Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 10 (2021): Edizione 1 (December 2021)

Volume 9 (2020): Edizione 1 (December 2020)

Volume 8 (2019): Edizione 2019 (December 2019)

Volume 7 (2016): Edizione 1 (December 2016)

Volume 6 (2015): Edizione 2 (December 2015)

Volume 6 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Volume 5 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Volume 5 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 4 (2013): Edizione 1 (December 2013)

Volume 3 (2012): Edizione 1 (December 2012)

Volume 2 (2011): Edizione 1 (December 2011)

Volume 1 (2010): Edizione 1 (December 2010)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1799-3350
Pubblicato per la prima volta
15 Dec 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (2021): Edizione 1 (December 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1799-3350
Pubblicato per la prima volta
15 Dec 2016
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

14 Articoli
Accesso libero

Nuclear warfare beyond counterforce

Pubblicato online: 09 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1 - 9

Astratto

Abstract

A counterforce attack intends to disable an opponent's nuclear arsenal to limit potential damage from that adversary. We postulate a future when hardening and deeply burying fixed sites, transition to mobile strategic systems, and improved defences make executing a counterforce strategy against an adversary's nuclear forces extremely difficult. Additionally, our postulated future has multiple nations possessing nuclear weapons. Consequently, each country needs to consider multiple actors when addressing the question of how to deter a potential adversary's nuclear attack. We examine six nuclear targeting alternatives and consider how to deter them. These strategies include nuclear demonstration, conventional military targets, and attacks consisting of communications/electronics, economic, infrastructure, and population centers that a nation might consider striking with nuclear weapons. Since these alternative strikes require only a few nuclear weapons, executing one of them would not significantly shift the balance of nuclear forces. The attacking country's remaining nuclear forces may inhibit the attacked country or its allies from responding. How can nations deter these limited nuclear attacks? Potentially, threatening economic counter-strikes seems to be the best alternative. How might escalation be controlled in the event of a limited attack? Other instruments of power, such as political or economic, might be employed to bolster deterrence against these types of nuclear strikes.

Parole chiave

  • nuclear strategy
  • deterrence
  • targeting
Accesso libero

Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 10 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.

Parole chiave

  • military
  • base camps
  • siting
  • MCDA
  • risk
  • decision analysis
Accesso libero

Personality traits and select socio-demographic variables as predictors of military morale: longitudinal research in the Estonian defence forces

Pubblicato online: 30 Apr 2021
Pagine: 22 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

Military morale is a concept widely used to describe the motivational element of soldiers’ will to fight or “the energy that drives soldiers to perform qualitatively better in stressful conditions, characterised by enthusiasm and persistence when engaging in collective, i.e. unit-level activities”. This longitudinal study explored the interlink-ages between perceptions of military morale, the Big Five personality traits and select socio-demographic characteristics among the conscripts of the Estonian Defence Forces and predicting directly measurable individual and collective types of military morale. Moreover, the fluctuation of military morale over the training cycle of conscript service (11 months) was tracked. The findings indicate that at the start of military service, individual morale has a low or medium statistically significant correlation with conscripts’ personality traits, with Conscientiousness and Neuroticism demonstrating the strongest relations; however, the correlation with Neuroticism was negative. Additionally, when viewed throughout the course of the entire training cycle, the morale demonstrated a U-shaped progression, i.e. high at the beginning, dropping in the middle and rising back up at the end of military service. At the same time, socio-demographic variables demonstrated little or non-significant role in predicting individual or collective morale. The results indicate that morale fluctuates over time and is affected by personal characteristics. For practitioners, these results could help to reinforce the positive impact of morale on collective and individual performances.

Parole chiave

  • military morale
  • personality
  • the Big Five
  • socio-demographic variables
Accesso libero

An examination of authentic leadership as an individual and social factor of resilience

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 38 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Resilient qualities, which derive from protective factors, enable an individual to balance exposure to vulnerabilities in military service and throughout life. Protective factors arise from within an individual, from social factors, and from an individual's environment. Research on social factors, such as strong leadership and peer relationships, continues to emerge and significantly relate to resilience. Of specific interest to organisations is how perceptions of leadership contribute to resilience as an individual and social protective factor. Knowing more about how soldiers perceive themselves on authentic leadership and resilience would better help researchers and practitioners understand the contribution of leadership on perceived resilience. The current study examined the perception of authentic leadership in self and first-line leaders with resilience in a population of 179 soldiers (N = 179; M = 26.86 years, SD = 6.42). The results noted a significant correlation between the perception of authentic leadership in oneself and resilience (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). A subsequent analysis examining the perception of authentic leadership in one's first-line leader and subordinate resilience was also significant (r = 0.394, p < 0.001), supporting previous findings. These results demonstrate that perceptions of leadership matter as an individual and social factor in military personnel.

Parole chiave

  • protective factors
  • leadership styles
  • social influence
  • military
  • resilience
Accesso libero

Teaching efficacy of U.S. Air Force enlisted professional military educators during the COVID-19 pandemic

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 46 - 59

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. Air Force Enlisted Professional Military Education (EPME) was forced to deliver traditionally in-person leadership development interventions in an online, instructor-facilitated format for the first time in the history of the programme. Despite the absence of training to teach in online learning environments, hundreds of instructors within 80 schoolhouses were charged with embracing this pedagogic shift to continue developing enlisted leaders during a global pandemic. This study examined the sense of self-efficacy of 129 instructors across all levels of U.S. Air Force EPME by utilising a 32-item self-efficacy measurement instrument. This study has implications for enlisted and officer professional military education leaders interested in training and developing faculty to teach in online learning environments. Overall, instructors felt confident in their abilities to teach online, despite pre-service training having focussed solely on in-person instruction. Results indicated a positive relationship between higher senses of self-efficacy and years of instructors’ experience. Instructors who worked with an instructional support specialist showed a significantly higher sense of self-efficacy than instructors who did not. Future studies should aim to integrate multiple perspectives of the efficacy of U.S. Air Force EPME instructors, such as those from students, administrators and colleagues.

Parole chiave

  • PME
  • EPME
  • Air Force
  • Teacher Efficacy
Accesso libero

Russian hybrid warfare: A framework

Pubblicato online: 09 May 2021
Pagine: 60 - 72

Astratto

Abstract

As Montenegro sough to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2015, an attempted coup erupted within the country in October of that year. The Telegraph's Ben Farmer reported that, ‘An officer with Russia's GRU military intelligence service, is accused of running a web of Serbian and Russian nationalists and paramilitaries who plotted to assassinate the Montenegrin prime minister.’

Farmer, B. (2017, February 26). Montenegro to Indict Russian Spy Behind Coup Plot. The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/26/montenegro-indict-russian-spy-behind-coup-plot/. [accessed 5 March, 2017].

The failed coup and attempted assassination were conducted by Russian intelligence in support of Russian President Vladimir Putin's vision for a modern Eurasia in which NATO discontinues encroaching on Russia's sphere of influence and in which Russia ascends to regional hegemony.

Knezevic, G. (2017, January 2). Montenegro's NATO-Russia Chess Match. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Available at: http://www.rferl.org/a/montenegro-nato-russia-chess-match/28210094.html. [accessed 5 March, 2017].

Although unsuccessful, this covert operation—conducted by Russian intelligence working in conjunction with disaffected Russian partisans within Montenegro—to stymie NATO's expansion captures the essence of modern Russian hybrid warfare. Nevertheless, Montenegro is not unique, but instead is one of many recent hybrid conflicts propagated by the Russian government. Speaking on the spectre of Russian operations in Eastern Europe, American general Michael Williamson commented, ‘In terms of state-based challenges, Russia's purported annexation of Crimea and invasion of Ukraine demonstrated a sophisticated combination of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic means to achieve objectives below a threshold that the Russian leadership believe would elicit a concerted NATO response.’

Lt. Gen. Michael Williamson, Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, Lt. Gen. Joseph Anderson, and Lt. Gen. John Murray, statement to the Subcommittee on AirLand, Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, on Army Modernization in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2017, Second Session, 114th Congress, 5 April 2016.

Since 2008, Russia's operations throughout Europe, its Near Abroad and Syria signal an evolved approach to the conduct of war. Many terms and phrases have been attributed to Russia's evolved model of war to include Grey Zone conflict and new generation warfare. However, hybrid war or hybrid warfare is quite useful, despite the contention the term generates. The term hybrid warfare is useful because it speaks of the bundling of capabilities, technology and ideas in a coherent, purposeful manner to accomplish tactical, operational and strategic objectives on behalf of policymakers and strategists.

The work starting position is that the Russian hybrid warfare is in fact an applied way of war. Despite many arguments to the contrary, Russia's applied way of war introduces important nuances to the conduct of war. Resultantly, the purpose of this work is to clarify the concept of Russian hybrid warfare and to identify the characteristics that make it worthy of examination.

Two basic methods exist to explain an observable way of war. The first is to paraphrase existing primary source information on the subject. This method requires access to primary source information and the physical ability to read that material. That method is not employed in this work because access to Russian strategic and tactical doctrine is not readily available to the layperson. Furthermore, in many cases doctrine is a preferred way of war-fighting, a narrative and tied to procurement strategies, and thus, not an applied method. Therefore, merely relying on doctrine or policy statements can mislead the researcher about the true character of a given way of war.

That notwithstanding, the second method is to observe the phenomenon in multiple situations over a period of time. In doing so, the observer seeks to identify trends, inconsistencies, rules, relationships, reactions and boundaries that surface and recur therein and then generate an over-arching assessment about that phenomenon's boundaries and inner workings. That is the technique employed here.

Parole chiave

  • hybrid warfare
  • Russian hybrid warfare
  • proxy war
  • surrogate warfare
Accesso libero

Omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent commanders: The impact of a cultural paradigm derived from a secularised Christianity on the philosophy of infocentric warfare

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 73 - 81

Astratto

Abstract

This article examines how a religious cultural paradigm deriving from the Humanism of the West affects the modern art and science of War. It was in the framework of a religified Humanism, in which man ‘stole’ God’s capabilities and properties, that the worldview of man-god was created. This worldview permeated the development of military strategy, thereby facilitating its transformation in the worldview of a commander-god; this is the same worldview which today threatens to reach extremes, assisted by technological evolution allowing the development of robust C4ISR networks

Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. The acronym today is C5ISR, with the addition of Combat Systems.

interconnected with precision guided munitions (PGMs) of various configurations. The article then examines the influence of Western intellectualism, which is a basic element of Western Christianity, over the development of modern theories and perceptions on military strategy and the risks that can arise for future Western armies from this impact. As an antidote to this influence, the article suggests a new perception on military strategy which emphasises adaptability and flexibility and is based on a cultural paradigm from the Orthodox Christian Faith.

Parole chiave

  • religion
  • infocentric warfare
  • decentralised warfare models
Accesso libero

Greece as a frontline state in the historical longue durée

Pubblicato online: 01 Oct 2021
Pagine: 82 - 89

Astratto

Abstract

Greece as a state in South-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean has perceived itself as a frontline state, especially after it became a NATO member in 1952 along with Turkey. The two states formed the south-eastern flank of NATO and along with Iran constituted the Greece, Turkey, Iran (GTI) Corridor, part of Rimland. Greece’s strategic value stemmed from its frontline position in relation to the Eastern Bloc. After the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc, Greece has reinvented itself as a frontline state, this time in the Mediterranean Sea. We use the historical notion of longue durée and loci of Classical Geopolitics, such as Heartland and Rimland, to assess Greece’s strategic value in the long period. We also propose an additional spatial unity, the New Rimland.

Parole chiave

  • NATO
  • GTI Corridor
  • Heartland
  • Rimland
  • frontline state
  • New Rimland
Accesso libero

Leveraging network-centric strategic goals in capabilities

Pubblicato online: 19 Apr 2021
Pagine: 90 - 104

Astratto

Abstract

The vision of network-centric operations is to increase operational capabilities through networked collaboration. NATO and its member nations state this vision in strategic documents at a very high level of abstraction. While suitable for giving an overall feel, current documentation renders the steps toward implementing those visions largely unsupported. We outline a method that is based on agile requirements engineering, for converting high-level strategic visions into capabilities whose forms lend themselves to incremental implementation. We illustrate the use of this method in two cases that deal with both operational capabilities and technical capabilities. We also show how the method enables one to prioritise which capabilities to develop first. We conclude that it is necessary to formulate and implement some form of explicit methodology with which to span the gap between strategic visions and an effective implementation of those visions.

Parole chiave

  • strategic goals
  • capabilities
  • requirements engineering
  • benefits management
Accesso libero

Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 105 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.

Parole chiave

  • career development
  • advanced education
  • critical thinking skills
  • Knowledge Acquisition Programme (KAP)
  • Non-Commissioned Members Executive Professional Development Programme (NEPDP)
  • Royal Military College (RMC) of Canada
Accesso libero

Military thoracic gunshot wounds: A systematic review

Pubblicato online: 01 Oct 2021
Pagine: 118 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method to investigate the frequency of military thoracic gunshot wounds (GSWs) and deaths in combat theatres since World War Two (WW2). An electronic database search of World of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Microsoft Academic was conducted using the keywords ‘combat, casualties, thorax, gunshot, and military’ to identify peer-reviewed journals and conference papers on the topic. Twenty-three sources relevant to this review were identified and covered multiple theatres of operation. While there is a downward trend in the frequency of thoracic GSWs and fatalities likely due to the improvement of body armour, the improvement in medical treatment and increased frequency of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the review shows that the advancement has not removed the likelihood of thoracic GSWs, which still accounted for approximately 15% of all thoracic injuries in the most recent combat theatres. The systematic review identifies that GSWs of the thorax continue to be a risk in military theatres and therefore, medical personnel should be aware of the frequency and severity of thoracic GSWs and should be prepared to treat these life-threatening injuries, as timely intervention is essential.

