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Volume 64 (2020): Edizione 1 (June 2020)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 63 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Volume 62 (2018): Edizione 1 (June 2018)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 2 (December 2017)

Volume 61 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 2 (December 2016)

Volume 60 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 2 (December 2015)

Volume 59 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 2 (December 2013)

Volume 57 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 56 (2012): Edizione 1 (June 2012)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 58 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2299-4831
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2012
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Influence of the Collection Season on Production, Size, and Chemical Composition of Bee Pollen Produced by Apis Mellifera L.

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 5 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate how the collection period affects and influences the production, chemical composition, and size of bee pollen loads (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, greater than 2.0 mm). The results showed there was a predominance of pollen loads with a diameter greater than 2.0 mm in all the production seasons. For all the seasons, there were no differences in protein content between the particle sizes. But when comparing 0.5 mm during the different periods, there were significant differences; the highest value was found during the winter (24.39 ± 3.7%). As far as lipids and crude fiber are concerned, we obtained differences between the same granulometry sizes for the spring and summer seasons. As for ashes, the results showed differences between different particle sizes for the summer and autumn seasons. Our results have shown that regardless of pollen particle size, its quality was not altered, suggesting that smaller loads can be commercially used by containing nutritional quality or else be used by beekeepers as a supplement during periods of food scarcity.

Parole chiave

  • bee pollen
  • chemical composition
  • pollen particle size
  • protein content
  • seasonal variation
Accesso libero

Pollen Foraging by Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.) in Greece: Botanical and Geographical Origin

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 11 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

Pollen is very important for honey bee colony development and nutrition. It is also a valuable product for human consumption, considered to have high nutritional value. In this study, we performed melissopalynological analysis of 285 pollen load samples collected from 44 apiaries throughout Greece. The analysis revealed 229 plant taxa represented in total. The abundance of each pollen type varied among the geographical areas from which the samples were collected. We also observed variation among samples collected from the same geographical region. The most frequently found families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. The most frequently observed taxa were Brassicaceae, Carduus type, Cistus and Papaver rhoeas. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical classification of pollen samples among northern, central and southern Greece is possible.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera
  • botanical origin
  • geographical origin
  • Greece
  • melissopalynology
  • pollen
Accesso libero

Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 25 - 31

Astratto

Abstract

The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ). Alternative splicing (AS) is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

Parole chiave

  • alternative splicing
  • honey bee
  • royal jelly
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle
Accesso libero

Injuries of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera Carnica) Stored in Own and Stranger Queenright Colonies

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 33 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

This research was conducted in 2008 and 2010 in the experimental apiary of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Worker bees were stored in transport cages in their own colonies and stranger colonies. The number of injuries and the death rate were checked twice, after 3 and 7 days of storage. In total, 6720 bees were examined (3360 workers from their own colonies and the same number from stranger colonies). The number of injured and dead workers had an exponential distribution (skewness>1). The worker bees sustained significantly more leg injuries (missing leg segments - 92 - 96%) than injuries of arolia (13 - 15%), wings (1 - 7%) or antennae (1 - 2). Worker bees stored in stranger colonies were injured significantly more frequently than worker bees stored in their own colonies. A significantly greater number of bees died in stranger colonies than in own colonies. The fact that bees stored in own colonies were injured proves that, even if they have the same smell, bees kept in cages provoke aggressive behavior from bees belonging to the banking colony.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera carnica
  • cage
  • injuries
  • mortality
  • storage
  • worker bees
Accesso libero

Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F.) Incubators

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 41 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.). Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a manually operated pump or diffusion collection had insufficient sensitivity in the concentration range of interest. Air samples collected using battery powered pumps were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which was accurate and sensitive, but too costly and slow for practical use. Finally, a convenient bioassay for detecting dichlorvos in air was developed using leafcutting bees and verified by comparison with the results obtained by LC/MS/MS for a series of dose levels. The bioassay is simple enough to be done by the beekeeper on-site, is inexpensive, and gives results within 1 h. The LC50 for dichlorvos vapor in air after 1 h of exposure was 273.2 μg/m3 by the probit regression method or 277.3 μg/m3 by the logit regression method.

