotuberculosis infection, with special focus on differential diagnosis between this infection and Crohn’s disease.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Yersiniosis
  • Crohn’s disease
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • diarrhea
Otwarty dostęp

S100 Beta Protein as a Marker of Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Breakthrough in Diagnostics or a False Trail? Review of the Literature.

Data publikacji: 06 Apr 2022
Zakres stron: 128 - 131

Abstrakt

Abstract

Hepatic encephalopathy is a dysfunction of the central nervous system caused by chronic and acute liver disease. The dysfunction presents a wide spectrum of symptoms—from the undetectable in a standard clinical examination to hepatic coma—and could be caused by both chronic and acute liver diseases. For many years research has been conducted to find a marker that would allow for the accurate, quick, and possibly inexpensive detection of hepatic encephalopathy. Due to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy, researchers’ attention is focused on markers of damage to the central nervous system. One of the markers of astrocyte damage, known from research in neurology and neurosurgery, is the protein S100B. Published research results so far are inconclusive, but they allow us to look with optimism at the role of S100B as a marker of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE).

Słowa kluczowe

  • hepatic encephalopathy
  • SB100 protein
  • chronic liver diseases
  • biomarkers
  • astrocytes edema
Otwarty dostęp

The impact of external factors on psoriasis

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 177 - 187

Abstrakt

Abstract

Psoriasis is one of the most common chronic inflammatory skin diseases, constituting a significant health and socioeconomic problem. Despite numerous therapeutic options, the results of treatment very often remain insufficient. It is extremely important to remember that many external factors impact the effectiveness of therapy. This article discusses the importance of emollients in therapy and the influence of infectious agents and injuries on the course of psoriasis. Understanding the above-mentioned factors in the treatment of psoriasis is critical to achieve satisfactory therapeutic effects.

Słowa kluczowe

  • psoriasis
  • psoriatic arthritis
  • lifestyle
  • emollients
  • mechanical trauma
  • Koebner syndrome
  • infectious agents
Otwarty dostęp

A review of natural foods consumed during the COVID-19 pandemic life

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 188 - 198

Abstrakt

Abstract

Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease that has brought life to a standstill around the world. Until a vaccine was found to combat COVID-19, the world conducted research and made recommendations for nutritional natural foods. Considering the risks incurred by contracting the disease, even though the production of various vaccines and vaccination of healthy people has started in some countries, individuals need useful foods to be ready for the COVID-19 pandemic. Recently, nutrient contents such as antioxidant compounds, vitamins, minerals, and probiotics that contribute to the immune system have been investigated. This paper attempts to determine the role of these dietary supplements in reducing the risk of COVID-19 and/or changing the course of the disease in COVID-19 patients and their effects on mortality. Supplements used and recommended for the COVID-19 pandemic life were investigated. In conclusion, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of nutrients, vitamins, minerals, probiotics, prebiotics, and antioxidants used during the COVID-19 pandemic to inhibit the effect of SARS-CoV-2. In order to overcome the new global crisis, nutritional cures and treatments should be upgraded. However, additional research on the subject is needed.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Covid-19
  • nutrients
  • probiotics
  • vitamins
Otwarty dostęp

The role of a recently discovered peptide—irisin—in physiological and pathological processes

Data publikacji: 18 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 228 - 233

Abstrakt

Abstract

Irisin, a cleaved fragment of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5), was originally described as a factor stimulating browning of white adipose tissue, produced during physical exercise by skeletal muscles. However, irisin is not only a new and promising biomarker of metabolism; its expression has been found in a wide variety of tissues and organs such as the peripheral nerves, stomach, pancreas, and skin, and recent data also indicate its role in cancer. Numerous studies focus on the protective role of this protein, which could become an important factor in predicting disease risk, disease prognosis, or possible metastases in cancer patients. Possible use of irisin in therapy is also worth considering. The aim of this paper is to systematize knowledge on the role of irisin in patients and to draw attention to its role in skin diseases including acne vulgaris, psoriasis vulgaris, and hidradenitis suppurativa.

