Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 66 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)

Volume 65 (2021): Edizione 2 (December 2021)

Volume 65 (2021): Edizione 1 (June 2021)

Volume 64 (2020): Edizione 2 (December 2020)

Volume 64 (2020): Edizione 1 (June 2020)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 1 (June 2018)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 2 (December 2017)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 2 (December 2016)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 2 (December 2015)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 2 (December 2013)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 1 (June 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 65 (2021): Edizione 1 (June 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

14 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Antifungal Activities of Propolis and its Main Components with an Emphasis Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 5 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

Propolis is produced by honey bees from a series of resinous, gummy and balsamic substances collected from the leaf buds of different tree species and mixed with their secretions. It is used as a sealant and antiseptic in the hive. Because of its antimicrobial properties, propolis has become a popular alternative medicine or food for health protection and disease prevention. The presence of a large number of flavonoids, aromatic acids and phenolic compounds has been suggested to be responsible for most biological and pharmacological activities of propolis. This review aims to provide a critical analysis of the different studies which evaluate the activity of propolis against fungi and to identify the chemical components responsible for such activity. The discussion of the methodological approaches used and the issued results is a key point of this review to highlight knowledge gaps. This review will first describe the chemical composition of the propolis and the factors of variability including geographical and botanical origins and then examine its antifungal activities with a focus against phytopathogenic fungi. Finally, it will discuss the main components responsible for such activities and their mechanism of action.

Parole chiave

  • bee propolis
  • biomarkers
  • food preservation
  • mechanism of action
  • phytopathogenic fungi
access type Accesso libero

Factors Affecting Immune Responses in Honey Bees: An Insight

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 25 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

Honey bees pollinate various crops and wild plants which ensures food security. However, in this modern world, bees are suffering. Decreasing global domesticated and wild bee populations while the demand for agricultural pollination services is increasing is a matter of concern. Colony losses are driven by such factors or interactions as changing environmental conditions, exposure to agrochemicals, parasite and pathogens attack and decreased flower abundance and diversity. All these stresses individually or together affect the immune system of bees and consequently bee fitness. Poor nutrition is the key stressor as it directly suppresses the immune system and reduces host resistance to other stressors. To cope with these stresses, honey bees have well-developed individual and social immune systems which initiate several defence reactions, but its activation, maintenance and use are detrimental for bee survival as it occurs at the cost of bee health. This review summarizes the causal factors and their possible interaction responsible for immune suppression in honey bees.

Parole chiave

  • honey bee
  • immune suppression
  • interactions
  • nutrition
  • oxidative stress
  • stressors
access type Accesso libero

Nest Architecture and Nesting Site Preference of Tetragonula iridipennis Smith in North-Western Plains of India

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 49 - 59

Astratto

Abstract

Stingless bees constitute an important group of bee diversity providing a vital ecological service i.e. pollination. From India, nine species of stingless bees have been reported out of which Tetragonula iridipennis Smith is widely distributed. Studies revealed that the majority (86.67%) of these bees’ nests were present in brick walls and the remaining (13.33%) were in cavities of hollow tree trunks. Most of the colonies nested at a height of 3.50 m from the ground. Most of the nests (56.67%) had entrances oriented to the east. No distinct entrance tube was observed in 26.92 per cent of the colonies. Overall average entrance tube dimensions (longer side diameter × shorter side diameter × tube length) were 11.62 × 11.73 × 14.04 mm. In all the nests, brood area was surrounded by pollen pots and a few honey pots. The mean dimensions (depth × width) of brood cells, honey pots and pollen pots were 2.79 × 2.62 mm, 5.33 × 4.52 mm and 6.93 × 5.19 mm, respectively. All of the sixty colonies whether in brick/stone walls or in hollow tree trunks overwintered successfully. Our results can be useful for developing conservation measures for T. iridipennis and its augmentation for crop pollination.

Parole chiave

  • nest architecture
  • nesting site
  • stingless bee
access type Accesso libero

Location and Strength of Malvolio Expression in Chinese Honeybee Reveals Its Potential Role in Labor Division

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 61 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The malvolio (mvl) gene plays an important role in the transition from nursing to foraging in honeybees (Apis mellifera). Apis cerana cerana (A. c. cerana) is a subspecies of the eastern honeybee, well-known for its pollinator role throughout China. Although A. c. cerana shares many characteristics with A. mellifera, it is unclear whether Acmvl plays a similar role to Ammvl in foraging behavior. In this study, Acmvl expression was quantified during the transition from nursing to foraging in A. c. cerana. Acmvl protein production was also characterized in different tissues in bees from three behavioral groups. Finally, in situ hybridization was used to describe Acmvl expression patterns in forager bee brains. Acmvl expression was low early in life but then showed a major peak, which suggests its role in labor division. Examination of tissue type revealed that Acmvl expression was highest in the thoraxes of nurse bees and the heads of forager bees. In bee brains, Acmvl was selectively expressed in the somata of Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies, optic lobes and antennal lobes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Acmvl plays a role in the nurse–forager transition of A. c. cerana.

Parole chiave

  • aging
  • gene expression
  • location
  • protein expression
access type Accesso libero

Screening and Bioguided Fractionation of Mimosa pigra L. Bee Pollen with Antioxidant and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 71 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

Bee pollen, one of the economic bee products, is widely known as a nutritional food with many bioactivities that depend on many such factors as bee species, plant source and biogeography. For this study, bee pollen was collected from Apis mellifera, harvested from the flowers of mimosa (Mimosa pigra L.) in the Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The sample was extracted in methanol (MeOH) and then sequentially partitioned with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and MeOH in order to isolate compounds depending on their polarities. The obtained extracts were then tested for their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities through 1,1-diphyenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and for/through inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase extract, respectively. The DCM partitioned extract of mimosa flower bee pollen (DCMMBP) provided the highest antioxidant activity, with an effective concentration at 50% (EC50) of 192.1 μg/mL, and was further fractionated by silica gel 60 column chromatography and Sephadex LH20 size exclusion chromatography. All fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity and analyzed for the chemical structure through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The most active fraction (EC50 of 121.3 μg/mL) was a mixture of compounds, but the isolated flavonoid, naringenin, had a negligible antioxidant activity. In contrast, all three partitioned extracts and pooled fractions after silica gel 60 column chromatography provided no anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50 of > 500 μg/mL) and a very low percentage of tyrosinase inhibition (0–2.99 ± 3.18%), compared to kojic acid (IC50 of 8.58 μg/mL and tyrosinase inhibition of 74.2 ± 1.25%).

Parole chiave

  • bee pollen
  • chromatography
  • mimosa
  • naringenin
  • partitioned extract
access type Accesso libero

Pollination Studies on Both Floret and Capitulum Levels in an Oil Seed Crop, Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 85 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Niger, Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.), is an important oilseed crop widely grown in Ethiopia and India, but poor pollination is one of the major constraints in achieving the yield potential of the crop. Our aim was to understand better the pollination biology and role of flower insect visitors in reproduction success. Results indicated that full anthesis occured in the morning between 06.00 and 08.00 h and pollen dehiscence eight to eleven hours after anthesis. Stigma receptivity commenced nine hours after anthesis and lasted for the next 24 h. A total of eighteen insect species representing six families visited Niger flowers, and among these, Apis florea and A. cerana were dominant. The flowers were self-incompatible as there was no seed set upon the selfing of floret and selfing of capitulum. The maximum seed set (78.33±0.14%) was noticed when flowers were allowed for open pollination and the lowest was recorded when the whole plant was caged to exclude pollinator visits (0.33±0.67). The time spent by A. cerana and A. florea was 1.35±0.48 and 1.83±0.12 seconds per floret, respectively and 9.63±0.69 and 14.9±0.94 seconds per capitulum, respectively. A. cerana and A. florea were found to be more efficient pollinators of G. abyssinica. Introducing bee colonies might greatly improve the yield, and it is also important to conserve bees in the vicinity of G. abissynica fields during the flowering period. Hence, introducing bee colonies might greatly improve the yield of Niger.

Parole chiave

  • bees
  • foraging behaviour
  • florets
  • Niger
  • pollination
  • seed set
access type Accesso libero

Increased Caspase-3 Immunoexpression and Morphology Alterations in Oenocytes and Trophocytes of Apis mellifera Larvae Induced by Toxic Secretion of Epormenis cestri

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 101 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Toxic honeydew produced by Flatidae Epormenis cestri in Uruguay has been shown to cause among honeybees (Apis mellifera) colonies a massive larva death called “River disease”, but the intrinsic mechanisms are still unknown. Because fat body cells, oenocytes and trophocytes, are known to regulated larvae metabolism, and to be affected by xenobiotics, we tested whether apoptosis of these cells can be an underlying cause of larvae death. Ten colonies were divided into two groups and fed with common honey or toxic honeydew obtained from colonies affected by “River disease”. Five-dayold larvae were collected and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. The area, diameter, and immunostaining area in oenocytes and trophocytes were measured. The oenocyte and trophocyte cellular area decreased in the treated group (p=0.002; p<0.001 respectively) compared to the control group. The diameter of oenocytes (p=0.0002) and trophocytes (p<0.0001) decreased in the treated group. Caspase-3 was detected in cytoplasm in the control group but in the cytoplasm and nucleus in the treated group. The caspase-3 immunostaining area increased in oenocytes (p<0.002) and trophocytes (p<0.0001) of the treated group. The ingestion of toxic honeydew altered the morphology, localization and immunoexpression of caspase-3 in fat body cells, which suggests that the deregulation of the apoptotic mechanism affected the normal development in A. mellifera larvae.

Parole chiave

  • caspase-3
  • honeybee larvae
  • oenocytes
  • trophocytes
  • River disease
access type Accesso libero

Determination of Quality Characteristics, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Propolis from Southeastern Mexico

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 109 - 122

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of physicochemical parameters, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of propolis collected from different apiaries in southeastern Mexico. A high variability was found in the moisture content (1.96–8.26%), ash (0.66–5.50%) and sensory characteristics of raw propolis from southeastern Mexico, but the raw propolis samples met the requirements of the quality regulations. In the same way, most of the ethanolic extracts also complied with the quality regulations. Of all the extracts, PE2 obtained from Santa Cruz showed the highest values for dry extract, content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS). The content of the individual phenolic compounds varied according to the geographical location of the apiary, but the PE2 extract resulted in the highest pinocembrin and chrysin content. A positive correlation was obtained between TPC and TF with antioxidant activity. Propolis extracts were classified into two groups through principal component analysis (PCA). These results indicate that the apiary location in southeastern Mexico influenced the characteristics of propolis.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolic compounds
  • propolis
  • quality
access type Accesso libero

Reproduction and Accompanying Fauna of Red Mason Bee Osmia rufa L. (syn. Osmia bicornis L.) in Areas with Different Levels of Urbanization

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 123 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

An increasing number of studies show that urbanized areas are habitats of high biological value and ecological significance. Most bee species live in areas altered by man, either in cities - fragmented urban habitats - or in large rural monocultures. Our research is based on three-year observations of population development of the solitary bee Osmia rufa L. in three habitat types: city, suburbs and villages. We compared reproductive parameters and diversity of accompanying nest fauna. Population growth rate was high in all habitats, exceeding five times the number of cocoons placed in the previous year. We found no significant differences in the number of cocoons and brood mortality between areas with different urbanization levels. In nests located in suburbs, parasites and cleptoparasites occupied almost three times more nest chambers than in other habitats. Changes in the habitat structure had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance of accompanying fauna. Our study shows that red mason bees are flexible and easily adapt to new conditions, despite changes caused by urbanization and agriculture.

Parole chiave

  • accompanying and parasitic fauna
  • agriculture areas
  • red mason bee
  • urban areas
access type Accesso libero

Monthly Changes in Honey Bee Forewings Estimated Using Geometric Morphometrics

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 139 - 146

Astratto

Abstract

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) wing measurements are often used to discriminate lineages and subspecies. The precision and repeatability of the measurements depends on various factors, including seasonal variation, and differences between left and right wings. The seasonal variation of the cubital index, which is the proportion of two vein lengths, has been investigated, but subspecies can be identified through geometric morphometrics. This method allows both wing size and shape to be determined and analyzed separately. We studied changes in the wing size and shape in consecutive months between June and September as well as the differences between the left and right wings. We found that wing size differed significantly among colonies, months and body sides, but shape differed significantly only among colonies and months but not among body sides. There was also a complicated pattern of interactions between various factors. The seasonal differences in wing shape were much smaller than the differences among colonies and their influence on identification of honey bee lineages was relatively small.

Parole chiave

  • forewing
  • geometric morphometrics
  • shape
  • size
access type Accesso libero

First Record of Ascosphaera apis Isolated from Commercial Pollen from Northern Argentinian Provinces

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 147 - 161

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, increased deforestation and replacement of areas intended for intensive cultivation have caused pathogens and parasites of Apis mellifera bees to emerge in regions where they had not previously been reported. Such is the case of the advancement of Ascosphaera apis, a fungus that causes a drop in colonies’ bee larvae population and great economic losses to beekeeping activity during severe cases. In northern Argentina, few studies have focused on this important entomopathogen. This is the first study on A. apis isolated from commercial pollen in Entre Ríos, Jujuy, and Misiones provinces, where its prevalence in bee colonies has not been reported. We identified this entomopathogen using macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular analyses, focusing on its botanical origin as a possible transmission route. We found the pathogenicity of each strain in A. mellifera bees to below 30%. The results of this study contribute to the promotion of sanitary measures that may reduce this disease’s progression in local apiaries.

