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Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 2 (December 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 1 (June 2020)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2521-2923
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2521-2923
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Use of Modelling Approach in evaluation of Fractured Shale Aquifers for irrigation purpose; a case study of Oju, Lower Benue Trough Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 1 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

Groundwater samples were evaluated for irrigation purpose, within selected part of Oju area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study area lies within Asu River Group of the Lower Benue Trough, southern part of Nigeria. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed using APHA, 2012 method. Results from the study showed that pH falls within slightly basic to acidic, with Ec value ranging from 127 to 760 μS/cm, SSP ranges from 1.53 to 43.78, Sodium Percentage ranges from 1.55 to 77.8 %, Kelly Ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.77, Magnesium Absorption Ratio ranges from 0.00 to 61.98 and total hardness Total Hardness ranges from 72.00 to 425.5 within the study area. The above listed parameters were below various permissible standard value for irrigation except for MAR at LBT/04, Na % at LBT/09, 13 and 14, SAR at 01 and 04 and TH at LBT/04 that were slightly above various permissible standard values. From Gibbs plot it was observed that rock dominance is the major factor that influences groundwater except for few sampling point were precipitation dominance was observed to have influence on groundwater within the study area.

Parole chiave

  • Sodium Percentage
  • Kelly Ratio
  • Exchange
  • Lower Benue Trough and Shallow
Accesso libero

Spatio-Temporal Change of Land Surface Temperature at Tiris Geothermal Potential Area, East Java, Indonesia.

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 13 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

One of the areas that have geothermal potential in Indonesia is Tiris because there are found some manifestation in the form of hot springs. Several studies are needed to determine its geothermal potential before exploitation is carried out. Some previous studies have been carried out in the area, one of which uses Landsat 7 remote sensing data. There are other studies that state that knowledge of geology is needed to implement remote sensing in determining geothermal areas. This study uses 3-years data from Landsat 8 and geological information from the regional geological map of the study area. The result show changes in the value of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) from year to year, where each year the NDVI value decrease which is interpreted as reduced vegetation in the study area. From the distribution of LST values in the study area, it was found that there were hot spots that had higher temperatures than the surrounding area. When geological information and LST distribution map overlaid with regional geological maps, it is known that the hot spots inside the research area are possible to be a geothermal reservoir.

Parole chiave

  • Remote Sensing
  • Time Lapse
  • Temperature Anomaly
Accesso libero

The Presence of 2-Thiaadamantane in Niger Delta Oils may indicate Souring in Niger Delta Reservoirs

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 22 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Some oil samples from various Nigerian oil fields were examined for the presence of Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction (TSR) derived organo sulphur compounds. Oil samples were diluted with DCM and injected into the GC–MS for full scan analysis. The GC–MS results show the presence 2–thiaadamantane, 1–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane and 5–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane, the compounds were identified by comparison of extracted spectras with literature. The presence of these compounds in oils has been accepted on a wider horizon as indicators of reservoir souring. The plot of 5–Methyl-2-thiaadamantane/Adamantane and Dibenzothiophene/Adamanatane showed a fair correlation, corroborating the presence of 5–Methyl-2-thiaadamantane and fairly high abundance of Dibenzothiophene, the plot of 2-thiaadamantane/Adamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane/Adamantane corroborating the presence of 2-thiaadamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane inferring that the presence of 2-thiaadamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane indicate that reservoir souring is active.

Parole chiave

  • 2-thiaadamantane
  • 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane
  • Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction (TSR)
  • 1–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane
  • oils
  • reservoir souring
  • Niger Delta
Accesso libero

Porosity Distribution and Differentiation of Different Types of Fluids in Reservoir of Sawan Gas Field, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 28 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

The lower Indus basin is one of the prolific basins in Pakistan in which the C-interval of lower Goru formation act as a reservoir. With the help of petrophysical interpretation production zone is recognized and also porosity is calculated at the reservoir level. Through porosity we are able to calculate Ksat. A model based inversion of 2D seismic inversion was performed to ascertain three dimensional dispersion of acoustic impedance in the investigation zone and we have recognized new areas where porosity distribution is maximum and site which is suitable for new well. Porosity and Acoustic impedance are typically contrarily relative to each other. Presently porosity can be anticipated in seismic reservoir characterization by utilizing acoustic impedance from seismic inversion far from well position.

Parole chiave

  • Goru Formation
  • Acoustic Impedance
  • Porosity
  • Model Base Inversion
Accesso libero

Delineation of Stratigraphic Units in Xyz Field of Niger Delta Using Geophysical Logs

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 38 - 49

Astratto

Abstract

Geophysical well logs were used to delineate the stratigraphic units and system tracks in the XYZ Field of the Niger Delta. The gross percentages for sand levels range from 93-96% in the shallow levels to 60-66% in the deeper levels. Porosity values ranged between 27% at shallower sections and 9% at deeper depths. Six depositional sequences were identified and categorized into their associated system tracts. Porosity decreases with depth in normal compacted formation for both sandstone and shale units. Surface porosity for sandstone is 42%, and for shale it is 38.7% from extrapolation of sub-surface porosity values to the surface. The depth to the base of Benin Formation is highly variable ranging between 1300 and 2600m. This study reveals the possibility to correlate sand levels over long distances which enables inferring porosity values laterally. The knowledge of the existent stratigraphic units, the Benin, Agbada and Akata Formations and their petrophysical parameters such as porosity, lateral continuity of the sands and shales, the variation of the net-to-gross of sands with depth, enables the reservoir engineer to develop a plan for the number and location of the wells to be drilled into the reservoir, the rates of production that can be sustained for optimum recovery. The reservoir engineer can also estimate the productivity and ultimate recovery (reserves) using the results on this work.

Parole chiave

  • Stratigraphy
  • well logs
  • porosity
  • system tracts
  • Niger Delta
  • Nigeria
5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Use of Modelling Approach in evaluation of Fractured Shale Aquifers for irrigation purpose; a case study of Oju, Lower Benue Trough Nigeria

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 1 - 12

Astratto

Abstract

Groundwater samples were evaluated for irrigation purpose, within selected part of Oju area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study area lies within Asu River Group of the Lower Benue Trough, southern part of Nigeria. Physicochemical parameters were analyzed using APHA, 2012 method. Results from the study showed that pH falls within slightly basic to acidic, with Ec value ranging from 127 to 760 μS/cm, SSP ranges from 1.53 to 43.78, Sodium Percentage ranges from 1.55 to 77.8 %, Kelly Ratio ranges from 0.01 to 0.77, Magnesium Absorption Ratio ranges from 0.00 to 61.98 and total hardness Total Hardness ranges from 72.00 to 425.5 within the study area. The above listed parameters were below various permissible standard value for irrigation except for MAR at LBT/04, Na % at LBT/09, 13 and 14, SAR at 01 and 04 and TH at LBT/04 that were slightly above various permissible standard values. From Gibbs plot it was observed that rock dominance is the major factor that influences groundwater except for few sampling point were precipitation dominance was observed to have influence on groundwater within the study area.

Parole chiave

  • Sodium Percentage
  • Kelly Ratio
  • Exchange
  • Lower Benue Trough and Shallow
Accesso libero

Spatio-Temporal Change of Land Surface Temperature at Tiris Geothermal Potential Area, East Java, Indonesia.

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 13 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

One of the areas that have geothermal potential in Indonesia is Tiris because there are found some manifestation in the form of hot springs. Several studies are needed to determine its geothermal potential before exploitation is carried out. Some previous studies have been carried out in the area, one of which uses Landsat 7 remote sensing data. There are other studies that state that knowledge of geology is needed to implement remote sensing in determining geothermal areas. This study uses 3-years data from Landsat 8 and geological information from the regional geological map of the study area. The result show changes in the value of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Land Surface Temperature (LST) from year to year, where each year the NDVI value decrease which is interpreted as reduced vegetation in the study area. From the distribution of LST values in the study area, it was found that there were hot spots that had higher temperatures than the surrounding area. When geological information and LST distribution map overlaid with regional geological maps, it is known that the hot spots inside the research area are possible to be a geothermal reservoir.

Parole chiave

  • Remote Sensing
  • Time Lapse
  • Temperature Anomaly
Accesso libero

The Presence of 2-Thiaadamantane in Niger Delta Oils may indicate Souring in Niger Delta Reservoirs

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 22 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Some oil samples from various Nigerian oil fields were examined for the presence of Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction (TSR) derived organo sulphur compounds. Oil samples were diluted with DCM and injected into the GC–MS for full scan analysis. The GC–MS results show the presence 2–thiaadamantane, 1–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane and 5–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane, the compounds were identified by comparison of extracted spectras with literature. The presence of these compounds in oils has been accepted on a wider horizon as indicators of reservoir souring. The plot of 5–Methyl-2-thiaadamantane/Adamantane and Dibenzothiophene/Adamanatane showed a fair correlation, corroborating the presence of 5–Methyl-2-thiaadamantane and fairly high abundance of Dibenzothiophene, the plot of 2-thiaadamantane/Adamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane/Adamantane corroborating the presence of 2-thiaadamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane inferring that the presence of 2-thiaadamantane and 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane indicate that reservoir souring is active.

Parole chiave

  • 2-thiaadamantane
  • 5–Methyl-2-Thiaadamantane
  • Thermochemical Sulphate Reduction (TSR)
  • 1–methyl-2-thiaadamanatane
  • oils
  • reservoir souring
  • Niger Delta
Accesso libero

Porosity Distribution and Differentiation of Different Types of Fluids in Reservoir of Sawan Gas Field, Lower Indus Basin, Pakistan

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 28 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

The lower Indus basin is one of the prolific basins in Pakistan in which the C-interval of lower Goru formation act as a reservoir. With the help of petrophysical interpretation production zone is recognized and also porosity is calculated at the reservoir level. Through porosity we are able to calculate Ksat. A model based inversion of 2D seismic inversion was performed to ascertain three dimensional dispersion of acoustic impedance in the investigation zone and we have recognized new areas where porosity distribution is maximum and site which is suitable for new well. Porosity and Acoustic impedance are typically contrarily relative to each other. Presently porosity can be anticipated in seismic reservoir characterization by utilizing acoustic impedance from seismic inversion far from well position.

Parole chiave

  • Goru Formation
  • Acoustic Impedance
  • Porosity
  • Model Base Inversion
Accesso libero

Delineation of Stratigraphic Units in Xyz Field of Niger Delta Using Geophysical Logs

Pubblicato online: 17 Aug 2019
Pagine: 38 - 49

Astratto

Abstract

Geophysical well logs were used to delineate the stratigraphic units and system tracks in the XYZ Field of the Niger Delta. The gross percentages for sand levels range from 93-96% in the shallow levels to 60-66% in the deeper levels. Porosity values ranged between 27% at shallower sections and 9% at deeper depths. Six depositional sequences were identified and categorized into their associated system tracts. Porosity decreases with depth in normal compacted formation for both sandstone and shale units. Surface porosity for sandstone is 42%, and for shale it is 38.7% from extrapolation of sub-surface porosity values to the surface. The depth to the base of Benin Formation is highly variable ranging between 1300 and 2600m. This study reveals the possibility to correlate sand levels over long distances which enables inferring porosity values laterally. The knowledge of the existent stratigraphic units, the Benin, Agbada and Akata Formations and their petrophysical parameters such as porosity, lateral continuity of the sands and shales, the variation of the net-to-gross of sands with depth, enables the reservoir engineer to develop a plan for the number and location of the wells to be drilled into the reservoir, the rates of production that can be sustained for optimum recovery. The reservoir engineer can also estimate the productivity and ultimate recovery (reserves) using the results on this work.

Parole chiave

  • Stratigraphy
  • well logs
  • porosity
  • system tracts
  • Niger Delta
  • Nigeria

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