Słowa kluczowe

  • adipose tissue
  • cancer
  • irisin
  • metabolism
  • skin
Otwarty dostęp

The potential impact of the ketogenic diet on gut microbiota in the context of neurological disorders

Data publikacji: 22 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 234 - 242

Abstrakt

Abstract

One of the most important functional parts of a human intestinal tract is the microscopic intestinal barrier. Its function is to ensure the correct nutrient absorption and to protect against multiple pathogens, xenobiotics, and environmental toxins. Intestinal microbiota is an integral part of the intestinal epithelium. Human microbiota and their host interact with each other, both directly and indirectly, via multiple intermediates and metabolites. Some dietary fat that is not fully digested reaches the distal parts of the intestinal tract, where an interaction with gut microbiota takes place. Studies have shown that an animal-product based diet that provides a greater supply of saturated fat increases the number of bile-resistant microorganisms, including Bilophila. The total amount of Alistipes and Bacteroides is also increased. Long-term consumption of animal-based foods contributes to the formation of the enterotype described as the Bacteroides type. The ketogenic diet is mainly based on animal fats. The changes induced by this higher consumption of animal fats are associated with unfavorable metabolic changes. However, more and more research has shown evidence of the therapeutic properties of a ketogenic diet as far as neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases are concerned. Recent reports suggest that the protective effect of a ketogenic diet is highly dependent on the gut microbiota. This review focuses on the correlation between the influence of ketogenic diet on the intestinal microbiota changes observed while analyzing patients with diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, autism spectrum disorder, and multiple sclerosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ketogenic diet
  • intestinal microbiota
  • intestinal barrier
  • metabolomics
Otwarty dostęp

The functional role of miRNAs in inflammatory pathways associated with intestinal epithelial tight junction barrier regulation in IBD

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 254 - 267

Abstrakt

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel disease – Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis – is an immune-mediated chronic disorder with still not fully elucidated complex mechanisms of pathogenesis and pathophysiology. Intestinal epithelial barrier (IEB) dysregulation is one of the major underlying mechanisms of inflammatory process induction in IBD. Proper IEB integrity is maintained to a large extent by intercellular tight junctions, the function of which can be modified by many molecules, including miRNAs. MiRNAs belong to noncoding and non-messenger RNAs, which can modulate gene expression by binding predicted mRNAs.

In this review, we summarize and discuss the potential role of miRNAs in the regulation of inflammatory signaling pathways affecting the function of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD, with particular emphasis on therapeutic potentials. The aim of the review is also to determine the further development directions of the studies on miRNA in the modulation of the intestinal epithelial barrier in IBD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • microRNA
  • tight junction protein
  • intestinal barrier
  • intestinal inflammation
  • tissue therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Methods for sentinel lymph node mapping in oral cancer: a literature review

Data publikacji: 29 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 268 - 274

Abstrakt

Abstract

Oral cancers, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, are the most common cancers of the head and neck. Of these, 90% are squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). Surgery, which consists of dissection of the primary tumor and lymphadenectomy, is considered a radical method of treatment. There are several ranges of cervical lymphadenectomy: selective neck dissection (SND), modified radical neck dissection (MRND), and radical neck dissection (RND). The extension of surgery depends on the stage of clinical advancement, which can be determined by TNM classification, among other methods. The greatest controversy is related to SND in patients with cN0 (no evidence of regional lymph node metastasis), which is currently standard procedure. This approach is dictated by the possibility of hidden or subclinical metastases. The use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) concept in patients with early stage of oral cancer and appropriate methods of its mapping may lead to a reduction in the extent of the lymphadenectomy procedure, thus reducing postoperative mortality and maintaining the patient’s function and quality of life, with correct oncological results. So far, available methods for SLN mapping are based on use of markers: methylene blue dye (MBD), metastable radioactive isotope Technetium (99mTc), or the fluorescent substance indocyanine green (ICG).