Parole chiave

  • chalk brood
  • pathogenicity
  • pollen
access type Accesso libero

Application of Herbal Essential Oil Extract Mixture for Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) Against Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 163 - 175

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, interest in herbal essential oil extracts for the treatment of nosemosis has steadily increased. The great importance of this study is in evaluating and validating the synergistic effect caused by the mixture of different herbal extracts. The aim of the study was to investigate through cage experiments and field studies the effect of mixed herbal essential oil extracts and to determine the most suitable application methods and doses of the product in the treatment of nosemosis. The duration of the experiments was three weeks. Results show that the herbal essential oil extract mixture (HEOEM) is effective on both Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and on the two together (mixed infection). With respect to application methods, the results revealed that the most suitable method is spraying HEOEM with sterilized distilled water on adult bees and on both sides of frames; 500 µL per cage and 2,000 µL per frame were found to be effective doses of HEOEM in the experimental cages and hives. HEOEM can be a viable alternative to synthetic products in the immediate future as the contents are natural and have no toxic effect on honey bees.

Parole chiave

  • application method
  • cage experiment
  • field study
  • herbal extract
  • honey bee
  • Nosemosis,
access type Accesso libero

First Evidence of Presence of Varroa underwoodi Mites on Native Apis cerana Colonies in Primorsky Territory of Russia Based on COX1 Gene

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 177 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

The species of genus Varroa mites parasitize on the honey bees of genus Apis. Unlike the well-studied V. destructor and V. jacobsoni mites, V. underwoodi remain less known. According to English language publications, the proven V. underwoodi distribution area of A. cerana colonies covers Nepal, South Korea, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam and China, but not Russia even though it had been described morphometrically in Russian language publications in Russia's Primorsky Territory. According to Vavilov's law (1920) of a homologous series, all the species of V. underwoodi, V. destructor and V. jacobsoni have the ability to spill over onto new hosts. Thus, V. underwoodi is a potential parasite of A. mellifera that should be carefully studied. In this study, V. underwoodi mites in colonies of honey bee subspecies A. c. ussuriensis native to Russia's Primorsky Territory are first proven using both morphometry and mitochondrial COX1 gene sequencing. The genetic divergence and p-distances between V. underwoodi and other Varroa species ranged from 7 to 10% and from 0.072 to 0.099, respectively, which matched the intraspecific level of differences. Two identical northernmost V. underwoodi samples from Russia's Primorsky Territory and China's Jilin province with GenBank accession number MH205176 were assigned as COX1 haplotype China 1 MH205176. The first discovery of V. underwoodi in the Primorsky Territory in northern Asia outlined the northern border of its range.

Parole chiave

  • gene
  • haplotype
  • Primorsky Territory of Russia
  • range
access type Accesso libero

Varroacide Effectiveness of Polyvar Yellow® (Flumethrin 275 mg) Preparation

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 189 - 193

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to check the effectiveness of the varroacide veterinary product called PolyVar Yellow® (flumethrin 275 mg) in field conditions in the area of north-eastern Poland. The experiment was carried out on twenty bee colonies, of which in ten (group PY) were tested with the veterinary product and the remaining ten constituted a control group without anti-varroosis treatment (group C). Treatment began in mid-August and lasted until the end of October when bee flights ceased. A control treatment was then conducted with a 3.2% oxalic acid solution. The effectiveness of Varroacide of PolyVar Yellow® was estimated on the basis of the parasite falls on the Varroa sticky inserts and based on the infestation rate of bees with the parasite before and after the treatment. High varroacide effectiveness of the preparation was obtained at 97%. The tested veterinary product was shown to protect effectively bee colonies against reinvasion of Varroa destructor mites.

Parole chiave

  • honeybees
  • PolyVar Yellow
  • varroacide effectiveness
14 Articoli
access type Accesso libero

Antifungal Activities of Propolis and its Main Components with an Emphasis Against Phytopathogenic Fungi

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 5 - 24

Astratto

Abstract

Propolis is produced by honey bees from a series of resinous, gummy and balsamic substances collected from the leaf buds of different tree species and mixed with their secretions. It is used as a sealant and antiseptic in the hive. Because of its antimicrobial properties, propolis has become a popular alternative medicine or food for health protection and disease prevention. The presence of a large number of flavonoids, aromatic acids and phenolic compounds has been suggested to be responsible for most biological and pharmacological activities of propolis. This review aims to provide a critical analysis of the different studies which evaluate the activity of propolis against fungi and to identify the chemical components responsible for such activity. The discussion of the methodological approaches used and the issued results is a key point of this review to highlight knowledge gaps. This review will first describe the chemical composition of the propolis and the factors of variability including geographical and botanical origins and then examine its antifungal activities with a focus against phytopathogenic fungi. Finally, it will discuss the main components responsible for such activities and their mechanism of action.

Parole chiave

  • bee propolis
  • biomarkers
  • food preservation
  • mechanism of action
  • phytopathogenic fungi
access type Accesso libero

Factors Affecting Immune Responses in Honey Bees: An Insight

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 25 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

Honey bees pollinate various crops and wild plants which ensures food security. However, in this modern world, bees are suffering. Decreasing global domesticated and wild bee populations while the demand for agricultural pollination services is increasing is a matter of concern. Colony losses are driven by such factors or interactions as changing environmental conditions, exposure to agrochemicals, parasite and pathogens attack and decreased flower abundance and diversity. All these stresses individually or together affect the immune system of bees and consequently bee fitness. Poor nutrition is the key stressor as it directly suppresses the immune system and reduces host resistance to other stressors. To cope with these stresses, honey bees have well-developed individual and social immune systems which initiate several defence reactions, but its activation, maintenance and use are detrimental for bee survival as it occurs at the cost of bee health. This review summarizes the causal factors and their possible interaction responsible for immune suppression in honey bees.

Parole chiave

  • honey bee
  • immune suppression
  • interactions
  • nutrition
  • oxidative stress
  • stressors
access type Accesso libero

Nest Architecture and Nesting Site Preference of Tetragonula iridipennis Smith in North-Western Plains of India

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 49 - 59

Astratto

Abstract

Stingless bees constitute an important group of bee diversity providing a vital ecological service i.e. pollination. From India, nine species of stingless bees have been reported out of which Tetragonula iridipennis Smith is widely distributed. Studies revealed that the majority (86.67%) of these bees’ nests were present in brick walls and the remaining (13.33%) were in cavities of hollow tree trunks. Most of the colonies nested at a height of 3.50 m from the ground. Most of the nests (56.67%) had entrances oriented to the east. No distinct entrance tube was observed in 26.92 per cent of the colonies. Overall average entrance tube dimensions (longer side diameter × shorter side diameter × tube length) were 11.62 × 11.73 × 14.04 mm. In all the nests, brood area was surrounded by pollen pots and a few honey pots. The mean dimensions (depth × width) of brood cells, honey pots and pollen pots were 2.79 × 2.62 mm, 5.33 × 4.52 mm and 6.93 × 5.19 mm, respectively. All of the sixty colonies whether in brick/stone walls or in hollow tree trunks overwintered successfully. Our results can be useful for developing conservation measures for T. iridipennis and its augmentation for crop pollination.

Parole chiave

  • nest architecture
  • nesting site
  • stingless bee
access type Accesso libero

Location and Strength of Malvolio Expression in Chinese Honeybee Reveals Its Potential Role in Labor Division

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 61 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The malvolio (mvl) gene plays an important role in the transition from nursing to foraging in honeybees (Apis mellifera). Apis cerana cerana (A. c. cerana) is a subspecies of the eastern honeybee, well-known for its pollinator role throughout China. Although A. c. cerana shares many characteristics with A. mellifera, it is unclear whether Acmvl plays a similar role to Ammvl in foraging behavior. In this study, Acmvl expression was quantified during the transition from nursing to foraging in A. c. cerana. Acmvl protein production was also characterized in different tissues in bees from three behavioral groups. Finally, in situ hybridization was used to describe Acmvl expression patterns in forager bee brains. Acmvl expression was low early in life but then showed a major peak, which suggests its role in labor division. Examination of tissue type revealed that Acmvl expression was highest in the thoraxes of nurse bees and the heads of forager bees. In bee brains, Acmvl was selectively expressed in the somata of Kenyon cells in the mushroom bodies, optic lobes and antennal lobes. Taken together, these findings suggest that Acmvl plays a role in the nurse–forager transition of A. c. cerana.

