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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1875-855X
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jun 2007
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 15 (2021): Zeszyt 5 (October 2021)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1875-855X
Pierwsze wydanie
01 Jun 2007
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów

Editorial

Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the burden of dengue: an important step toward committing resources to address this global disease

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 197 - 198

Abstrakt

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Wound healing of the corneal epithelium: a review

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 199 - 212

Abstrakt

Abstract

The corneal epithelium (CE) forms the outermost layer of the cornea. Despite its thickness of only 50 μm, the CE plays a key role as an initial barrier against any insults to the eye and contributes to the light refraction onto the retina required for clear vision. In the event of an injury, the cornea is equipped with many strategies contributing to competent wound healing, including angiogenic and immune privileges, and mechanotransduction. Various factors, including growth factors, keratin, cytokines, integrins, crystallins, basement membrane, and gap junction proteins are involved in CE wound healing and serve as markers in the healing process. Studies of CE wound healing are advancing rapidly in tandem with the rise of corneal bioengineering, which employs limbal epithelial stem cells as the primary source of cells utilizing various types of biomaterials as substrates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cornea
  • epithelium
  • corneal
  • markers
  • regeneration
  • wound healing

Original Article

Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the burden of dengue among household members in Alaminos, Laguna, the Philippines: a prospective cohort study

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 213 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

The incidence of dengue is increasing rapidly and is a challenging health issue in the Philippines. Epidemiological data are largely based on a passive-surveillance reporting system, which leads to substantial under-reporting of cases.

Objectives

To estimate dengue infection and disease incidence prospectively at the community level in an endemic area of the Philippines using an active surveillance strategy.

Methods

We implemented active surveillance in the highly endemic community of Alaminos, Laguna. The study consisted of a 1-year follow-up with 2 visits scheduled at the start and end of the study, as well as regular active surveillance in between and unscheduled visits for suspected cases. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to detect dengue during the first scheduled visit and all unscheduled visits, and clinical examination was performed at all visits (registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766088).

Results

We enrolled 500 participants, aged from 6 months to 50 years; 76.2% were found positive for immunoglobulin G (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9–80.0), with 92.0% among those aged 9–17 years. Active (weekly) surveillance identified 4 virologically confirmed cases of dengue (incidence proportion 0.8; 95% CI 0.3–2.1); all in participants aged ≤14 years.

Conclusions

Routine surveillance programs such as sentinel sites are needed to characterize the entire clinical spectrum of symptomatic dengue, disease incidence, and transmission in the community.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dengue
  • epidemiology
  • Philippines
  • sentinel surveillance
  • reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Otwarty dostęp

Hydraulic expansion facilitates remodeling of arteriovenous fistulas without increasing venous intimal hyperplasia in rabbits

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 223 - 232

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered essential for chronic hemodialysis.

Objective

To determine the effects of hydraulic expansion on the intimal hyperplasia of an AVF.

Methods

We divided 12 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits into a control group (vein without special handling and direct anastomosis with an artery, n = 6) and a hydraulic expansion group (vein dilated by hydraulic pressure before anastomosis, n = 6). Histopathomorphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the data between the groups.

Results

Immediately and 1 day after surgery, the diameter of the fistula vein in rabbits in the hydraulic expansion group was significantly larger than it was in the control group (P = 0.02 and 0.03 respectively), but not on subsequent days. After hydraulic expansion and before construction of the fistula, the wall of vein was noticeably thinner on macroscopic observation, and the anterior and posterior walls were indistinguishable. At 3 weeks after surgery in the hydraulic expansion group, cells in the vein wall were disordered, there were fewer elastic fibers, tissues from the endothelium to tunica externa were less dense, and there was less extracellular matrix than in the control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in the hydraulic expansion group was significantly less than that in the control group (P = 0.01). No differences were found in intimal thickness or immunohistochemistry scores for transforming growth factor-β1 between the groups.

Conclusion

Hydraulic expansion did not increase intimal hyperplasia of an AVF, but facilitates remodeling of AVFs in rabbits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • arteriovenous fistula
  • hyperplasia
  • rabbits
  • transforming growth factor beta1
  • tunica intima
Otwarty dostęp

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of genistein in a model of spinal cord injury in rats

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 233 - 243

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Neurological damage from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a result of primary mechanical injury and secondary damage from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Although genistein has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in studies of brain injury, its effect on secondary damage in SCI has remained unknown.

Objective

To determine effects of genistein in a model of SCI in rats.

Methods

We divided 21 rats evenly into 3 groups, a control group, in which only a laminectomy was performed; a trauma group in which SCI was induced; and a genistein group in which genistein was administered subcutaneously after SCI. The rats were assessed using a Basso–Beattie and Bresnahan functional score at the 12th hour and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. Biochemical analyses were conducted at the same time points to determine the serum levels of catalase, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), disulfide (SS), total thiol (TT), native thiol (NT), disulfide/total thiol (SS/TT), and native thiol/total thiol (NT/TT). Total oxidant and antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress index were determined in spinal cord tissue obtained on the 7th day together with immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 levels.

Result

Catalase activity on the 7th day was significantly (P = 0.001) higher in the genistein-treated rats than in other groups, and IMA levels became stable earlier (3rd day) in the genistein group. SS values were significantly (P = 0.004) lower in the genistein group. NT/TT ratio were significantly (P = 0.049) higher in the genistein-treated rats on the 7th day.

Conclusion

Genistein has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects in a model of SCI in rats and warrants further study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidants
  • genistein
  • oxidative stress
  • spinal cord injuries
  • sulfhydryl compounds

Brief Communication

Otwarty dostęp

Low bone mineral density in Thai children with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and risk factors

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 245 - 250

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Improvement of disease recognition and management has increased the survival of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but has shifted the morbidity focus toward long-term complications, such as low bone mass and osteoporosis. Studies in adults with SLE show older age, chronic inflammation, and corticosteroid therapy are risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis.

Objectives

To determine the prevalence of and identify risk factors associated with low BMD in Thai children with SLE.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of demographic data and clinical variables for a cohort of 60 Thai children with SLE who underwent 2 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at their initial examination and later follow-up. We considered a BMD z score ≤ −2.0 to indicate low BMD. Binary logistic regression was used to assess risk factors potentially associated with low BMD.

Results

The prevalence of low BMD at the first visit was 40% and increased to 55% over follow-up. We found a significantly decreased hip BMD z score (median difference −0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.40 to −0.05; P = 0.016) and lumbar BMD z score (median difference −0.49, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.28; P < 0.001) over time. The cumulative steroid dose tended to be higher for patients with low BMD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17; P = 0.050).

Conclusion

Low BMD has a 40% prevalence in Thai children newly diagnosed with SLE and progresses significantly over time. Higher cumulative corticosteroid dose tended to be associated with a low BMD, but we did not find a significant risk in this small sample.

Słowa kluczowe

  • juvenile-onset
  • lupus erythematosus, systemic
  • osteoporosis
  • steroids
  • Thai
6 Artykułów

Editorial

Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the burden of dengue: an important step toward committing resources to address this global disease

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 197 - 198

Abstrakt

Review

Otwarty dostęp

Wound healing of the corneal epithelium: a review

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 199 - 212

Abstrakt

Abstract

The corneal epithelium (CE) forms the outermost layer of the cornea. Despite its thickness of only 50 μm, the CE plays a key role as an initial barrier against any insults to the eye and contributes to the light refraction onto the retina required for clear vision. In the event of an injury, the cornea is equipped with many strategies contributing to competent wound healing, including angiogenic and immune privileges, and mechanotransduction. Various factors, including growth factors, keratin, cytokines, integrins, crystallins, basement membrane, and gap junction proteins are involved in CE wound healing and serve as markers in the healing process. Studies of CE wound healing are advancing rapidly in tandem with the rise of corneal bioengineering, which employs limbal epithelial stem cells as the primary source of cells utilizing various types of biomaterials as substrates.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cornea
  • epithelium
  • corneal
  • markers
  • regeneration
  • wound healing

Original Article

Otwarty dostęp

Assessing the burden of dengue among household members in Alaminos, Laguna, the Philippines: a prospective cohort study

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 213 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

The incidence of dengue is increasing rapidly and is a challenging health issue in the Philippines. Epidemiological data are largely based on a passive-surveillance reporting system, which leads to substantial under-reporting of cases.

Objectives

To estimate dengue infection and disease incidence prospectively at the community level in an endemic area of the Philippines using an active surveillance strategy.

Methods

We implemented active surveillance in the highly endemic community of Alaminos, Laguna. The study consisted of a 1-year follow-up with 2 visits scheduled at the start and end of the study, as well as regular active surveillance in between and unscheduled visits for suspected cases. Blood samples were collected and analyzed to detect dengue during the first scheduled visit and all unscheduled visits, and clinical examination was performed at all visits (registered at clinicaltrials.gov NCT02766088).

Results

We enrolled 500 participants, aged from 6 months to 50 years; 76.2% were found positive for immunoglobulin G (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9–80.0), with 92.0% among those aged 9–17 years. Active (weekly) surveillance identified 4 virologically confirmed cases of dengue (incidence proportion 0.8; 95% CI 0.3–2.1); all in participants aged ≤14 years.

Conclusions

Routine surveillance programs such as sentinel sites are needed to characterize the entire clinical spectrum of symptomatic dengue, disease incidence, and transmission in the community.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dengue
  • epidemiology
  • Philippines
  • sentinel surveillance
  • reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction
Otwarty dostęp

Hydraulic expansion facilitates remodeling of arteriovenous fistulas without increasing venous intimal hyperplasia in rabbits

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 223 - 232

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

An arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is considered essential for chronic hemodialysis.

Objective

To determine the effects of hydraulic expansion on the intimal hyperplasia of an AVF.

Methods

We divided 12 healthy male New Zealand white rabbits into a control group (vein without special handling and direct anastomosis with an artery, n = 6) and a hydraulic expansion group (vein dilated by hydraulic pressure before anastomosis, n = 6). Histopathomorphology was examined with hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare the data between the groups.

Results

Immediately and 1 day after surgery, the diameter of the fistula vein in rabbits in the hydraulic expansion group was significantly larger than it was in the control group (P = 0.02 and 0.03 respectively), but not on subsequent days. After hydraulic expansion and before construction of the fistula, the wall of vein was noticeably thinner on macroscopic observation, and the anterior and posterior walls were indistinguishable. At 3 weeks after surgery in the hydraulic expansion group, cells in the vein wall were disordered, there were fewer elastic fibers, tissues from the endothelium to tunica externa were less dense, and there was less extracellular matrix than in the control group. Expression of connective tissue growth factor in the hydraulic expansion group was significantly less than that in the control group (P = 0.01). No differences were found in intimal thickness or immunohistochemistry scores for transforming growth factor-β1 between the groups.

Conclusion

Hydraulic expansion did not increase intimal hyperplasia of an AVF, but facilitates remodeling of AVFs in rabbits.

Słowa kluczowe

  • arteriovenous fistula
  • hyperplasia
  • rabbits
  • transforming growth factor beta1
  • tunica intima
Otwarty dostęp

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of genistein in a model of spinal cord injury in rats

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 233 - 243

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Neurological damage from spinal cord injury (SCI) is a result of primary mechanical injury and secondary damage from oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. Although genistein has been shown to have potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in studies of brain injury, its effect on secondary damage in SCI has remained unknown.

Objective

To determine effects of genistein in a model of SCI in rats.

Methods

We divided 21 rats evenly into 3 groups, a control group, in which only a laminectomy was performed; a trauma group in which SCI was induced; and a genistein group in which genistein was administered subcutaneously after SCI. The rats were assessed using a Basso–Beattie and Bresnahan functional score at the 12th hour and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th days. Biochemical analyses were conducted at the same time points to determine the serum levels of catalase, ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), disulfide (SS), total thiol (TT), native thiol (NT), disulfide/total thiol (SS/TT), and native thiol/total thiol (NT/TT). Total oxidant and antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress index were determined in spinal cord tissue obtained on the 7th day together with immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 levels.

Result

Catalase activity on the 7th day was significantly (P = 0.001) higher in the genistein-treated rats than in other groups, and IMA levels became stable earlier (3rd day) in the genistein group. SS values were significantly (P = 0.004) lower in the genistein group. NT/TT ratio were significantly (P = 0.049) higher in the genistein-treated rats on the 7th day.

Conclusion

Genistein has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and protective effects in a model of SCI in rats and warrants further study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antioxidants
  • genistein
  • oxidative stress
  • spinal cord injuries
  • sulfhydryl compounds

Brief Communication

Otwarty dostęp

Low bone mineral density in Thai children with systemic lupus erythematosus: prevalence and risk factors

Data publikacji: 29 Oct 2021
Zakres stron: 245 - 250

Abstrakt

Abstract Background

Improvement of disease recognition and management has increased the survival of children with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), but has shifted the morbidity focus toward long-term complications, such as low bone mass and osteoporosis. Studies in adults with SLE show older age, chronic inflammation, and corticosteroid therapy are risk factors for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis.

Objectives

To determine the prevalence of and identify risk factors associated with low BMD in Thai children with SLE.

Methods

We conducted a retrospective review of demographic data and clinical variables for a cohort of 60 Thai children with SLE who underwent 2 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at their initial examination and later follow-up. We considered a BMD z score ≤ −2.0 to indicate low BMD. Binary logistic regression was used to assess risk factors potentially associated with low BMD.

Results

The prevalence of low BMD at the first visit was 40% and increased to 55% over follow-up. We found a significantly decreased hip BMD z score (median difference −0.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.40 to −0.05; P = 0.016) and lumbar BMD z score (median difference −0.49, 95% CI −0.69 to −0.28; P < 0.001) over time. The cumulative steroid dose tended to be higher for patients with low BMD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.17; P = 0.050).

Conclusion

Low BMD has a 40% prevalence in Thai children newly diagnosed with SLE and progresses significantly over time. Higher cumulative corticosteroid dose tended to be associated with a low BMD, but we did not find a significant risk in this small sample.

Słowa kluczowe

  • juvenile-onset
  • lupus erythematosus, systemic
  • osteoporosis
  • steroids
  • Thai

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