Słowa kluczowe

  • sentinel lymph node
  • head and neck cancer
  • lymphadenectomy
Otwarty dostęp

Atopic dermatitis: Current standards of diagnosis and treatment, including the latest methods of management

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 282 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing disease which causes characteristic eczematous skin lesions. The most common symptoms of atopic dermatitis are persistent pruritus, xerosis, and skin lesions with a typical location and appearance that changes with the patient’s age. The prevalence of the disease in the pediatric population is estimated at 10% to 30%, while in adults it ranges from 1% to 3%. The number of people who suffer from AD is rising every year. The pathophysiology of the disease is complex and multifactorial. It involves elements of epidermal barrier dysfunction, alterations in cellular immune response, IgE hypersensitivity, and environmental factors. AD significantly reduces the quality of life of both patients and their families. Patients with AD are at higher risk for neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and headaches. The decreased quality of life of AD patients and their families is associated with the discomfort of recurrent and chronic inflammatory skin lesions, persistent pruritus, and the inconvenience of long-term therapy. It also affects the psychological development of children, contributes to behavioral disorders (hyperactivity, hypersensitivity) and impacts many areas of family life such as sleep, leisure activities, and relationships between family members. The basic treatment of AD is avoidance of potential harmful factors, proper care in the treatment of exacerbations, topical corticosteroids, and calcineurin inhibitors in proactive therapy. In some patients who meet age criteria, phototherapy and cyclosporine should be considered. In individuals with severe AD who do not respond to topical treatment and who will not benefit from general therapy, dupilumab, a biologic drug, is the treatment of choice. Biologic treatment has an increasingly important place in the effective and modern therapy of AD. Currently, new biologic drugs are being researched, which may bring a therapeutic revolution in AD in the future. Allergen immunotherapy in patients with AD should be carefully evaluated on an individual basis, as proper selection of patients with documented IgE-dependent sensitization is important for the success of this therapy. Close collaboration with the patient and their caregivers, education, and psychological support as appropriate are integral to the treatment.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atopic dermatitis
  • diagnosis of atopic dermatitis
  • treatment of atopic dermatitis
Otwarty dostęp

Cardiac fibrosis and atrial fibrillation

Data publikacji: 11 Jul 2022
Zakres stron: 307 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by the imbalance of production and degradation of the extracellular matrix. The result of this process is an accumulation of scar tissue, which is associated with many pathological processes such as excessive mechanical stress on the heart, inflammation, ischemia, oxidative stress, or excessive neurohormonal activation. Fibrotic response results in damaged heart architecture and dysfunction of the heart. Cardiac fibrosis leads to increased stiffness of the left ventricle and arteries, promotes disorders of contraction and relaxation of the heart, disrupts electrophysiology of heart cells, and induces arrhythmias.

Atrial fibrillation is one of the most common arrhythmias. It is associated with a deterioration in the quality of life and more frequent use of medical assistance. It is also an instantaneous risk factor for many diseases, including stroke. The underlying cause of this arrhythmia is electrical and structural remodeling induced by cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, much attention is paid to the search for biochemical markers that would allow non-invasive determination of the degree of this fibrosis.

The promising markers include galectin-3, human epididymis protein 4 (HE4), serum soluble ST2, and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). Studies have shown that plasma concentrations of these substances reflect the degree of myocardial fibrosis and are indirectly associated with AF.

There are high hopes for the use of these markers in patients undergoing arrhythmia ablation. More research is needed to confirm that these markers can be used to estimate the chance of maintaining sinus rhythm in patients after ablation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • atrial fibrillation
  • cardiac fibrosis
  • galectin-3
  • sST2
  • AGTL
  • HE4
  • TGF-β
  • FGF-23
  • PICP
  • PIIINP
  • CITP
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic basis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): The most common molecular changes in patients with normal karyotype