Parole chiave

  • aging
  • gene expression
  • location
  • protein expression
access type Accesso libero

Screening and Bioguided Fractionation of Mimosa pigra L. Bee Pollen with Antioxidant and Anti-Tyrosinase Activities

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 71 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

Bee pollen, one of the economic bee products, is widely known as a nutritional food with many bioactivities that depend on many such factors as bee species, plant source and biogeography. For this study, bee pollen was collected from Apis mellifera, harvested from the flowers of mimosa (Mimosa pigra L.) in the Chiang Mai province, Thailand. The sample was extracted in methanol (MeOH) and then sequentially partitioned with hexane, dichloromethane (DCM) and MeOH in order to isolate compounds depending on their polarities. The obtained extracts were then tested for their antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activities through 1,1-diphyenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and for/through inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase extract, respectively. The DCM partitioned extract of mimosa flower bee pollen (DCMMBP) provided the highest antioxidant activity, with an effective concentration at 50% (EC50) of 192.1 μg/mL, and was further fractionated by silica gel 60 column chromatography and Sephadex LH20 size exclusion chromatography. All fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity and analyzed for the chemical structure through nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The most active fraction (EC50 of 121.3 μg/mL) was a mixture of compounds, but the isolated flavonoid, naringenin, had a negligible antioxidant activity. In contrast, all three partitioned extracts and pooled fractions after silica gel 60 column chromatography provided no anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50 of > 500 μg/mL) and a very low percentage of tyrosinase inhibition (0–2.99 ± 3.18%), compared to kojic acid (IC50 of 8.58 μg/mL and tyrosinase inhibition of 74.2 ± 1.25%).

Parole chiave

  • bee pollen
  • chromatography
  • mimosa
  • naringenin
  • partitioned extract
access type Accesso libero

Pollination Studies on Both Floret and Capitulum Levels in an Oil Seed Crop, Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.) Cass.

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 85 - 99

Astratto

Abstract

Niger, Guizotia abyssinica (L.f.), is an important oilseed crop widely grown in Ethiopia and India, but poor pollination is one of the major constraints in achieving the yield potential of the crop. Our aim was to understand better the pollination biology and role of flower insect visitors in reproduction success. Results indicated that full anthesis occured in the morning between 06.00 and 08.00 h and pollen dehiscence eight to eleven hours after anthesis. Stigma receptivity commenced nine hours after anthesis and lasted for the next 24 h. A total of eighteen insect species representing six families visited Niger flowers, and among these, Apis florea and A. cerana were dominant. The flowers were self-incompatible as there was no seed set upon the selfing of floret and selfing of capitulum. The maximum seed set (78.33±0.14%) was noticed when flowers were allowed for open pollination and the lowest was recorded when the whole plant was caged to exclude pollinator visits (0.33±0.67). The time spent by A. cerana and A. florea was 1.35±0.48 and 1.83±0.12 seconds per floret, respectively and 9.63±0.69 and 14.9±0.94 seconds per capitulum, respectively. A. cerana and A. florea were found to be more efficient pollinators of G. abyssinica. Introducing bee colonies might greatly improve the yield, and it is also important to conserve bees in the vicinity of G. abissynica fields during the flowering period. Hence, introducing bee colonies might greatly improve the yield of Niger.

Parole chiave

  • bees
  • foraging behaviour
  • florets
  • Niger
  • pollination
  • seed set
access type Accesso libero

Increased Caspase-3 Immunoexpression and Morphology Alterations in Oenocytes and Trophocytes of Apis mellifera Larvae Induced by Toxic Secretion of Epormenis cestri

Pubblicato online: 26 Apr 2021
Pagine: 101 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Toxic honeydew produced by Flatidae Epormenis cestri in Uruguay has been shown to cause among honeybees (Apis mellifera) colonies a massive larva death called “River disease”, but the intrinsic mechanisms are still unknown. Because fat body cells, oenocytes and trophocytes, are known to regulated larvae metabolism, and to be affected by xenobiotics, we tested whether apoptosis of these cells can be an underlying cause of larvae death. Ten colonies were divided into two groups and fed with common honey or toxic honeydew obtained from colonies affected by “River disease”. Five-dayold larvae were collected and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry for caspase-3. The area, diameter, and immunostaining area in oenocytes and trophocytes were measured. The oenocyte and trophocyte cellular area decreased in the treated group (p=0.002; p<0.001 respectively) compared to the control group. The diameter of oenocytes (p=0.0002) and trophocytes (p<0.0001) decreased in the treated group. Caspase-3 was detected in cytoplasm in the control group but in the cytoplasm and nucleus in the treated group. The caspase-3 immunostaining area increased in oenocytes (p<0.002) and trophocytes (p<0.0001) of the treated group. The ingestion of toxic honeydew altered the morphology, localization and immunoexpression of caspase-3 in fat body cells, which suggests that the deregulation of the apoptotic mechanism affected the normal development in A. mellifera larvae.