Parole chiave

  • military
  • thoracic
  • gunshot
  • systematic review
Accesso libero

Clausewitz and the partisan: Accounting for unlimited enmity in the twenty-first century

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 130 - 138

Astratto

Abstract

Napoleon harnessed unlimited enmity to transform wars from limited ones to unlimited ones. Accordingly, Clausewitz developed the Trinity to describe this source of power. However, the increasing destruction due to interstate wars has led to a decrease in this type of conflict. At the same time, there has been an increase in partisan wars. The Trinity cannot explain partisan victories or state defeats. Using social psychology to explain the relationship of the partisan to the group, this research shows how partisans harness unlimited enmity to engage in existential wars. Furthering Clausewitzian philosophy, a new analogy, the singularity, is created to describe this power. Implications and conclusions drawn are at the end of the paper.

Parole chiave

  • Clausewitz
  • regular war
  • partisan
  • Trinity
  • singularity
  • irregular war
Accesso libero

Predicting army cadets’ performance: The role of character strengths, GPA and GMA

Pubblicato online: 16 Dec 2021
Pagine: 139 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine how well a set of 12 character strengths (Leadership, Integrity, Open-Mindedness, Bravery, Teamwork, Persistence, Social Intelligence, Love of Learning, Fairness, Self-Regulation, Perspective and Creativity) will predict academic performance (AP) and military performance (MP), compared to high school grade point average (GPA) and general mental ability (GMA). The study sample comprised 123 army cadets of two cohorts from the three-year bachelor's degree programme at the Norwegian Military Academy (NMA). GPA predicted AP (r = 0.32, p ≤ 0.05), but not MP (r = 0.14, n.s.), while GMA correlated significantly with neither AP nor MP. All 12 character strengths correlated significantly with MP (rs ranging from 0.27 to 0.65), and all except for Fairness correlated significantly with AP (rs ranging from 0.18 to 0.58). An average score of the 12 character strengths showed incremental validity beyond GMA and GPA in predicting both AP and MP. Our results suggest that character strengths should be considered when selecting and training army cadets.

Parole chiave

  • character strengths
  • performance
  • GPA
  • GMA
  • OBSCIF
Accesso libero

The Imperial Japanese Navy and the battle of the Philippine Sea: An analysis of the main causes of defeat

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 154 - 161

Astratto

Abstract

This article aims to demonstrate through mathematical analysis that the primary reason for the defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the battle of the Philippine Sea during World War II (WWII) was quantitative, and that the defeat is particularly attributable to the lack of force concentration. Scholars have placed much emphasis on the qualitative aspects of the forces involved, such as the skill of IJN pilots or the air defence capabilities of the United States Navy (USN), in seeking to explain the Japanese defeat. We, however, assert that in this naval battle, quantitative factors played a more important role than qualitative ones. Accordingly, we offer an improved version of the mathematical model of Armstrong and Powell, which was previously used to analyse battles between aircraft carriers (CVs). The coefficients in our mathematical model will then be estimated and verified using historical data from the main battles between CVs of the IJN and USN during WWII. Finally, we will analyse the factors underlying the IJN’s defeat in the Battle of the Philippine Sea using the model. This study proposes a useful technique for evaluating quantitative and qualitative aspects of naval forces.

Parole chiave

  • naval tactics
  • military history
  • combat modeling
  • Word War II
14 Articoli
Accesso libero

Nuclear warfare beyond counterforce

Pubblicato online: 09 Oct 2021
Pagine: 1 - 9

Astratto

Abstract

A counterforce attack intends to disable an opponent's nuclear arsenal to limit potential damage from that adversary. We postulate a future when hardening and deeply burying fixed sites, transition to mobile strategic systems, and improved defences make executing a counterforce strategy against an adversary's nuclear forces extremely difficult. Additionally, our postulated future has multiple nations possessing nuclear weapons. Consequently, each country needs to consider multiple actors when addressing the question of how to deter a potential adversary's nuclear attack. We examine six nuclear targeting alternatives and consider how to deter them. These strategies include nuclear demonstration, conventional military targets, and attacks consisting of communications/electronics, economic, infrastructure, and population centers that a nation might consider striking with nuclear weapons. Since these alternative strikes require only a few nuclear weapons, executing one of them would not significantly shift the balance of nuclear forces. The attacking country's remaining nuclear forces may inhibit the attacked country or its allies from responding. How can nations deter these limited nuclear attacks? Potentially, threatening economic counter-strikes seems to be the best alternative. How might escalation be controlled in the event of a limited attack? Other instruments of power, such as political or economic, might be employed to bolster deterrence against these types of nuclear strikes.

Parole chiave

  • nuclear strategy
  • deterrence
  • targeting
Accesso libero

Siting military base camps through an MCDA framework

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 10 - 21

Astratto

Abstract

The process used to determine site suitability for military base camps lacks a formal framework for reducing relative risks to soldier safety and maximise mission effectiveness. Presently, military personnel responsible for determining site suitability of a base camp must assess large amounts of geographic, socioeconomic and logistical data, without a decision analysis framework to aid in the process. By adopting a multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) framework to determine site suitability of base camps, battlespace commanders can make better, more defensible decisions. This paper surveys US Army officers with recent base camp experience to develop a set of initial criteria and weights relevant to base camp site selection. The developed decision framework is demonstrated using an MCDA methodology in an illustrative example to compare alternative base camp locations within a designated Area of Interest (AoI). Leveraging the site ranking output and/or criteria weights resulting from the methodology provides decision-making support that can be used in the field when time, resources and data may not be readily available.

Parole chiave

  • military
  • base camps
  • siting
  • MCDA
  • risk
  • decision analysis
Accesso libero

Personality traits and select socio-demographic variables as predictors of military morale: longitudinal research in the Estonian defence forces

Pubblicato online: 30 Apr 2021
Pagine: 22 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

Military morale is a concept widely used to describe the motivational element of soldiers’ will to fight or “the energy that drives soldiers to perform qualitatively better in stressful conditions, characterised by enthusiasm and persistence when engaging in collective, i.e. unit-level activities”. This longitudinal study explored the interlink-ages between perceptions of military morale, the Big Five personality traits and select socio-demographic characteristics among the conscripts of the Estonian Defence Forces and predicting directly measurable individual and collective types of military morale. Moreover, the fluctuation of military morale over the training cycle of conscript service (11 months) was tracked. The findings indicate that at the start of military service, individual morale has a low or medium statistically significant correlation with conscripts’ personality traits, with Conscientiousness and Neuroticism demonstrating the strongest relations; however, the correlation with Neuroticism was negative. Additionally, when viewed throughout the course of the entire training cycle, the morale demonstrated a U-shaped progression, i.e. high at the beginning, dropping in the middle and rising back up at the end of military service. At the same time, socio-demographic variables demonstrated little or non-significant role in predicting individual or collective morale. The results indicate that morale fluctuates over time and is affected by personal characteristics. For practitioners, these results could help to reinforce the positive impact of morale on collective and individual performances.

Parole chiave

  • military morale
  • personality
  • the Big Five
  • socio-demographic variables
Accesso libero

An examination of authentic leadership as an individual and social factor of resilience

Pubblicato online: 07 Nov 2021
Pagine: 38 - 45

Astratto

Abstract

Resilient qualities, which derive from protective factors, enable an individual to balance exposure to vulnerabilities in military service and throughout life. Protective factors arise from within an individual, from social factors, and from an individual's environment. Research on social factors, such as strong leadership and peer relationships, continues to emerge and significantly relate to resilience. Of specific interest to organisations is how perceptions of leadership contribute to resilience as an individual and social protective factor. Knowing more about how soldiers perceive themselves on authentic leadership and resilience would better help researchers and practitioners understand the contribution of leadership on perceived resilience. The current study examined the perception of authentic leadership in self and first-line leaders with resilience in a population of 179 soldiers (N = 179; M = 26.86 years, SD = 6.42). The results noted a significant correlation between the perception of authentic leadership in oneself and resilience (r = 0.506, p < 0.001). A subsequent analysis examining the perception of authentic leadership in one's first-line leader and subordinate resilience was also significant (r = 0.394, p < 0.001), supporting previous findings. These results demonstrate that perceptions of leadership matter as an individual and social factor in military personnel.

Parole chiave

  • protective factors
  • leadership styles
  • social influence
  • military
  • resilience
Accesso libero

Teaching efficacy of U.S. Air Force enlisted professional military educators during the COVID-19 pandemic

Pubblicato online: 02 May 2021
Pagine: 46 - 59

Astratto

Abstract

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, U.S. Air Force Enlisted Professional Military Education (EPME) was forced to deliver traditionally in-person leadership development interventions in an online, instructor-facilitated format for the first time in the history of the programme. Despite the absence of training to teach in online learning environments, hundreds of instructors within 80 schoolhouses were charged with embracing this pedagogic shift to continue developing enlisted leaders during a global pandemic. This study examined the sense of self-efficacy of 129 instructors across all levels of U.S. Air Force EPME by utilising a 32-item self-efficacy measurement instrument. This study has implications for enlisted and officer professional military education leaders interested in training and developing faculty to teach in online learning environments. Overall, instructors felt confident in their abilities to teach online, despite pre-service training having focussed solely on in-person instruction. Results indicated a positive relationship between higher senses of self-efficacy and years of instructors’ experience. Instructors who worked with an instructional support specialist showed a significantly higher sense of self-efficacy than instructors who did not. Future studies should aim to integrate multiple perspectives of the efficacy of U.S. Air Force EPME instructors, such as those from students, administrators and colleagues.

Parole chiave

  • PME
  • EPME
  • Air Force
  • Teacher Efficacy
Accesso libero

Russian hybrid warfare: A framework

Pubblicato online: 09 May 2021
Pagine: 60 - 72

Astratto

Abstract

As Montenegro sough to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in 2015, an attempted coup erupted within the country in October of that year. The Telegraph's Ben Farmer reported that, ‘An officer with Russia's GRU military intelligence service, is accused of running a web of Serbian and Russian nationalists and paramilitaries who plotted to assassinate the Montenegrin prime minister.’

Farmer, B. (2017, February 26). Montenegro to Indict Russian Spy Behind Coup Plot. The Telegraph. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2017/02/26/montenegro-indict-russian-spy-behind-coup-plot/. [accessed 5 March, 2017].

The failed coup and attempted assassination were conducted by Russian intelligence in support of Russian President Vladimir Putin's vision for a modern Eurasia in which NATO discontinues encroaching on Russia's sphere of influence and in which Russia ascends to regional hegemony.

Knezevic, G. (2017, January 2). Montenegro's NATO-Russia Chess Match. Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Available at: http://www.rferl.org/a/montenegro-nato-russia-chess-match/28210094.html. [accessed 5 March, 2017].

Although unsuccessful, this covert operation—conducted by Russian intelligence working in conjunction with disaffected Russian partisans within Montenegro—to stymie NATO's expansion captures the essence of modern Russian hybrid warfare. Nevertheless, Montenegro is not unique, but instead is one of many recent hybrid conflicts propagated by the Russian government. Speaking on the spectre of Russian operations in Eastern Europe, American general Michael Williamson commented, ‘In terms of state-based challenges, Russia's purported annexation of Crimea and invasion of Ukraine demonstrated a sophisticated combination of diplomatic, informational, military, and economic means to achieve objectives below a threshold that the Russian leadership believe would elicit a concerted NATO response.’

Lt. Gen. Michael Williamson, Lt. Gen. H. R. McMaster, Lt. Gen. Joseph Anderson, and Lt. Gen. John Murray, statement to the Subcommittee on AirLand, Committee on Armed Services, United States Senate, on Army Modernization in Review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2017, Second Session, 114th Congress, 5 April 2016.

Since 2008, Russia's operations throughout Europe, its Near Abroad and Syria signal an evolved approach to the conduct of war. Many terms and phrases have been attributed to Russia's evolved model of war to include Grey Zone conflict and new generation warfare. However, hybrid war or hybrid warfare is quite useful, despite the contention the term generates. The term hybrid warfare is useful because it speaks of the bundling of capabilities, technology and ideas in a coherent, purposeful manner to accomplish tactical, operational and strategic objectives on behalf of policymakers and strategists.

The work starting position is that the Russian hybrid warfare is in fact an applied way of war. Despite many arguments to the contrary, Russia's applied way of war introduces important nuances to the conduct of war. Resultantly, the purpose of this work is to clarify the concept of Russian hybrid warfare and to identify the characteristics that make it worthy of examination.

Two basic methods exist to explain an observable way of war. The first is to paraphrase existing primary source information on the subject. This method requires access to primary source information and the physical ability to read that material. That method is not employed in this work because access to Russian strategic and tactical doctrine is not readily available to the layperson. Furthermore, in many cases doctrine is a preferred way of war-fighting, a narrative and tied to procurement strategies, and thus, not an applied method. Therefore, merely relying on doctrine or policy statements can mislead the researcher about the true character of a given way of war.

That notwithstanding, the second method is to observe the phenomenon in multiple situations over a period of time. In doing so, the observer seeks to identify trends, inconsistencies, rules, relationships, reactions and boundaries that surface and recur therein and then generate an over-arching assessment about that phenomenon's boundaries and inner workings. That is the technique employed here.

Parole chiave

  • hybrid warfare
  • Russian hybrid warfare
  • proxy war
  • surrogate warfare
Accesso libero

Omnipotent, omniscient and omnipresent commanders: The impact of a cultural paradigm derived from a secularised Christianity on the philosophy of infocentric warfare

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 73 - 81

Astratto

Abstract

This article examines how a religious cultural paradigm deriving from the Humanism of the West affects the modern art and science of War. It was in the framework of a religified Humanism, in which man ‘stole’ God’s capabilities and properties, that the worldview of man-god was created. This worldview permeated the development of military strategy, thereby facilitating its transformation in the worldview of a commander-god; this is the same worldview which today threatens to reach extremes, assisted by technological evolution allowing the development of robust C4ISR networks

Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. The acronym today is C5ISR, with the addition of Combat Systems.

interconnected with precision guided munitions (PGMs) of various configurations. The article then examines the influence of Western intellectualism, which is a basic element of Western Christianity, over the development of modern theories and perceptions on military strategy and the risks that can arise for future Western armies from this impact. As an antidote to this influence, the article suggests a new perception on military strategy which emphasises adaptability and flexibility and is based on a cultural paradigm from the Orthodox Christian Faith.

Parole chiave

  • religion
  • infocentric warfare
  • decentralised warfare models
Accesso libero

Greece as a frontline state in the historical longue durée

Pubblicato online: 01 Oct 2021
Pagine: 82 - 89

Astratto

Abstract

Greece as a state in South-eastern Europe and the Mediterranean has perceived itself as a frontline state, especially after it became a NATO member in 1952 along with Turkey. The two states formed the south-eastern flank of NATO and along with Iran constituted the Greece, Turkey, Iran (GTI) Corridor, part of Rimland. Greece’s strategic value stemmed from its frontline position in relation to the Eastern Bloc. After the dissolution of the Eastern Bloc, Greece has reinvented itself as a frontline state, this time in the Mediterranean Sea. We use the historical notion of longue durée and loci of Classical Geopolitics, such as Heartland and Rimland, to assess Greece’s strategic value in the long period. We also propose an additional spatial unity, the New Rimland.

Parole chiave

  • NATO
  • GTI Corridor
  • Heartland
  • Rimland
  • frontline state
  • New Rimland
Accesso libero

Leveraging network-centric strategic goals in capabilities

Pubblicato online: 19 Apr 2021
Pagine: 90 - 104

Astratto

Abstract

The vision of network-centric operations is to increase operational capabilities through networked collaboration. NATO and its member nations state this vision in strategic documents at a very high level of abstraction. While suitable for giving an overall feel, current documentation renders the steps toward implementing those visions largely unsupported. We outline a method that is based on agile requirements engineering, for converting high-level strategic visions into capabilities whose forms lend themselves to incremental implementation. We illustrate the use of this method in two cases that deal with both operational capabilities and technical capabilities. We also show how the method enables one to prioritise which capabilities to develop first. We conclude that it is necessary to formulate and implement some form of explicit methodology with which to span the gap between strategic visions and an effective implementation of those visions.

Parole chiave

  • strategic goals
  • capabilities
  • requirements engineering
  • benefits management
Accesso libero

Advanced education for NCMs’ professional career development: a conclusive experience?

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 105 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to present the results of a research which assessed whether the Knowledge Acquisition Programme and the Non-Commissioned Member Executive Professional Development Programme contributed to the Non-Commissioned Members’ effectiveness as senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. Thirty-seven Programme graduates from 2006 to 2015 received a questionnaire containing seven closed-ended general information questions and twelve open-ended programme/course specific questions. Seventeen graduates responded to the questionnaire. Manual coding was used to identify main themes and sub-themes. The research findings determined that both Programmes contributed to the effectiveness of senior leaders in the Profession of Arms within the Canadian Armed Forces. However, some caveats were expressed, and recommendations brought forward to enhance the Programme and to improve its future deliveries.

Parole chiave

  • career development
  • advanced education
  • critical thinking skills
  • Knowledge Acquisition Programme (KAP)
  • Non-Commissioned Members Executive Professional Development Programme (NEPDP)
  • Royal Military College (RMC) of Canada
Accesso libero

Military thoracic gunshot wounds: A systematic review

Pubblicato online: 01 Oct 2021
Pagine: 118 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) method to investigate the frequency of military thoracic gunshot wounds (GSWs) and deaths in combat theatres since World War Two (WW2). An electronic database search of World of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed and Microsoft Academic was conducted using the keywords ‘combat, casualties, thorax, gunshot, and military’ to identify peer-reviewed journals and conference papers on the topic. Twenty-three sources relevant to this review were identified and covered multiple theatres of operation. While there is a downward trend in the frequency of thoracic GSWs and fatalities likely due to the improvement of body armour, the improvement in medical treatment and increased frequency of improvised explosive devices (IEDs), the review shows that the advancement has not removed the likelihood of thoracic GSWs, which still accounted for approximately 15% of all thoracic injuries in the most recent combat theatres. The systematic review identifies that GSWs of the thorax continue to be a risk in military theatres and therefore, medical personnel should be aware of the frequency and severity of thoracic GSWs and should be prepared to treat these life-threatening injuries, as timely intervention is essential.

Parole chiave

  • military
  • thoracic
  • gunshot
  • systematic review
Accesso libero

Clausewitz and the partisan: Accounting for unlimited enmity in the twenty-first century

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 130 - 138

Astratto

Abstract

Napoleon harnessed unlimited enmity to transform wars from limited ones to unlimited ones. Accordingly, Clausewitz developed the Trinity to describe this source of power. However, the increasing destruction due to interstate wars has led to a decrease in this type of conflict. At the same time, there has been an increase in partisan wars. The Trinity cannot explain partisan victories or state defeats. Using social psychology to explain the relationship of the partisan to the group, this research shows how partisans harness unlimited enmity to engage in existential wars. Furthering Clausewitzian philosophy, a new analogy, the singularity, is created to describe this power. Implications and conclusions drawn are at the end of the paper.

Parole chiave

  • Clausewitz
  • regular war
  • partisan
  • Trinity
  • singularity
  • irregular war
Accesso libero

Predicting army cadets’ performance: The role of character strengths, GPA and GMA

Pubblicato online: 16 Dec 2021
Pagine: 139 - 153

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine how well a set of 12 character strengths (Leadership, Integrity, Open-Mindedness, Bravery, Teamwork, Persistence, Social Intelligence, Love of Learning, Fairness, Self-Regulation, Perspective and Creativity) will predict academic performance (AP) and military performance (MP), compared to high school grade point average (GPA) and general mental ability (GMA). The study sample comprised 123 army cadets of two cohorts from the three-year bachelor's degree programme at the Norwegian Military Academy (NMA). GPA predicted AP (r = 0.32, p ≤ 0.05), but not MP (r = 0.14, n.s.), while GMA correlated significantly with neither AP nor MP. All 12 character strengths correlated significantly with MP (rs ranging from 0.27 to 0.65), and all except for Fairness correlated significantly with AP (rs ranging from 0.18 to 0.58). An average score of the 12 character strengths showed incremental validity beyond GMA and GPA in predicting both AP and MP. Our results suggest that character strengths should be considered when selecting and training army cadets.

Parole chiave

  • character strengths
  • performance
  • GPA
  • GMA
  • OBSCIF
Accesso libero

The Imperial Japanese Navy and the battle of the Philippine Sea: An analysis of the main causes of defeat

Pubblicato online: 24 Sep 2021
Pagine: 154 - 161

Astratto

Abstract

This article aims to demonstrate through mathematical analysis that the primary reason for the defeat of the Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) in the battle of the Philippine Sea during World War II (WWII) was quantitative, and that the defeat is particularly attributable to the lack of force concentration. Scholars have placed much emphasis on the qualitative aspects of the forces involved, such as the skill of IJN pilots or the air defence capabilities of the United States Navy (USN), in seeking to explain the Japanese defeat. We, however, assert that in this naval battle, quantitative factors played a more important role than qualitative ones. Accordingly, we offer an improved version of the mathematical model of Armstrong and Powell, which was previously used to analyse battles between aircraft carriers (CVs). The coefficients in our mathematical model will then be estimated and verified using historical data from the main battles between CVs of the IJN and USN during WWII. Finally, we will analyse the factors underlying the IJN’s defeat in the Battle of the Philippine Sea using the model. This study proposes a useful technique for evaluating quantitative and qualitative aspects of naval forces.

Parole chiave

  • naval tactics
  • military history
  • combat modeling
  • Word War II

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