Data publikacji: 09 Aug 2022
Zakres stron: 339 - 344

Abstrakt

Abstract

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal disorder that results from errors in proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow stem cells from myeloid lineage. According to the Gilliland “two-hit” model, genes of both groups related to proliferation (e.g., FLT3) and differentiation (e.g., CEBPA) must be mutated for full development of AML. The genetic background of AML is very complicated and varied, from single nucleotide mutations or changes in gene expression to cytogenetic aberrations. The DNA sequencing results enable identification of important gene alterations that occur first and may lead the whole leukemogenesis (driver mutations). Some of them have prognostic significance – that is, they are related to the overall survival (OS), complete remission rate, and event-free survival (EFS). The most common molecular changes in AML are mutations in NPM1, CEBPA, FLT3, and DNMT3A. Alterations in NPM1 gene are associated with a good prognosis but simultaneous mutation in FLT3 may change this prognosis. DNMT3A mutations are very often correlated with NPM1 mutations and are associated with short OS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acute myeloid leukemia
  • prognostic factor
  • driver mutation
Otwarty dostęp

Genetic and immunophenotypic diversity of acute leukemias in children

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 369 - 379

Abstrakt

Abstract

Acute leukemias are the most commonly diagnosed malignancies in children. Acute leukemias constitute a heterogeneous group of cancers resulting from clonal outgrowth and accumulation of immature precursor cells of different hematologic lineages. Cancerous transformation begins with disruption of cell maturation mechanisms triggered by particular environmental or endogenic factors, including innate and acquired immunodeficiencies as well as autoimmune diseases.

Research in the field of acute leukemias has revealed many possible genetic abnormalities in leukemic cells, including both structural and numerical aberrations. The former can produce some particular fusion genes, yielding fusion protein products which can have an oncogenic potential in hematopoietic cells. Some of them, including translocations resulting in fusion product formation BCR-ABL1 and different fusion products involving the KMT2A gene, are markers of adverse prognosis, whereas numerical aberrations with high hyperdiploidy and chromosome number exceeding 51 are markers of favorable prognosis. Detection of these aberrations already has a well-grounded clinical significance in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and plays an important role in patient risk stratification. The appearance of particular genetic changes often correlates with the expression of certain markers on the surface of leukemic cells. Determination of expression or lack of specific antigens, that is, immunophenotyping, is possible with the use of the flow cytometry technique. Flow cytometry is currently considered as a fast and broadly available technique which can provide clinically useful information in a relatively short time after biological specimen collection. Flow cytometry also enables appropriate classification of acute leukemias.

Słowa kluczowe

  • acute leukemia
  • children
  • DNA index
  • aneuploidy
  • prognostic factor
  • immunophenotype
Otwarty dostęp

What do experimental animal models of mood disorders tell clinicians about influence of probiotics on the gut-brain axis?

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 380 - 394

Abstrakt

Abstract

It is commonly pointed out that enteric microbiota have a significant impact on the behavioral and neurophysiological parameters relevant to brain-gut axis disorders. Accordingly, many data have demonstrated that probiotics can alter the central nervous system function via this gut-brain axis and commensal bacteria consumption can ameliorate stress-related neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, modulating the enteric microbiota is increasingly considered a new therapeutic approach for these disorders, although so far there is a lack of reliable pre-clinical and clinical data confirming the usefulness of probiotics in the treatment of affective disorders. In this review, we discuss various mechanisms linking specific probiotic bacteria with behaviors related to anhedonia and the exact mechanisms of their action, including data provided by using animal models and tests. Finally, we point to potential clinical impact resulting from future studies investigating the gut-brain axis activity with respect to the efficacy of probiotic treatment of mental disorders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • probiotics
  • anhedonia
  • gut-brain axis
  • animal models
  • chronic stress
Otwarty dostęp

Spinal muscular atrophy: Where are we now? Current challenges and high hopes

Data publikacji: 12 Sep 2022
Zakres stron: 407 - 419

Abstrakt

Abstract

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness. It causes movement issues and severe physical disability. SMA is classified into four types based on the level of function achieved, age of onset, and maximum function achieved. The deletion or point mutation in the Survival of Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene causes SMA. As a result, no full-length protein is produced. A nearly identical paralog, SMN2, provides enough stable protein to prevent death but not enough to compensate for SMN1's loss. The difference between SMN1 and SMN2 is due to different exon 7 alternative splicing patterns. SMA molecular therapies currently focus on restoring functional SMN protein by splicing modification of SMN2 exon 7 or elevated SMN protein levels. Nusinersen, an antisense oligonucleotide targeting the ISS-N1 sequence in SMN2 intron 7, was the first drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration. Risdiplam, a novel therapeutic that acts as an SMN2 exon 7 splicing modifier, was recently approved. All of these drugs result in the inclusion of SMN2 exon 7, and thus the production of functional SMN protein. Onasemnogene abeparvovec is a gene therapy that uses a recombinant adeno-associated virus that encodes the SMN protein. There are also experimental therapies available, such as reldesemtiv and apitegromab (SRK-015), which focus on improving muscle function or increasing muscle tissue growth, respectively. Although approved therapies have been shown to be effective, not all SMA patients can benefit from them due to age or weight, but primarily due to their high cost. This demonstrates the significance of continuous treatment improvement in today's medical challenges.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spinal muscular atrophy
  • drug treatment
  • nusinersen
  • AAV9
  • risdiplam
  • experimental therapy
Otwarty dostęp

Diagnostic challenges in postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis in critically ill patients: When to reoperate?

Data publikacji: 14 Oct 2022
Zakres stron: 420 - 430

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present paper was done to review common diagnostic techniques used to help surgeons find the most suitable way to diagnose postoperative intra-abdominal sepsis (IAS). The topic was searched on MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. Collected articles were classified and checked for their quality. Findings of selected research were included in this study and analyzed to find the best diagnostic method for intra-abdominal sepsis. IAS presents severe morbidity and mortality, and its early diagnosis can improve the outcome. Currently, there is no consensus among surgeons on a single diagnostic modality that should be used while deciding reoperation in patients with postoperative IAS. Though it has a high sensitivity for abdominal infections, computed tomography has limited applications due to mobility and time constraints. Diagnostic laparoscopy is a safe process that produces usable images, and can be used at the bedside. Diagnostic peritoneal lavage (DPL) has high sensitivity, and the patients testing positive through DPL can be subjected to exploratory laparotomy, depending on severity. Abdominal Reoperation Predictive Index (ARPI) is the only index reported as an aid for this purpose. Serial intra-abdominal pressure measurement has also emerged as a potential diagnostic tool. A proper selection of diagnostic modality is expected to improve the outcome in IAS, which presents high mortality risk and a limited time frame.

Słowa kluczowe

  • intra-abdominal sepsis
  • diagnostic laparoscopy
  • diagnostic peritoneal lavage
  • Abdominal Reoperation Predictive Index (ARPI)
  • Serial Intra-abdominal pressure

Erratum

Otwarty dostęp

Evidence of retinal arteriolar narrowing in patients with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease

Data publikacji: 27 May 2022
Zakres stron: 174 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract Introduction

The aim of this study was to examine retinal vessels in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) patients with normal kidney function and without diabetes mellitus.

Materials and Methods

We enrolled 39 adult individuals with ADPKD and 45 gender- and age-matched individuals as controls. A full ophthalmologic examination, including retinal vessel caliber and reactions to flicker stimulation analysis and grading of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification, was performed.

Results

Multivariable analysis of ADPKD patients and controls, adjusted for age, gender, estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) and the presence of hypertension, revealed that ADPKD was an independent factor associated with lower arteriovenous ratio (AVR) values (by 0.069 on average, β = −0.50, p < 0.0001). The severity of hypertensive retinopathy according to the Keith-Wagener classification appeared to be more advanced in the ADPKD group than in the controls, despite the lack of vascular abnormalities, such as retinal hemorrhages, exudates, cotton wool spots or papilledema, as well as microaneurysms, which are very characteristic signs of ADPKD in other vascular beds.

Conclusions

Lower AVR values could be a specific pathophysiological ocular manifestation of systemic vasculopathy in the course of ADPKD.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD)
  • arteriolar narrowing
  • arteriovenous ratio
  • retinal vessel analysis (RVA)

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