Parole chiave

  • bioassay
  • dichlorvos
  • LC50
  • Megachile rotundata
  • Pteromalus venustus
Accesso libero

Ornamental Representatives of the Genus Centaurea L. as a Pollen Source for Bee Friendly Gardens

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 49 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

The flowering phenology and pollen production of three ornamental Centaurea species were investigated in the years 2009 and 2012-2013. The study objects, Centaurea montana L. = Cyanus montanus (L.) Hill, Centaurea mollis Waldst & Kit, and Centaurea dealbata Willd. were cultivated within an area of the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland (51° 14’ N, 22° 34’ E). Under the environmental conditions of SE Poland, the Centaurea species flowered continuously from mid-May to the first week of June. The mass of pollen in anthers was found to be species-related: 3.70 mg (C. montana), 4.02 mg (C. mollis), and 6.01 mg (C. dealbata) per 100 anthers. The total pollen yield was related to the mass of pollen produced in flowers and the abundance of blooming. Pollen grains were medium-sized, spheroid (C. dealbata) or prolato-spheroid (C. mollis and C. montana) in shape, and characterized by high viability (over 80% on average). The pollen provided by the plants of ornamental Centaurea species amounted to 6.0 - 7.9 g per m2 on average. The honeybee was the most frequent visitor of C. dealbata, accounting for 55.2% of the total pollinators, and bumblebee species predominated on the flowers of both C. montana (77.7%) and C. mollis (85.6%). Solitary bees and dipterans were also observed on the flowers of all species studied, but C. mollis was avoided by lepidopterans. Ornamental Centaurea species provide pollen reserves that could support communities of invertebrate pollinators, although the period of effective supply fluctuates annually due to changeable periods of blooming.

Parole chiave

  • bee pasture
  • Centaurea dealbata
  • Centaurea mollis
  • Centaurea montana
  • insect visitors
  • pollen production
Accesso libero

Hypopharyngeal Gland Activity in Task-Specific Workers Under Brood and Broodless Conditions in Apis Cerana Indica (Fab.)

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 59 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) is the principal organ of protein synthesis in honey bees. It is involved in larval rearing. We examined the fresh head weight, HPG acini diameter, and HPG protein content in worker bees engaged in different tasks and under brood and broodless conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the HPG acini diameter of worker bees was related to their task. The highest HPG volume was found in nurse bees, and the volume regressed when the task changed from guarding to foraging. The fresh head weight was positively correlated with HPG acini diameter. Although, there was no positive correlation between HPG acini diameter and protein concentration, the glandular protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees and declined in guard and forager bees. Histochemistry revealed similar results. Despite displaying significantly larger glands, guard bee protein secretion was similar to that of the foragers. Brooding had a significant effect on HPG activity. Only worker bees from the colony with an intact brood showed elevated rates of protein synthesis; thus, it is possible that a signal was emitted by the brood, which stimulated protein synthesis in the HPG. However, the size of the HPG was similar in both brood and broodless conditions.

Parole chiave

  • Apis cerana indica
  • brood
  • broodless
  • hypopharyngeal gland
  • hypopharyngeal gland activity
Accesso libero

Potential Use of Buddleja Thyrsoides for the Control and Prevention of American Foulbrood Disease in Honey Bees