Parole chiave

  • caspase-3
  • honeybee larvae
  • oenocytes
  • trophocytes
  • River disease
access type Accesso libero

Determination of Quality Characteristics, Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Propolis from Southeastern Mexico

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 109 - 122

Astratto

Abstract

The objective of this work was to investigate the variability of physicochemical parameters, phenolic compounds and in vitro antioxidant activity of propolis collected from different apiaries in southeastern Mexico. A high variability was found in the moisture content (1.96–8.26%), ash (0.66–5.50%) and sensory characteristics of raw propolis from southeastern Mexico, but the raw propolis samples met the requirements of the quality regulations. In the same way, most of the ethanolic extracts also complied with the quality regulations. Of all the extracts, PE2 obtained from Santa Cruz showed the highest values for dry extract, content of total phenolic compounds (TPC), total flavonoids (TF) and antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS). The content of the individual phenolic compounds varied according to the geographical location of the apiary, but the PE2 extract resulted in the highest pinocembrin and chrysin content. A positive correlation was obtained between TPC and TF with antioxidant activity. Propolis extracts were classified into two groups through principal component analysis (PCA). These results indicate that the apiary location in southeastern Mexico influenced the characteristics of propolis.

Parole chiave

  • antioxidant activity
  • phenolic compounds
  • propolis
  • quality
access type Accesso libero

Reproduction and Accompanying Fauna of Red Mason Bee Osmia rufa L. (syn. Osmia bicornis L.) in Areas with Different Levels of Urbanization

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 123 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

An increasing number of studies show that urbanized areas are habitats of high biological value and ecological significance. Most bee species live in areas altered by man, either in cities - fragmented urban habitats - or in large rural monocultures. Our research is based on three-year observations of population development of the solitary bee Osmia rufa L. in three habitat types: city, suburbs and villages. We compared reproductive parameters and diversity of accompanying nest fauna. Population growth rate was high in all habitats, exceeding five times the number of cocoons placed in the previous year. We found no significant differences in the number of cocoons and brood mortality between areas with different urbanization levels. In nests located in suburbs, parasites and cleptoparasites occupied almost three times more nest chambers than in other habitats. Changes in the habitat structure had a significant impact on the diversity and abundance of accompanying fauna. Our study shows that red mason bees are flexible and easily adapt to new conditions, despite changes caused by urbanization and agriculture.

Parole chiave

  • accompanying and parasitic fauna
  • agriculture areas
  • red mason bee
  • urban areas
access type Accesso libero

Monthly Changes in Honey Bee Forewings Estimated Using Geometric Morphometrics

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: 139 - 146

Astratto

Abstract

Honey bee (Apis mellifera) wing measurements are often used to discriminate lineages and subspecies. The precision and repeatability of the measurements depends on various factors, including seasonal variation, and differences between left and right wings. The seasonal variation of the cubital index, which is the proportion of two vein lengths, has been investigated, but subspecies can be identified through geometric morphometrics. This method allows both wing size and shape to be determined and analyzed separately. We studied changes in the wing size and shape in consecutive months between June and September as well as the differences between the left and right wings. We found that wing size differed significantly among colonies, months and body sides, but shape differed significantly only among colonies and months but not among body sides. There was also a complicated pattern of interactions between various factors. The seasonal differences in wing shape were much smaller than the differences among colonies and their influence on identification of honey bee lineages was relatively small.

