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Genotoxicity of Metal Nanoparticles: Focus on In Vivo Studies

With increasing production and application of a variety of nanomaterials (NMs), research on their cytotoxic and genotoxic potential grows, as the exposure to these nano-sized materials may potentially result in adverse health effects. In large part, indications for potential DNA damaging effects of nanoparticles (NPs) originate from inconsistent in vitro studies. To clarify these effects, the implementation of in vivo studies has been emphasised. This paper summarises study results of genotoxic effects of NPs, which are available in the recent literature. They provide indications that some NP types cause both DNA strand breaks and chromosomal damages in experimental animals. Their genotoxic effects, however, do not depend only on particle size, surface modification (particle coating), and exposure route, but also on exposure duration. Currently available animal studies may suggest differing mechanisms (depending on the duration of exposure) by which living organisms react to NP contact. Nevertheless, due to considerable inconsistencies in the recent literature and the lack of standardised test methods - a reliable hazard assessment of NMs is still limited. Therefore, international organisations (e.g. NIOSH) suggest utmost caution when potential exposure of humans to NMs occurs, as long as evidence of their toxicological and genotoxic effect(s) is limited.

Angielski, Slovenian
Częstotliwość wydawania:
4 razy w roku
Dziedziny czasopisma:
Medicine, Basic Medical Science, other