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 71 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB ), a severe disease that affects the larvae of the honeybees. The use of plant extracts are considered to be an alternative way of controlling the disease. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. against the Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae, was evaluated. In Mueller-Hinton broth, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MI C) was assessed using the microdilution method. All Paenibacillus species were sensitive to the crude extract and the fractions of B. thyrsoides. The ethyl acetate (EA ) fraction showed a better result with MI C values of 1.68 - 3.36 mg/mL, followed by butanolic (BU) (MI C = 2.18 - 6.54 mg/mL), dichloromethane (DCM) (7.40 - 14.80 mg/mL), and crude extract (CE) (7.51 - 16.90 mg/mL). The toxic effect of the CE and fractions of B. thyrsoides against bees were also evaluated using the spraying application method with the same concentrations of MI Cs. Bee mortality was evident in treatment with DCM fractions only, while CE, EA , and BU extracts showed no toxic effects after 15 days of observation. Furthermore, phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids were identified and quantified by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial properties observed. These results show, for the first time, that B. thyrsoides might be a natural alternative for the prevention/control of AFB .

Parole chiave

  • Antibacterial activity
  • bee survival
  • Buddleja thyrsoides
  • HPLC
  • Paenibacillus larvae
Accesso libero

Botanical Origin of the Brazilian Red Propolis: a New Approach Using DNA analysis

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 79 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

Propolis is produced by the honeybees by using resin and other plant secretions. Propolis from different geographical regions have different chemical compositions. This is because the chemical constituents of propolis depend on the vegetation surrounding the apiary. In this report we present a new approach using DNA barcoding for the identification of the botanical origin of propolis. Red propolis samples were collected at different times of the year from the state of Sergipe situated in Northeast Brazil. Extraction of the DNA from propolis was made using a CTA B method. Amplification was done using ITS 2 universal primers, followed by DNA sequencing. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of Dalbergia ecastaphyllum in the Brazilian red propolis. Formononetin is a chemical marker for the Brazillian red propolis and D. ecastaphyllum. Propolis samples analysed by DNA sequencing, were also checked by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography for the presence of formononetin. Peaks corresponding to formononetin were observed in all the analysed propolis samples. This is the first report of the botanical origin of propolis using DNA technology.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera
  • Brazilian red propolis
  • DNA
  • formononetin
  • molecular approach
  • plant source
Accesso libero

Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 87 - 97

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.

Parole chiave

  • genetic diversity
  • honey yield
  • instrumental insemination
  • polyandry
  • wintering
Accesso libero

Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 99 - 106

Astratto

Abstract

The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identified in virgin beeswax and beeswax collected from brood combs. However, the studies showed differences in the content of n-alkanes in the beeswax obtained from light and dark coloured combs. In comparison to the virgin beeswax, the beeswax obtained from dark combs had higher content of the total n-alkanes, higher total contents of even-numbered alkanes and odd-numbered alkanes, and higher contents of certain alkanes. Furthermore, it has been found that the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax did not depend on the collection period.

Parole chiave

  • Apis melifera
  • beeswax
  • dark combs
  • hydrocarbons
  • light combs
  • n-alkanes
Accesso libero

A Comparative Study of Environmental Conditions, Bee Management and the Epidemiological Situation in Apiaries Varying in the Level of Colony Losses

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 107 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Explaining the reasons for the increased mortality of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in recent years, in Europe and North America, has become a global research priority in apicultural science. Our project was aimed at determining the relationship between environmental conditions, beekeeping techniques, the epidemiological situation of pathogens, and the mortality rate of bee colonies. Dead bee samples were collected by beekeepers from 2421 colonies. The samples were examined for the presence of V. destructor, Nosema spp. (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV).

Among the environmental and colony management factors under analysis, significant differences between apiaries with high (>10%), low (≤10%) or no losses of the colonies were only found in the case of the methods used by beekeepers to combat varroa mites. However, the epidemiological patterns in the case of V. destructor infestation and the DWV and ABPV infections highly differed. The data we obtained indicated that co-infections play a decisive role in the etiology of the significant collapse of colonies in apiaries in Poland. The main reason for this phenomenon can be described as strong infestation with V. destructor, followed by an intensive development of viral infections caused by DWV and (much less frequently) by ABPV. Despite a high prevalence of Nosema spp. microsporidia (with a dominant incidence of N. ceranae), a direct relationship between these parasites and the mortality rate of colonies was not proved.

Parole chiave

  • beekeeping management
  • colony collapse
  • environmental conditions
  • Nosema spp.
  • Varroa destructor
  • viruses
12 Articoli
Accesso libero

Influence of the Collection Season on Production, Size, and Chemical Composition of Bee Pollen Produced by Apis Mellifera L.

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 5 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of our study was to investigate how the collection period affects and influences the production, chemical composition, and size of bee pollen loads (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, greater than 2.0 mm). The results showed there was a predominance of pollen loads with a diameter greater than 2.0 mm in all the production seasons. For all the seasons, there were no differences in protein content between the particle sizes. But when comparing 0.5 mm during the different periods, there were significant differences; the highest value was found during the winter (24.39 ± 3.7%). As far as lipids and crude fiber are concerned, we obtained differences between the same granulometry sizes for the spring and summer seasons. As for ashes, the results showed differences between different particle sizes for the summer and autumn seasons. Our results have shown that regardless of pollen particle size, its quality was not altered, suggesting that smaller loads can be commercially used by containing nutritional quality or else be used by beekeepers as a supplement during periods of food scarcity.

Parole chiave

  • bee pollen
  • chemical composition
  • pollen particle size
  • protein content
  • seasonal variation
Accesso libero

Pollen Foraging by Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera L.) in Greece: Botanical and Geographical Origin

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 11 - 23

Astratto

Abstract

Pollen is very important for honey bee colony development and nutrition. It is also a valuable product for human consumption, considered to have high nutritional value. In this study, we performed melissopalynological analysis of 285 pollen load samples collected from 44 apiaries throughout Greece. The analysis revealed 229 plant taxa represented in total. The abundance of each pollen type varied among the geographical areas from which the samples were collected. We also observed variation among samples collected from the same geographical region. The most frequently found families were Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Rosaceae. The most frequently observed taxa were Brassicaceae, Carduus type, Cistus and Papaver rhoeas. Statistical analysis showed that the geographical classification of pollen samples among northern, central and southern Greece is possible.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera
  • botanical origin
  • geographical origin
  • Greece
  • melissopalynology
  • pollen
Accesso libero

Changes in Alternative Splicing in Apis Mellifera Bees Fed Apis Cerana Royal Jelly

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 25 - 31

Astratto

Abstract

The Western honey bee (Apis mellifera) is a social insect characterized by caste differentiation in which the queen bee and worker bees display marked differences in morphology, behavior, reproduction, and longevity despite their identical genomes. The main causative factor in caste differentiation is the food fed to queen larvae, termed royal jelly (RJ). Alternative splicing (AS) is an important RNA-mediated post-transcriptional process in eukaryotes. Here we report AS changes in A. mellifera after being fed either A. mellifera RJ or A. cerana RJ. The results demonstrated that the RJ type affected 4 types of AS in adult A. mellifera: exon skipping, intron retention, alternative 5’ splice sites, and alternative 3’splice sites. After feeding with A. cerana RJ, AS occurred in many genes in adult A. mellifera that encode proteins involved in development, growth, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and substance metabolism. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific RJ can influence the AS of many genes related to honey bee development and growth.

Parole chiave

  • alternative splicing
  • honey bee
  • royal jelly
  • tricarboxylic acid cycle
Accesso libero

Injuries of Worker Bees (Apis Mellifera Carnica) Stored in Own and Stranger Queenright Colonies

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 33 - 39

Astratto

Abstract

This research was conducted in 2008 and 2010 in the experimental apiary of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences. Worker bees were stored in transport cages in their own colonies and stranger colonies. The number of injuries and the death rate were checked twice, after 3 and 7 days of storage. In total, 6720 bees were examined (3360 workers from their own colonies and the same number from stranger colonies). The number of injured and dead workers had an exponential distribution (skewness>1). The worker bees sustained significantly more leg injuries (missing leg segments - 92 - 96%) than injuries of arolia (13 - 15%), wings (1 - 7%) or antennae (1 - 2). Worker bees stored in stranger colonies were injured significantly more frequently than worker bees stored in their own colonies. A significantly greater number of bees died in stranger colonies than in own colonies. The fact that bees stored in own colonies were injured proves that, even if they have the same smell, bees kept in cages provoke aggressive behavior from bees belonging to the banking colony.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera carnica
  • cage
  • injuries
  • mortality
  • storage
  • worker bees
Accesso libero

Bioassay for Detection of Dichlorvos Insecticide in Air in Alfalfa Leafcutting Bee (Megachile Rotundata F.) Incubators

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 41 - 47

Astratto

Abstract

Dichlorvos is an insecticide used in slow-release plastic strips for controlling chalcid wasp parasites, such as Pteromalus venustus Walker, in incubators used to raise alfalfa leafcutting bees (Megachile rotundata F.). Beekeepers need a practical method to detect dichlorvos in air and verify that it has dissipated to levels acceptable for worker re-entry and for the bees to emerge. We evaluated three methods for analysis of the dichlorvos concentration in air. Vapor sampling tubes using a manually operated pump or diffusion collection had insufficient sensitivity in the concentration range of interest. Air samples collected using battery powered pumps were analyzed by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which was accurate and sensitive, but too costly and slow for practical use. Finally, a convenient bioassay for detecting dichlorvos in air was developed using leafcutting bees and verified by comparison with the results obtained by LC/MS/MS for a series of dose levels. The bioassay is simple enough to be done by the beekeeper on-site, is inexpensive, and gives results within 1 h. The LC50 for dichlorvos vapor in air after 1 h of exposure was 273.2 μg/m3 by the probit regression method or 277.3 μg/m3 by the logit regression method.

Parole chiave

  • bioassay
  • dichlorvos
  • LC50
  • Megachile rotundata
  • Pteromalus venustus
Accesso libero

Ornamental Representatives of the Genus Centaurea L. as a Pollen Source for Bee Friendly Gardens

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 49 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

The flowering phenology and pollen production of three ornamental Centaurea species were investigated in the years 2009 and 2012-2013. The study objects, Centaurea montana L. = Cyanus montanus (L.) Hill, Centaurea mollis Waldst & Kit, and Centaurea dealbata Willd. were cultivated within an area of the UMCS Botanical Garden in Lublin, Poland (51° 14’ N, 22° 34’ E). Under the environmental conditions of SE Poland, the Centaurea species flowered continuously from mid-May to the first week of June. The mass of pollen in anthers was found to be species-related: 3.70 mg (C. montana), 4.02 mg (C. mollis), and 6.01 mg (C. dealbata) per 100 anthers. The total pollen yield was related to the mass of pollen produced in flowers and the abundance of blooming. Pollen grains were medium-sized, spheroid (C. dealbata) or prolato-spheroid (C. mollis and C. montana) in shape, and characterized by high viability (over 80% on average). The pollen provided by the plants of ornamental Centaurea species amounted to 6.0 - 7.9 g per m2 on average. The honeybee was the most frequent visitor of C. dealbata, accounting for 55.2% of the total pollinators, and bumblebee species predominated on the flowers of both C. montana (77.7%) and C. mollis (85.6%). Solitary bees and dipterans were also observed on the flowers of all species studied, but C. mollis was avoided by lepidopterans. Ornamental Centaurea species provide pollen reserves that could support communities of invertebrate pollinators, although the period of effective supply fluctuates annually due to changeable periods of blooming.

Parole chiave

  • bee pasture
  • Centaurea dealbata
  • Centaurea mollis
  • Centaurea montana
  • insect visitors
  • pollen production
Accesso libero

Hypopharyngeal Gland Activity in Task-Specific Workers Under Brood and Broodless Conditions in Apis Cerana Indica (Fab.)

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 59 - 70

Astratto

Abstract

The hypopharyngeal gland (HPG) is the principal organ of protein synthesis in honey bees. It is involved in larval rearing. We examined the fresh head weight, HPG acini diameter, and HPG protein content in worker bees engaged in different tasks and under brood and broodless conditions. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the HPG acini diameter of worker bees was related to their task. The highest HPG volume was found in nurse bees, and the volume regressed when the task changed from guarding to foraging. The fresh head weight was positively correlated with HPG acini diameter. Although, there was no positive correlation between HPG acini diameter and protein concentration, the glandular protein concentration increased progressively in nurse bees and declined in guard and forager bees. Histochemistry revealed similar results. Despite displaying significantly larger glands, guard bee protein secretion was similar to that of the foragers. Brooding had a significant effect on HPG activity. Only worker bees from the colony with an intact brood showed elevated rates of protein synthesis; thus, it is possible that a signal was emitted by the brood, which stimulated protein synthesis in the HPG. However, the size of the HPG was similar in both brood and broodless conditions.

Parole chiave

  • Apis cerana indica
  • brood
  • broodless
  • hypopharyngeal gland
  • hypopharyngeal gland activity
Accesso libero

Potential Use of Buddleja Thyrsoides for the Control and Prevention of American Foulbrood Disease in Honey Bees

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 71 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

Paenibacillus larvae is the causative agent of American Foulbrood (AFB ), a severe disease that affects the larvae of the honeybees. The use of plant extracts are considered to be an alternative way of controlling the disease. In this study, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of Buddleja thyrsoides Lam. against the Paenibacillus species, including P. larvae, was evaluated. In Mueller-Hinton broth, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MI C) was assessed using the microdilution method. All Paenibacillus species were sensitive to the crude extract and the fractions of B. thyrsoides. The ethyl acetate (EA ) fraction showed a better result with MI C values of 1.68 - 3.36 mg/mL, followed by butanolic (BU) (MI C = 2.18 - 6.54 mg/mL), dichloromethane (DCM) (7.40 - 14.80 mg/mL), and crude extract (CE) (7.51 - 16.90 mg/mL). The toxic effect of the CE and fractions of B. thyrsoides against bees were also evaluated using the spraying application method with the same concentrations of MI Cs. Bee mortality was evident in treatment with DCM fractions only, while CE, EA , and BU extracts showed no toxic effects after 15 days of observation. Furthermore, phenolic acids, tannins, and flavonoids were identified and quantified by highperformance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial properties observed. These results show, for the first time, that B. thyrsoides might be a natural alternative for the prevention/control of AFB .

Parole chiave

  • Antibacterial activity
  • bee survival
  • Buddleja thyrsoides
  • HPLC
  • Paenibacillus larvae
Accesso libero

Botanical Origin of the Brazilian Red Propolis: a New Approach Using DNA analysis

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 79 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

Propolis is produced by the honeybees by using resin and other plant secretions. Propolis from different geographical regions have different chemical compositions. This is because the chemical constituents of propolis depend on the vegetation surrounding the apiary. In this report we present a new approach using DNA barcoding for the identification of the botanical origin of propolis. Red propolis samples were collected at different times of the year from the state of Sergipe situated in Northeast Brazil. Extraction of the DNA from propolis was made using a CTA B method. Amplification was done using ITS 2 universal primers, followed by DNA sequencing. Sequence analysis confirmed the presence of Dalbergia ecastaphyllum in the Brazilian red propolis. Formononetin is a chemical marker for the Brazillian red propolis and D. ecastaphyllum. Propolis samples analysed by DNA sequencing, were also checked by Ultra-Fast Liquid Chromatography for the presence of formononetin. Peaks corresponding to formononetin were observed in all the analysed propolis samples. This is the first report of the botanical origin of propolis using DNA technology.

Parole chiave

  • Apis mellifera
  • Brazilian red propolis
  • DNA
  • formononetin
  • molecular approach
  • plant source
Accesso libero

Performance of Bee Colonies Headed by Queens Instrumentally Inseminated with Semen of Drones Who Come from a Single Colony or Many Colonies

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 87 - 97

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the effect of honey bee worker diversity within the colony on: development, honey productivity, and wintering. Two different levels of diversity within the colony were tested. The appropriate levels of diversity within the colony were obtained by selecting drones for inseminating the queens. Lower genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies headed by a queen inseminated with semen collected from drones originating from a single colony. Higher genetic diversity was obtained in the colonies with queens inseminated with semen from drones of 30 different colonies. Colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers in the colonies had greater levels of functional characteristics. However, apart from the number of dead bees in winter, the genetic diversity level of the workers on the colony development and honey production, did not have a significant influence. There was an averaging effect observed concerning that male component in the colonies with a higher genetic variation of workers - on honey yield, when compared to the non-additive effect of the best drones.

Parole chiave

  • genetic diversity
  • honey yield
  • instrumental insemination
  • polyandry
  • wintering
Accesso libero

Hydrocarbon Composition of Beeswax (Apis Mellifera) Collected from Light and Dark Coloured Combs

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 99 - 106

Astratto

Abstract

The hydrocarbon composition of beeswax secreted by Apis mellifera was characterised. In the studies, analyses were made of virgin beeswax (obtained from light combs, socalled „wild-built combs“) that was collected at different dates, and beeswax obtained from dark combs („brood combs“). A qualitative analysis did not show any differences in the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax originating from light and dark coloured combs. The same hydrocarbons (n-alkanes, alkenes, and dienes) were identified in virgin beeswax and beeswax collected from brood combs. However, the studies showed differences in the content of n-alkanes in the beeswax obtained from light and dark coloured combs. In comparison to the virgin beeswax, the beeswax obtained from dark combs had higher content of the total n-alkanes, higher total contents of even-numbered alkanes and odd-numbered alkanes, and higher contents of certain alkanes. Furthermore, it has been found that the hydrocarbon composition of beeswax did not depend on the collection period.

Parole chiave

  • Apis melifera
  • beeswax
  • dark combs
  • hydrocarbons
  • light combs
  • n-alkanes
Accesso libero

A Comparative Study of Environmental Conditions, Bee Management and the Epidemiological Situation in Apiaries Varying in the Level of Colony Losses

Pubblicato online: 11 Dec 2014
Pagine: 107 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Explaining the reasons for the increased mortality of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) in recent years, in Europe and North America, has become a global research priority in apicultural science. Our project was aimed at determining the relationship between environmental conditions, beekeeping techniques, the epidemiological situation of pathogens, and the mortality rate of bee colonies. Dead bee samples were collected by beekeepers from 2421 colonies. The samples were examined for the presence of V. destructor, Nosema spp. (Nosema apis and Nosema ceranae), chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV), acute bee paralysis virus (ABPV), deformed wing virus (DWV), and Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV).

Among the environmental and colony management factors under analysis, significant differences between apiaries with high (>10%), low (≤10%) or no losses of the colonies were only found in the case of the methods used by beekeepers to combat varroa mites. However, the epidemiological patterns in the case of V. destructor infestation and the DWV and ABPV infections highly differed. The data we obtained indicated that co-infections play a decisive role in the etiology of the significant collapse of colonies in apiaries in Poland. The main reason for this phenomenon can be described as strong infestation with V. destructor, followed by an intensive development of viral infections caused by DWV and (much less frequently) by ABPV. Despite a high prevalence of Nosema spp. microsporidia (with a dominant incidence of N. ceranae), a direct relationship between these parasites and the mortality rate of colonies was not proved.

Parole chiave

  • beekeeping management
  • colony collapse
  • environmental conditions
  • Nosema spp.
  • Varroa destructor
  • viruses

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