Parole chiave

  • forewing
  • geometric morphometrics
  • shape
  • size
access type Accesso libero

First Record of Ascosphaera apis Isolated from Commercial Pollen from Northern Argentinian Provinces

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 147 - 161

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, increased deforestation and replacement of areas intended for intensive cultivation have caused pathogens and parasites of Apis mellifera bees to emerge in regions where they had not previously been reported. Such is the case of the advancement of Ascosphaera apis, a fungus that causes a drop in colonies’ bee larvae population and great economic losses to beekeeping activity during severe cases. In northern Argentina, few studies have focused on this important entomopathogen. This is the first study on A. apis isolated from commercial pollen in Entre Ríos, Jujuy, and Misiones provinces, where its prevalence in bee colonies has not been reported. We identified this entomopathogen using macroscopic, microscopic, and molecular analyses, focusing on its botanical origin as a possible transmission route. We found the pathogenicity of each strain in A. mellifera bees to below 30%. The results of this study contribute to the promotion of sanitary measures that may reduce this disease’s progression in local apiaries.

Parole chiave

  • chalk brood
  • pathogenicity
  • pollen
access type Accesso libero

Application of Herbal Essential Oil Extract Mixture for Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.) Against Nosema ceranae and Nosema apis

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 163 - 175

Astratto

Abstract

In recent years, interest in herbal essential oil extracts for the treatment of nosemosis has steadily increased. The great importance of this study is in evaluating and validating the synergistic effect caused by the mixture of different herbal extracts. The aim of the study was to investigate through cage experiments and field studies the effect of mixed herbal essential oil extracts and to determine the most suitable application methods and doses of the product in the treatment of nosemosis. The duration of the experiments was three weeks. Results show that the herbal essential oil extract mixture (HEOEM) is effective on both Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae, and on the two together (mixed infection). With respect to application methods, the results revealed that the most suitable method is spraying HEOEM with sterilized distilled water on adult bees and on both sides of frames; 500 µL per cage and 2,000 µL per frame were found to be effective doses of HEOEM in the experimental cages and hives. HEOEM can be a viable alternative to synthetic products in the immediate future as the contents are natural and have no toxic effect on honey bees.

Parole chiave

  • application method
  • cage experiment
  • field study
  • herbal extract
  • honey bee
  • Nosemosis,
access type Accesso libero

First Evidence of Presence of Varroa underwoodi Mites on Native Apis cerana Colonies in Primorsky Territory of Russia Based on COX1 Gene

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 177 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

The species of genus Varroa mites parasitize on the honey bees of genus Apis. Unlike the well-studied V. destructor and V. jacobsoni mites, V. underwoodi remain less known. According to English language publications, the proven V. underwoodi distribution area of A. cerana colonies covers Nepal, South Korea, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Vietnam and China, but not Russia even though it had been described morphometrically in Russian language publications in Russia's Primorsky Territory. According to Vavilov's law (1920) of a homologous series, all the species of V. underwoodi, V. destructor and V. jacobsoni have the ability to spill over onto new hosts. Thus, V. underwoodi is a potential parasite of A. mellifera that should be carefully studied. In this study, V. underwoodi mites in colonies of honey bee subspecies A. c. ussuriensis native to Russia's Primorsky Territory are first proven using both morphometry and mitochondrial COX1 gene sequencing. The genetic divergence and p-distances between V. underwoodi and other Varroa species ranged from 7 to 10% and from 0.072 to 0.099, respectively, which matched the intraspecific level of differences. Two identical northernmost V. underwoodi samples from Russia's Primorsky Territory and China's Jilin province with GenBank accession number MH205176 were assigned as COX1 haplotype China 1 MH205176. The first discovery of V. underwoodi in the Primorsky Territory in northern Asia outlined the northern border of its range.

Parole chiave

  • gene
  • haplotype
  • Primorsky Territory of Russia
  • range
access type Accesso libero

Varroacide Effectiveness of Polyvar Yellow® (Flumethrin 275 mg) Preparation

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 189 - 193

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the experiment was to check the effectiveness of the varroacide veterinary product called PolyVar Yellow® (flumethrin 275 mg) in field conditions in the area of north-eastern Poland. The experiment was carried out on twenty bee colonies, of which in ten (group PY) were tested with the veterinary product and the remaining ten constituted a control group without anti-varroosis treatment (group C). Treatment began in mid-August and lasted until the end of October when bee flights ceased. A control treatment was then conducted with a 3.2% oxalic acid solution. The effectiveness of Varroacide of PolyVar Yellow® was estimated on the basis of the parasite falls on the Varroa sticky inserts and based on the infestation rate of bees with the parasite before and after the treatment. High varroacide effectiveness of the preparation was obtained at 97%. The tested veterinary product was shown to protect effectively bee colonies against reinvasion of Varroa destructor mites.

Parole chiave

  • honeybees
  • PolyVar Yellow
  • varroacide effectiveness

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo