Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 66 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)

Volume 65 (2021): Edizione 2 (December 2021)

Volume 65 (2021): Edizione 1 (June 2021)

Volume 64 (2020): Edizione 2 (December 2020)

Volume 64 (2020): Edizione 1 (June 2020)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 1 (June 2018)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 2 (December 2017)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 2 (December 2016)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 2 (December 2015)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 2 (December 2013)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 1 (June 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 66 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Factors Affecting Quality of Honey Bee Venom

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Honeybee venom (HBV) is an important product of beehives, and its benefits for health have been rediscovered by modern medicine. Since HBV has the potential to treat some diseases, its quality and production conditions require a detailed investigation. The objective of this study is to understand how season, harvesting time (day or night), harvesting site of beehives (inside or entrance) and geographic location affects quality through the analysis of apamin, melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) content. Each set of six colonies were used to understand the differences in these components when HBV is harvested in the daytime either from the entrance or inside of the hives and nighttime from the inside of the hives. The experiment also investigated seasonal differences as the samples were harvested each month from May to August 2019 in our apiary. Furthermore, the effect of geographic location on quality was examined through the comparison of the data obtained from twenty-seven samples collected by beekeepers using the same device, located in the Turkish cities of Manisa, Muğla, Balıkesir, Düzce and Mersin. The results demonstrated that statistically significant differences in the amounts of analyzed components were not dependent on harvesting time, collection site on the beehives or season. On the other hand, region samples significantly differed in the amounts of all three components, ranging from 1.28% to 3.81% for apamin, 19.51–64.03% for melittin and 7.22%–28.18% for PLA2. However, beekeepers’ improper practices during harvesting and storing might be the most critical parameters that determine the quality of HBV.

Parole chiave

  • apamin
  • harvesting method
  • honeybee venom
  • melittin
  • Phospholipase A2
  • season
Accesso libero

Simulated Climate Warming Influenced Colony Microclimatic Conditions and Gut Bacterial Abundance of Honeybee Subspecies Apis mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 15 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Ectothermic organisms including insects are highly vulnerable to climate warming which not only influences their biology, ecology and physiology but also affects their symbiotic gut microbiota. This study determined the impact of ambient (control) and simulated warmer (heating) climatic conditions on the microclimate of brood nest and gut bacterial abundance of two Apis mellifera subspecies i.e. A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan. For both subspecies, brood nest temperature and relative humidity under the heating treatment were significantly different (p≤0.001) than those under the control treatment. Quantitative PCR data revealed that the abundance of gut bacteria (16S rRNA gene copy numbers) of A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05), 1.73 and 5.32 fold higher respectively, during the heating treatment than those in control conditions. Although gut bacterial abundance of A. mellifera ligustica (1.67 × 107 copies g−1 fw) and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan (1.7 × 107 copies g−1 fw) larvae was similar during the control treatment, A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae exhibited three times greater gut bacterial abundance than A. mellifera ligustica during the heating treatment. Similarly, adult A. mellifera sinisxinyuan bees harboured significantly greater bacterial abundance during the heating treatment than control. These findings elucidate that climate warming may significantly affect the honeybee colony microclimate and their gut bacterial abundance. However, further studies are needed to better understand how gut microbial community may influence the learning, physiological and behavioural mechanisms of the host bees in a climate warming scenario.

Parole chiave

  • brood microclimate
  • climate warming
  • gut bacterial abundance
  • 16RNA gene copy numbers
Accesso libero

Influence of the Type of Pollen Diet on the Survival, Body Weight, and Immune Response in the African Honeybee

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 29 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

Pollen nutrition is critical for the development and well-being of the honeybee. Previous studies have compared the effect of pollen and carbohydrate-only diet on honeybee physiology. The effect of a monofloral versus polyfloral diet on the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is poorly understood. This knowledge is critical as diversity-rich habitats are being altered to less diverse environments through increased urbanization and intensified agricultural activities, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report how lowly diverse (LD) and highly diverse (HD) pollen diets influence honeybee life-history traits and physiology. To achieve this, we fed caged bees with the two pollen diets and tested their effects on the parameters of survival, body weight, pollen consumption, and immune response. HD-fed bees had significantly higher survival and greater pollen consumption than LD-fed bees. However, LD-fed bees were heavier than HD-fed bees. The correlation between body weight gain and pollen consumption was expressed strongly in HD-fed bees than in LD-fed bees. Overall, our findings reveal the benefits that the highly diverse polyfloral diets provide to honeybee workers. This study shows how pollen diversity influences honeybee life-history traits, thus informing the need for conserving the biodiversity of environments for safeguarding the health of honeybees and other pollinators.

Parole chiave

  • defensin
  • innate immunity
  • nutrition
  • pollen consumption
  • weight gain
Accesso libero

Pathogen Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Aethina tumida Murray in South Korea

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 45 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray, is a parasite of honey bee colonies and causes the fermentation of honey as well as colony collapse. Outbreaks have been confirmed in Africa, America, Europe as well as Asia, where an outbreak was reported in the Philippines and South Korea in 2014 and 2017, respectively. In South Korea, in September 2016, this honey bee parasite was first identified in apiaries in Miryang, Gyeongnam Province. However, the invasion pathway of SHB has not been identified, and honey bee pathogens harbored by SHB have not been well characterized. Therefore, phylogenetic analysis of SHB with the use of COI gene and detection of fourteen common honey bee pathogens were conducted in this study. The confirmation of the fourteen honey bee pathogens in SHB showed that this beetle carries black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus. Therefore, SHB could have a role in the spread of these viruses. The way of entry of the SHB to South Korea remains undetermined, but the phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene revealed that it was most similar to species found in the USA. There is an urgent need for national-level monitoring and quarantine measures for preventing the spread of SHB infestation in South Korea.

Parole chiave

  • black queen cell virus
  • deformed wing virus
  • phylogenetic analysis
  • small hive beetle
Accesso libero

Use of Osmia bicornis L. for Pollination of Cyclamen persicum Mill. Cultivated in Greenhouse Environment During Winter Period

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 57 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, the pollinating potential of the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis syn. O. rufa) in seed production of a major ornamental plant - Persian cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum), was evaluated under horticultural farm conditions. The study was conducted under a greenhouse environment for five months, from October to the end of February. The juvenile hormone analogue methoprene supported the termination of bee diapause. Experimental results from Osmia pollination plots were compared with control plots that applied the hand-pollination method. Plants with flowers pollinated by the solitary bee had significantly more fruits than those pollinated by the hand method in November, December and February. In addition, significantly more seeds per capsule were produced by plants pollinated by O. bicornis from December to February. Finally, plants pollinated by Osmia bees produced more seeds than those hand-pollinated at all experimental months. These results showed that if the diapause of O. bicornis is successfully broken, this bee can be a very efficient pollinator in greenhouse environments, even during winter.

Parole chiave

  • greenhouse
  • pollination
  • winter period
Accesso libero

Morphometric and Genetic Characterization of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) From Thrace Region of Turkey

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 67 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

A detailed morphological and genetic characterization of honey bees from the Thrace and west Anatolian regions of Turkey was surveyed. A total of 1650 worker bee samples (110 colonies) were evaluated with the forty-one morphological characters and 217 honey bee samples were analyzed via DNA sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region. In this study, three different populations, Thrace (Tekirdağ, Kırklareli and Edirne provinces), Island Gökçeada, and western Anatolia were formed based on morphometrics, since the Marmara Sea has taken a very strong barrier role in this formation. The morphological similarity of the Thrace population was supported by the genetic analysis. The sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region revealed twenty-two different haplotypes, sixteen of which are novel. The C2d, macedonica-like haplotype, was the most widely found haplotype (48%) all around the Thrace region. Along with the C2d haplotype, previously published C2s, C2v, C2i, C2j, and C2h haplotypes, and the newly found haplotypes were also observed but less frequently. In this study, Thrace honey bees were found to more similar to A. m. macedonica through the mtDNA sequence analysis, whereas carnica-like honey bees were only found near the Istranca mountain ridges, Kırklareli province and macedonica-like honey bees all around the Thrace region. According to our results, some of the Thrace honey bee populations may be both A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica but the assignment to the latter subspecies seems more likely due to its geographic range.

