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Chocolate Byproducts and Protected Fats Enriched with Chromium to Replace Corn in Diets of Early Lactation Holstein Cows: Feed Utilization, Blood Profile, and Lactational Performance


The present experiment aimed to evaluate the partial replacement of corn with chocolate byproducts or protected fats in the diet of lactating cows on feed utilization, blood profile, and lactation performance. Fifty multiparous Holstein cows (560±22 kg BW, 3±1 parity, 7±1 days in milk, and previous milk production of 34±3 kg/d), were randomly assigned to 5 treatments in a completely randomized design for 90 days. The control diet contained a concentrate feed mixture containing (per kg DM) 412 g concentrate feed mixture, 412 g corn silage, and 176 g berseem hay. The control diet contained 17.6% crushed corn (DM basis). In another treatment, the control diet was supplemented with 1 g chromium daily (Chromium diet). In the other diets, each kg of crushed corn grain was replaced with 600 g chocolate byproducts (CH diet), 400 g protected fats (PF diet), or 500 g of chocolate byproducts and protected fats mixture (1:1 DM basis) (CHPF diet), DM basis, and each of the diets was also supplemented with 1 g chromium daily. Both amounts of protected fats and chocolate byproducts had the same energy concentration as 1 kg of corn. Without affecting feed intake, the replacement increased (P<0.01) milk production, milk fat concentration, and feed efficiency. The replacement (P<0.05) increased the concentrations of plasma total proteins, albumin, glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and chromium in comparison with the control diet. Higher (P<0.001) nutrient digestibility was observed with CH, PF, and CHPF treatments. It is concluded that chromium supplementation did not affect feed utilization or cows’ performance; however, partial replacement of corn with chromium supplemented protected fat, chocolate byproducts or their mixture improved milk production and feed efficiency.

Częstotliwość wydawania:
4 razy w roku
Dziedziny czasopisma:
Life Sciences, Biotechnology, Zoology, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine