- Dettagli della rivista
- Pubblicato per la prima volta
- 30 Apr 2019
- Periodo di pubblicazione
- 2 volte all'anno
- Accesso libero
Delineating and Interpreting the Gold Veins Within Bida and Zungeru Area, Niger State Nigeria, Using Aeromagnetic and Radiometric Data
Both Airborne Magnetic and Radiometric datasets were employed to interpret the geology and geological structures that serve as host to gold and associated minerals within the Bida and Zungeru, Niger State, Nigeria. An area of 55 by 110km2, contained within the cretaceous sediments of Bida Basin and the meta-sediments of Zungeru-sarkin-pawa schist belt. Data interpretation involve the application of a mathematical algorithm for data enhancing such as, Reduce to the Equator, Analytical signal, First Vertical Derivative, and Centre for Exploration Targeting (CET) to the magnetic data, and Ternary imaging to the radiometric data, with a sole aim of mapping geological structures such as faults fracture folds joints and geological boundaries and possible gold mineralization veins that arise from hydrothermally altered zones. Two major geological units inhibit the study area, the cretaceous sediment, and the meta-sediments, major feature identifies within the Cretaceous sediment are the folds majority of which are located within the contacts. The result of the 1VD display is the vivid picture of the observed structural features such as faults fractures folds’ contacts labeled F1 to F8 both within the high region of magnetic susceptibility (in red) and low regions (in blue) geology contacts (yellow), folds (bold yellow) all across the field. Prominently at the North-Western corner of the study area are sets of linear structure that trend NE-SW, located within the contacts between the mylonites and the amphibolites and the belt-type meta-sediments located around Katakwo, Gindei, Kwange, Gabas and Akusu villages. Equallyworth mentioning are sets of lineament (in blue) trend E-W all across the mid-region of the study area, precisely at the Eastern corner within and below the Federal University of Technology Minna around Kata-eregi, Sabon-Dagan, Kakaki down Minkwoigi, Sunbwagi, Kakagi, Sabon dagga, and Bobo-shiri towns, where the majority of volcanic activities must have been recorded. The airborne radiometric show mobilization of the immobile thorium Th, concentration, and this also indicated hydrothermally altered zones. The increase in potassium concentration and decrease in K/Th relation observed from radiometric interpretation are very pinpointing of hydrothermal activities within the study area. The gold mineralisations are found within this vein and in the adjacent, highly deformed host rock located below the Federal University of Technology Minna Campus. The deformation seems to comprise principally of pebbly schist, amphibolites along fine-grained and magnetite.
- Hydrothermal altered
- Centre for Exploration Targeting (CET)
- First Vertical Derivative (1VD.)
- Accesso libero
Forecasting and monitoring the parameters of a drinking water network such as flow, pressure and quality are essential issues for the operator in order to guarantee a compliant distribution at all times. Water leaks are the main problem in the management of drinking water networks, so a drinking water network must be reliable and sustainable to meet the needs of subscribers. The modeling of a network allows, among other things, to determine distribution strategies in order to guarantee continuous quality of service. The EPANET modeling software, developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency, enables the hydraulic and quality behavior of a water distribution network to be simulated on the basis of its parameters. Our work consists of simulating an existing network in the new city of Guelma in order to check all the necessary elements of the network, namely pressure, speed, flow and water quality. The results obtained verified that the pressure at all junctions and the flow rates with their velocities at all mains is sufficiently feasible to supply adequate water to the network in the study area. These results will help to better understand the pipeline network in the Study Area and allow the Study Area to be studied in the future.
- Accesso libero
The quality of groundwater from twenty (20) hand-dug wells around the Mando and Rigasa areas, Northwestern Nigeria was evaluated in this study. Physico-chemical parameters like pH, EC, TDS, temperature, Na+, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, Fe2+, Cl-, HCO3-, NO3-, SO42- and faecal coliform count were analysed. The degree of compliance of the various parameters with international guidelines for drinking water quality were determined and the groundwater classified. Comparison of the results of physico-chemical analysis with the NSDWQ and WHO guidelines revealed that most of the parameters in the groundwater had 100 % compliance except for pH, Mg2+, NO3-, K+ and Fe2+ with percentage compliance of 80, 90, 75, 70 and 40, respectively. This indicates that some of the groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking purpose. Groundwater quality map based on the Water Quality Index values for the various groundwater sample showed that most parts of the study area have excellent groundwater quality. The faecal coliform bacteria count ranged from 0 CFU/100 ml to too numerous to count. Only two (2) groundwater samples (10%) complied with the 0 CFU/100 ml guidelines of the NSDWQ and WHO, while the rest eighteen (18) groundwater samples (90 %) have faecal coliform bacteria count above the recommended value. Most of the groundwater samples are not suitable for drinking based on the faecal coliform count. The groundwater samples are suitable for agricultural purposes based on the SAR, RSC and PI classifications. The groundwater in the study area is dominated by Na-Cl and CaHCO3- type facies water.
- water quality
- water classification
- groundwater origin
- Northern Nigeria
- Accesso libero
Age and Depositional Environment of Walat Formation Based on Palynological Analysis in Sukabumi Regency, West Java, Indonesia
Walat Formation is equivalent to Bayah Formation. This formation is the beginning of Bogor basin deposition. In this case, age and environment of this formation have been analyzed by previous researchers, but the results of age and environment interpretations have different ranges, especially from its palynological aspect which until now Walat Formation is rarely analyzed using this aspect. This research was conducted to identify the age and depositional environment of Walat Formation in Sukabumi region by using pollen and spores to confirm different interpretations of previous studies. Measure section was carried out in sampling and chemical treatment method was carried out to see palynomorph content in the rock. Furthermore, data analysis was carried out with range of interval zones and pollen grouping based on their environment.
The results show that Walat Formation has Late Eocene age based on the interval zone between first occurrence of
- Walat Formation
- and Sukabumi
- Accesso libero
Estimation of The Structural Pattern and Sedimentary Thickness Over Part Of Anambra Basin, Nigeria Using Aeromagnetic Data
Aeromagnetic data acquired over part of the Anambra Basin is analyzed to determine the structural pattern and sedimentary thickness of the basin. The study area is covered by high resolution aeromagnetic data on sheets 301 (Udi), 302 (Nkalagu), 312 (Okigwe) and 313 (Afikpo), and lies between latitudes 5o30’0’‘-6o30’0’‘ and longitudes 7o0’0”-8o0’0”. The whole area was divided into 25 overlapping blocks of 37.2km2 each and a 2D energy spectral analysis was carried out. Total magnetic intensity data was subjected to filtering and analytical techniques to determine the structural pattern, mineralization potential, depth to the basement, variation in the sedimentary thickness. The structural map generated using the vertical derivatives shows that the major structural orientation of the area is in the ENE-WSW trend and the minor trend is the NW to SE direction widespread all over the area. These structures are as a result of the various near-surface magnetic intrusion within the study area. The spectral analysis result shows two depth layers, the deep and the shallow depth, the depth to magnetic basement for the deep anomalous source ranges from 3.3km to 4.8 4km with an average depth of 3.99km, while the depth to shallow magnetic sources ranges between 0.46km to 0.67km and an average of 0.56km within the area. The mineralization pattern in this area follows the ENE-WSW direction.
- Anambra Basin
- Accesso libero
The Zhob Ophiolite is divided into Naweoba, Omzha and Ali Khanzai blocks. Ali Khanzai Block is further divided into ultramafic, mafic, and lava units which are surrounded by sedimentary rocks successions. The ultramafic unit contains ultramafic tectonic and ultramafic cumulate, mafic rock unit consists of foliated and layered gabbros and mafic dykes are doleritic in composition. Volcanic–volcaniclastic–pelagic rocks unit consists of thick volcanic pillow basalt, hyaloclastite, bedded chert, pelagic limestone and hemipelagic mudstone. The metamorphic sole rocks are tectonically high distorted and dismembered, comprising of amphibolite and greenschist facies. They might have formed through the process of early intra-oceanic obduction of the ophiolite. All units make thrusted contacts and are highly deformed. Petrography and geochemical studies divide the Ali Khanzai Block into rock types such as gabbro, olivine gabbro, dolerite, basalt, basaltic andesite and basaltic trachy-andesite, chert, mudstone, and limestone, dunite, serpentinite, harzburgite, and wehrlite. Mafic dyke intrusions crosscut mantle rocks of block. The mantle rocks are altered, deformed, and deeply weathered, maybe residual melting of enriched mantle peridotite. The contact relationship of dolerite dykes with peridotite indicta that they are late magmatic intrusions. The Crustal gabbros are partially chloritic and sericitic and occur within mantle peridotite,, they may have formed from fractional crystallization in a magma chamber. The volcanic-volcaniclastic-pelagic sediments surround mantle and crustal rock units. It might be a mélange in nature is much like that of the Bagh Complex found beneath the Muslim Bagh Ophiolite, and other ophiolites around the world.