Parole chiave

  • DNA sequencing
  • morphometrics
  • thrace honey bees
  • tRNA-Cox2 gene
Accesso libero

Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Economically Relevant Viruses Infecting Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) of Bingöl Province, Turkey

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 85 - 96

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, we conducted a six-month survey to evaluate the current status of three common honey bee viruses (black queen cell virus [BQCV], acute bee paralysis virus [ABPV], and sacbrood virus [SBV]) in Turkey’s Bingöl region and revealed their phylogenetic relationships with the same types of viruses in other parts of the world. We randomly sampled 384 worker honey bees from a total of 128 apiaries from different locations of this region. Molecular tests confirmed the presence of SBV and BQCV, with infection rates of 7.03% and 11.7%, respectively, but ABPV could not be detected in any of the surveyed apiaries. In addition, double infection was detected in an apiary with an infection rate of 0.78%. The sequences of a partial polyprotein gene region of a randomly selected isolate from each detected virus were collected and registered in GenBank under the accession numbers MZ357971 and MZ357972 for SBV and MZ357974 for BQCV. The nucleotide sequence similarity of Turkish BQCV and SBV isolates was 75.71–96.58% and 85.96–92.98%, respectively. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of Bingöl honey bee viral genomes with other isolates from around the world revealed that Bingöl SBV isolates were closely related to another Turkey isolate while Bingöl BQCV isolate to France, Italy, Australia, and Brazil isolates. To our knowledge, the presence and phylogenetic affinity of SBV and BQCV viruses detected in the present study is the first recording for Turkey’s Bingöl province.

Parole chiave

  • ABPV
  • BQCV
  • molecular characterization
  • SBV
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Factors Affecting Quality of Honey Bee Venom

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 5 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Honeybee venom (HBV) is an important product of beehives, and its benefits for health have been rediscovered by modern medicine. Since HBV has the potential to treat some diseases, its quality and production conditions require a detailed investigation. The objective of this study is to understand how season, harvesting time (day or night), harvesting site of beehives (inside or entrance) and geographic location affects quality through the analysis of apamin, melittin and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) content. Each set of six colonies were used to understand the differences in these components when HBV is harvested in the daytime either from the entrance or inside of the hives and nighttime from the inside of the hives. The experiment also investigated seasonal differences as the samples were harvested each month from May to August 2019 in our apiary. Furthermore, the effect of geographic location on quality was examined through the comparison of the data obtained from twenty-seven samples collected by beekeepers using the same device, located in the Turkish cities of Manisa, Muğla, Balıkesir, Düzce and Mersin. The results demonstrated that statistically significant differences in the amounts of analyzed components were not dependent on harvesting time, collection site on the beehives or season. On the other hand, region samples significantly differed in the amounts of all three components, ranging from 1.28% to 3.81% for apamin, 19.51–64.03% for melittin and 7.22%–28.18% for PLA2. However, beekeepers’ improper practices during harvesting and storing might be the most critical parameters that determine the quality of HBV.

Parole chiave

  • apamin
  • harvesting method
  • honeybee venom
  • melittin
  • Phospholipase A2
  • season
Accesso libero

Simulated Climate Warming Influenced Colony Microclimatic Conditions and Gut Bacterial Abundance of Honeybee Subspecies Apis mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 15 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Ectothermic organisms including insects are highly vulnerable to climate warming which not only influences their biology, ecology and physiology but also affects their symbiotic gut microbiota. This study determined the impact of ambient (control) and simulated warmer (heating) climatic conditions on the microclimate of brood nest and gut bacterial abundance of two Apis mellifera subspecies i.e. A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan. For both subspecies, brood nest temperature and relative humidity under the heating treatment were significantly different (p≤0.001) than those under the control treatment. Quantitative PCR data revealed that the abundance of gut bacteria (16S rRNA gene copy numbers) of A. mellifera ligustica and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae was significantly higher (P≤0.05), 1.73 and 5.32 fold higher respectively, during the heating treatment than those in control conditions. Although gut bacterial abundance of A. mellifera ligustica (1.67 × 107 copies g−1 fw) and A. mellifera sinisxinyuan (1.7 × 107 copies g−1 fw) larvae was similar during the control treatment, A. mellifera sinisxinyuan larvae exhibited three times greater gut bacterial abundance than A. mellifera ligustica during the heating treatment. Similarly, adult A. mellifera sinisxinyuan bees harboured significantly greater bacterial abundance during the heating treatment than control. These findings elucidate that climate warming may significantly affect the honeybee colony microclimate and their gut bacterial abundance. However, further studies are needed to better understand how gut microbial community may influence the learning, physiological and behavioural mechanisms of the host bees in a climate warming scenario.

Parole chiave

  • brood microclimate
  • climate warming
  • gut bacterial abundance
  • 16RNA gene copy numbers
Accesso libero

Influence of the Type of Pollen Diet on the Survival, Body Weight, and Immune Response in the African Honeybee

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 29 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

Pollen nutrition is critical for the development and well-being of the honeybee. Previous studies have compared the effect of pollen and carbohydrate-only diet on honeybee physiology. The effect of a monofloral versus polyfloral diet on the African honeybee (Apis mellifera scutellata) is poorly understood. This knowledge is critical as diversity-rich habitats are being altered to less diverse environments through increased urbanization and intensified agricultural activities, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, we report how lowly diverse (LD) and highly diverse (HD) pollen diets influence honeybee life-history traits and physiology. To achieve this, we fed caged bees with the two pollen diets and tested their effects on the parameters of survival, body weight, pollen consumption, and immune response. HD-fed bees had significantly higher survival and greater pollen consumption than LD-fed bees. However, LD-fed bees were heavier than HD-fed bees. The correlation between body weight gain and pollen consumption was expressed strongly in HD-fed bees than in LD-fed bees. Overall, our findings reveal the benefits that the highly diverse polyfloral diets provide to honeybee workers. This study shows how pollen diversity influences honeybee life-history traits, thus informing the need for conserving the biodiversity of environments for safeguarding the health of honeybees and other pollinators.

Parole chiave

  • defensin
  • innate immunity
  • nutrition
  • pollen consumption
  • weight gain
Accesso libero

Pathogen Detection and Phylogenetic Analysis of Aethina tumida Murray in South Korea

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 45 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

The small hive beetle (SHB), Aethina tumida Murray, is a parasite of honey bee colonies and causes the fermentation of honey as well as colony collapse. Outbreaks have been confirmed in Africa, America, Europe as well as Asia, where an outbreak was reported in the Philippines and South Korea in 2014 and 2017, respectively. In South Korea, in September 2016, this honey bee parasite was first identified in apiaries in Miryang, Gyeongnam Province. However, the invasion pathway of SHB has not been identified, and honey bee pathogens harbored by SHB have not been well characterized. Therefore, phylogenetic analysis of SHB with the use of COI gene and detection of fourteen common honey bee pathogens were conducted in this study. The confirmation of the fourteen honey bee pathogens in SHB showed that this beetle carries black queen cell virus and deformed wing virus. Therefore, SHB could have a role in the spread of these viruses. The way of entry of the SHB to South Korea remains undetermined, but the phylogenetic analysis of the COI gene revealed that it was most similar to species found in the USA. There is an urgent need for national-level monitoring and quarantine measures for preventing the spread of SHB infestation in South Korea.

Parole chiave

  • black queen cell virus
  • deformed wing virus
  • phylogenetic analysis
  • small hive beetle
Accesso libero

Use of Osmia bicornis L. for Pollination of Cyclamen persicum Mill. Cultivated in Greenhouse Environment During Winter Period

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 57 - 66

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, the pollinating potential of the red mason bee (Osmia bicornis syn. O. rufa) in seed production of a major ornamental plant - Persian cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum), was evaluated under horticultural farm conditions. The study was conducted under a greenhouse environment for five months, from October to the end of February. The juvenile hormone analogue methoprene supported the termination of bee diapause. Experimental results from Osmia pollination plots were compared with control plots that applied the hand-pollination method. Plants with flowers pollinated by the solitary bee had significantly more fruits than those pollinated by the hand method in November, December and February. In addition, significantly more seeds per capsule were produced by plants pollinated by O. bicornis from December to February. Finally, plants pollinated by Osmia bees produced more seeds than those hand-pollinated at all experimental months. These results showed that if the diapause of O. bicornis is successfully broken, this bee can be a very efficient pollinator in greenhouse environments, even during winter.

Parole chiave

  • greenhouse
  • pollination
  • winter period
Accesso libero

Morphometric and Genetic Characterization of Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) From Thrace Region of Turkey

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 67 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

A detailed morphological and genetic characterization of honey bees from the Thrace and west Anatolian regions of Turkey was surveyed. A total of 1650 worker bee samples (110 colonies) were evaluated with the forty-one morphological characters and 217 honey bee samples were analyzed via DNA sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region. In this study, three different populations, Thrace (Tekirdağ, Kırklareli and Edirne provinces), Island Gökçeada, and western Anatolia were formed based on morphometrics, since the Marmara Sea has taken a very strong barrier role in this formation. The morphological similarity of the Thrace population was supported by the genetic analysis. The sequencing of the tRNAleu-cox2 region revealed twenty-two different haplotypes, sixteen of which are novel. The C2d, macedonica-like haplotype, was the most widely found haplotype (48%) all around the Thrace region. Along with the C2d haplotype, previously published C2s, C2v, C2i, C2j, and C2h haplotypes, and the newly found haplotypes were also observed but less frequently. In this study, Thrace honey bees were found to more similar to A. m. macedonica through the mtDNA sequence analysis, whereas carnica-like honey bees were only found near the Istranca mountain ridges, Kırklareli province and macedonica-like honey bees all around the Thrace region. According to our results, some of the Thrace honey bee populations may be both A. m. carnica and A. m. macedonica but the assignment to the latter subspecies seems more likely due to its geographic range.

Parole chiave

  • DNA sequencing
  • morphometrics
  • thrace honey bees
  • tRNA-Cox2 gene
Accesso libero

Occurrence and Molecular Phylogeny of Economically Relevant Viruses Infecting Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) of Bingöl Province, Turkey

Pubblicato online: 22 Jun 2022
Pagine: 85 - 96

Astratto

Abstract

In this study, we conducted a six-month survey to evaluate the current status of three common honey bee viruses (black queen cell virus [BQCV], acute bee paralysis virus [ABPV], and sacbrood virus [SBV]) in Turkey’s Bingöl region and revealed their phylogenetic relationships with the same types of viruses in other parts of the world. We randomly sampled 384 worker honey bees from a total of 128 apiaries from different locations of this region. Molecular tests confirmed the presence of SBV and BQCV, with infection rates of 7.03% and 11.7%, respectively, but ABPV could not be detected in any of the surveyed apiaries. In addition, double infection was detected in an apiary with an infection rate of 0.78%. The sequences of a partial polyprotein gene region of a randomly selected isolate from each detected virus were collected and registered in GenBank under the accession numbers MZ357971 and MZ357972 for SBV and MZ357974 for BQCV. The nucleotide sequence similarity of Turkish BQCV and SBV isolates was 75.71–96.58% and 85.96–92.98%, respectively. A comparison of the phylogenetic tree of Bingöl honey bee viral genomes with other isolates from around the world revealed that Bingöl SBV isolates were closely related to another Turkey isolate while Bingöl BQCV isolate to France, Italy, Australia, and Brazil isolates. To our knowledge, the presence and phylogenetic affinity of SBV and BQCV viruses detected in the present study is the first recording for Turkey’s Bingöl province.

Parole chiave

  • ABPV
  • BQCV
  • molecular characterization
  • SBV

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo