Rivista e Edizione

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 4 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 3 (November 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 2 (October 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 1 (September 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 3 (October 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 2 (August 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 1 (May 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 3 (November 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 2 (October 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 1 (September 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 3-4 (December 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 3 (September 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 1 (March 2012)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 4 (December 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 3 (September 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 2 (June 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 1 (March 2011)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 4 (December 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 3 (September 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 2 (June 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 1 (March 2010)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 4 (December 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 3 (September 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 2 (June 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 1 (March 2009)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 3-4 (December 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 2 (September 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 1 (June 2008)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 3 (November 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Cichorium intybus attenuates streptozotocin induced diabetic cardiomyopathy via inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 111 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Cichorium intybus on lipid peroxidation activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzymes and histopathology of cardiac tissues in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg) combined with high energy intake in rats. Seed extract of Cichorium intybus (CIE) (250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for 3 weeks. Phytochemical investigations of seed extract revealed presence of some active ingredients such as alkaloids, tannins, saponin, phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. Seed extract of Cichorium intybus confirmed a significant potency towards restoring the blood glucose, an elevation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), blood glutathione (GSH), TNF-α and IL-6 and a reduction in the levels of catalase (CAT) was observed following the STZ treatment. Oxidative stress was accompanied by myocardial degeneration as evidenced by histopathological examination of cardiac tissues. Administration of CIE reduced the lipid peroxides level in heart. Serum levels of AST, GSH, LDH and SOD were brought down to physiological levels by CIE in STZ induced DCM rats. CIE also markedly down-regulated serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Catalase that was reduced in serum was brought back to near normal level. The extensive necrotic changes of cardiac tissue by STZ was minimized to normal morphology upon CIE administration. The study demonstrates the cardioprotective effect of CIE via inhibition of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Parole chiave

  • diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • streptozotocin
Accesso libero

General toxicity assessment of the novel aldose reductase inhibitor cemtirestat

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 120 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

Cemtirestat, 3-mercapto-5H-[1,2,4]-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid was recently designed and patented as a highly selective and efficient aldose reductase inhibitor endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the general toxicity of cemtirestat using in silico predictions, in vitro and in vivo assays. ProTox-II toxicity prediction software gave 17 “Inactive” outputs, a mild hepatotoxicity score (0.52 probability) along with a predicted LD50 of 1000 mg/kg. Five different cell lines were used including the immortalized mouse microglia BV-2, the primary human fibroblasts VH10, the insulinoma pancreatic β-cells INS-1E, the human colon cancer cells HCT116 and the human immortalized epithelial endometrial cell lines HIEEC. In contrast to the clinically used epalrestat, cemtirestat showed remarkably low cytotoxicity in several different cell culture viability tests such as MTT proliferation assay, neutral red uptake, BrdU incorporation, WST-1 proliferation assay and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. In a yeast spotting assay, the presence of cemtirestat in incubation of Saccaromyces cerevisiae at concentrations as high as 1000 µM did not affect cell growth rate significantly. In the 120-day repeated oral toxicity study in male Wistar rats with daily cemtirestat dose of 6.4 mg/kg, no significant behavioral alterations or toxicological manifestations were observed in clinical and pathological examinations or in hematological parameters. In summary, these results suggest that cemtirestat is a safe drug that can proceed beyond preclinical studies.

Parole chiave

  • cemtirestat
  • aldose reductase inhibitor
  • toxicity assessment
Accesso libero

Plasma paraoxonase1 activity in rats treated with monocrotophos: a study of the effect of duration of exposure

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 129 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

We have earlier demonstrated the potential of monocrotophos (MCP), a highly toxic organophosphorus insecticide (OPI), to elicit insulin resistance in rats after chronic exposure. Given the understanding of role of paraoxonase1 (PON1) in OPI toxicity and diabetes pathology, this study was envisaged to understand the effect of duration of exposure to MCP on plasma PON1 activity in rats. Rats were administered MCP per os at 1/20 and 1/10th LD50 as daily doses for 180 days. Interim blood samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 90 and 180 d for analysis of plasma parameters. Exposure to MCP for 45 resulted in persistent trend of hyperinsulinemia, while significant increase in fasting glucose levels was observed after 180 days. MCP caused suppression of plasma cholinesterase activity though the study period, albeit extent of inhibition was more severe during the early phase of the study. Exposure to MCP for 180 d resulted in hypertriglyceridemia and marginal decrease in HDL-C levels. MCP failed to modulate PON1 activity in plasma during the early phase of the study (up to 45 d). However, prolonged exposure resulted in significant increase in the plasma PON1 activity. This suggests that manifestation of insulin resistance in rats subjected to chronic exposure to MCP is associated with increase in PON1 activity. Our work provides rationale for studying whether the increase in PON1 activity observed in the present study serves to counter the deleterious effect of long term exposure to organophosphorus insecticides on metabolic homeostasis.

Parole chiave

  • paroxonase1 activity
  • monocrotophos
  • organophosphorus insecticide
  • insulin resistance
  • chronic exposure
  • metabolic homeostasis
Accesso libero

Positive and inverse correlation of blood lead level with erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and intelligence quotient in children: implications for neurotoxicity

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 136 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

Blood lead level (BLL) is insufficiently sensitive for early detection of Lead-induced neurotoxicity (LIN). This study determined the possible role of the combination of BLL, intelligent quotient (IQ) and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the early detection of LIN in Children. Apparently healthy children (n=309) from eight public primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria were recruited and classified into: children with Elevated BLL (EBLL) and children with Acceptable BLL (control) based on CDC cut-off for childhood lead exposure. Neurological indices (speech, memory, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions), IQ, BLL and erythrocyte AChE activity were assessed using standard methods, Standard Progressive Matrices, AAS and HPLC respectively. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and multivariate regression. p<0.05 was considered significant. There were 169 (54.7%) children with EBLL while there were 140 (45.3%) control children. Both groups exhibited normal speech, memory, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions. However, IQ was lower in EBLL children (85.9±11.6) compared with control (91.5±14.0) while BLL and AChE activity were higher in EBLL children (0.4±0.1 µmol/l; 117.5±25.5 µkat/l) compared with control (0.2±0.0 µmol/l; 59.4±10.2 µkat/l). BLL showed inverse correlation with IQ (r=–0.134, p=0.019) but positive correlation with AChE (r=0.978, p≤0.001). 16.2% of the observed variation in BLL could be accounted for by AChE using the equation; [BLL=–0.007+0.003 AChE] p<0.05. Elevated blood lead level is prevalent among the school children and appears to have adverse effect on their IQ. Erythrocyte AChE could be a promising marker for early recognition of significant environmental lead exposure and lead-induced neurotoxicity in children.

Parole chiave

  • erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase
  • intelligence quotient
  • lead-induced neurotoxicity
Accesso libero

Evaluation of acute toxicity of vinasse by means of Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri: a comparative study

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 143 - 148

Astratto

Abstract

In the bioethanol industry, per liter of the produced alcohol 9 to 14 liters of vinasse are obtained as a byproduct. If the vinasse is directly shed into bodies of water without an adequate treatment, it may have negative effects on the existing biota and human health due to its high turbidity and color, low pH and high content of organic material. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of vinasse by means of a rapid test with Aliivibrio fischeri and compare it with a standard immobilization assay with Daphnia magna. The standard assay of D. magna by means of its EC50 of 4.7% showed that organism was more sensitive to the contaminant, in comparison with the 69.6% obtained with the A. fischeri which suggests that it should be continuesly used as one of the organisms of first choice for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of this effluent.

Parole chiave

  • wastewater distillery
  • bioindicators
  • water fleas
  • luminescent bacteria
Accesso libero

Influence of estrous stages on electrocardiography, clinical pathology and ovarian weight of experimental beagle dogs: a retrospective analysis

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 149 - 156

Astratto

Abstract

Estrous cycle is a repetitive phenomenon occurring during the reproductive life of a female dog. The duration of the canine estrous cycle is considerably longer than one in the most of the other animals and is broadly grouped into follicular phase (proestrus and estrus), luteal phase (diestrus) and non-seasonal anestrus. Dogs in the same stage of cycle can be inadvertently assigned to same group during routine safety and metabolic studies leading to possible erroneous interpretation of test-item related effects. This retrospective analysis was conducted by analyzing data of 86 female beagle dogs from control/placebo treated groups to correlate any possible effect of estrous stages with electrocardiography, clinical pathology and ovarian weight. Different estrous cycle stages of beagles were confirmed histologically by evaluating ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. The incidence of beagles in diestrus was the highest, followed by anestrus, proestrus and estrus. No significant effect was noticed on heart rate, P–A, P–D, RR, QRS and QT intervals across different stages of estrous cycle. However, significantly higher PQ (PR) interval in dogs in proestrus stage was observed compared to dogs in anestrus and estrus. Marginally higher WBCs, neutrophils, lymphocytes, RBCs, hemoglobin, AST and lower hematocrit, lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), ALP level was evident in estrous period. Relative ovary weight was significantly higher in dogs in diestrus stage. Considering these results, one may need to exercise caution while interpreting experimental data from female beagle dogs.

Parole chiave

  • estrous cycle
  • electrocardiography
  • clinical pathology
  • ovarian weight
  • beagle dogs
6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Cichorium intybus attenuates streptozotocin induced diabetic cardiomyopathy via inhibition of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 111 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Cichorium intybus on lipid peroxidation activities of both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, inflammatory mediators, myocardial enzymes and histopathology of cardiac tissues in experimental diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). DCM was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (40 mg/kg) combined with high energy intake in rats. Seed extract of Cichorium intybus (CIE) (250 mg/kg & 500 mg/kg) was administered orally once a day for 3 weeks. Phytochemical investigations of seed extract revealed presence of some active ingredients such as alkaloids, tannins, saponin, phenols, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids and flavonoids. Seed extract of Cichorium intybus confirmed a significant potency towards restoring the blood glucose, an elevation of the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), blood glutathione (GSH), TNF-α and IL-6 and a reduction in the levels of catalase (CAT) was observed following the STZ treatment. Oxidative stress was accompanied by myocardial degeneration as evidenced by histopathological examination of cardiac tissues. Administration of CIE reduced the lipid peroxides level in heart. Serum levels of AST, GSH, LDH and SOD were brought down to physiological levels by CIE in STZ induced DCM rats. CIE also markedly down-regulated serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Catalase that was reduced in serum was brought back to near normal level. The extensive necrotic changes of cardiac tissue by STZ was minimized to normal morphology upon CIE administration. The study demonstrates the cardioprotective effect of CIE via inhibition of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines.

Parole chiave

  • diabetic cardiomyopathy
  • streptozotocin
Accesso libero

General toxicity assessment of the novel aldose reductase inhibitor cemtirestat

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 120 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

Cemtirestat, 3-mercapto-5H-[1,2,4]-triazino[5,6-b]indole-5-acetic acid was recently designed and patented as a highly selective and efficient aldose reductase inhibitor endowed with antioxidant activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the general toxicity of cemtirestat using in silico predictions, in vitro and in vivo assays. ProTox-II toxicity prediction software gave 17 “Inactive” outputs, a mild hepatotoxicity score (0.52 probability) along with a predicted LD50 of 1000 mg/kg. Five different cell lines were used including the immortalized mouse microglia BV-2, the primary human fibroblasts VH10, the insulinoma pancreatic β-cells INS-1E, the human colon cancer cells HCT116 and the human immortalized epithelial endometrial cell lines HIEEC. In contrast to the clinically used epalrestat, cemtirestat showed remarkably low cytotoxicity in several different cell culture viability tests such as MTT proliferation assay, neutral red uptake, BrdU incorporation, WST-1 proliferation assay and propidium iodide staining followed by flow cytometry. In a yeast spotting assay, the presence of cemtirestat in incubation of Saccaromyces cerevisiae at concentrations as high as 1000 µM did not affect cell growth rate significantly. In the 120-day repeated oral toxicity study in male Wistar rats with daily cemtirestat dose of 6.4 mg/kg, no significant behavioral alterations or toxicological manifestations were observed in clinical and pathological examinations or in hematological parameters. In summary, these results suggest that cemtirestat is a safe drug that can proceed beyond preclinical studies.

Parole chiave

  • cemtirestat
  • aldose reductase inhibitor
  • toxicity assessment
Accesso libero

Plasma paraoxonase1 activity in rats treated with monocrotophos: a study of the effect of duration of exposure

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 129 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

We have earlier demonstrated the potential of monocrotophos (MCP), a highly toxic organophosphorus insecticide (OPI), to elicit insulin resistance in rats after chronic exposure. Given the understanding of role of paraoxonase1 (PON1) in OPI toxicity and diabetes pathology, this study was envisaged to understand the effect of duration of exposure to MCP on plasma PON1 activity in rats. Rats were administered MCP per os at 1/20 and 1/10th LD50 as daily doses for 180 days. Interim blood samples were collected at 15, 30, 45, 90 and 180 d for analysis of plasma parameters. Exposure to MCP for 45 resulted in persistent trend of hyperinsulinemia, while significant increase in fasting glucose levels was observed after 180 days. MCP caused suppression of plasma cholinesterase activity though the study period, albeit extent of inhibition was more severe during the early phase of the study. Exposure to MCP for 180 d resulted in hypertriglyceridemia and marginal decrease in HDL-C levels. MCP failed to modulate PON1 activity in plasma during the early phase of the study (up to 45 d). However, prolonged exposure resulted in significant increase in the plasma PON1 activity. This suggests that manifestation of insulin resistance in rats subjected to chronic exposure to MCP is associated with increase in PON1 activity. Our work provides rationale for studying whether the increase in PON1 activity observed in the present study serves to counter the deleterious effect of long term exposure to organophosphorus insecticides on metabolic homeostasis.

Parole chiave

  • paroxonase1 activity
  • monocrotophos
  • organophosphorus insecticide
  • insulin resistance
  • chronic exposure
  • metabolic homeostasis
Accesso libero

Positive and inverse correlation of blood lead level with erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase and intelligence quotient in children: implications for neurotoxicity

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 136 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

Blood lead level (BLL) is insufficiently sensitive for early detection of Lead-induced neurotoxicity (LIN). This study determined the possible role of the combination of BLL, intelligent quotient (IQ) and erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the early detection of LIN in Children. Apparently healthy children (n=309) from eight public primary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria were recruited and classified into: children with Elevated BLL (EBLL) and children with Acceptable BLL (control) based on CDC cut-off for childhood lead exposure. Neurological indices (speech, memory, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions), IQ, BLL and erythrocyte AChE activity were assessed using standard methods, Standard Progressive Matrices, AAS and HPLC respectively. Statistical analysis involved Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and multivariate regression. p<0.05 was considered significant. There were 169 (54.7%) children with EBLL while there were 140 (45.3%) control children. Both groups exhibited normal speech, memory, cranial nerves and cerebellar functions. However, IQ was lower in EBLL children (85.9±11.6) compared with control (91.5±14.0) while BLL and AChE activity were higher in EBLL children (0.4±0.1 µmol/l; 117.5±25.5 µkat/l) compared with control (0.2±0.0 µmol/l; 59.4±10.2 µkat/l). BLL showed inverse correlation with IQ (r=–0.134, p=0.019) but positive correlation with AChE (r=0.978, p≤0.001). 16.2% of the observed variation in BLL could be accounted for by AChE using the equation; [BLL=–0.007+0.003 AChE] p<0.05. Elevated blood lead level is prevalent among the school children and appears to have adverse effect on their IQ. Erythrocyte AChE could be a promising marker for early recognition of significant environmental lead exposure and lead-induced neurotoxicity in children.

Parole chiave

  • erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase
  • intelligence quotient
  • lead-induced neurotoxicity
Accesso libero

Evaluation of acute toxicity of vinasse by means of Daphnia magna and Aliivibrio fischeri: a comparative study

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 143 - 148

Astratto

Abstract

In the bioethanol industry, per liter of the produced alcohol 9 to 14 liters of vinasse are obtained as a byproduct. If the vinasse is directly shed into bodies of water without an adequate treatment, it may have negative effects on the existing biota and human health due to its high turbidity and color, low pH and high content of organic material. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of vinasse by means of a rapid test with Aliivibrio fischeri and compare it with a standard immobilization assay with Daphnia magna. The standard assay of D. magna by means of its EC50 of 4.7% showed that organism was more sensitive to the contaminant, in comparison with the 69.6% obtained with the A. fischeri which suggests that it should be continuesly used as one of the organisms of first choice for the evaluation of the acute toxicity of this effluent.

Parole chiave

  • wastewater distillery
  • bioindicators
  • water fleas
  • luminescent bacteria
Accesso libero

Influence of estrous stages on electrocardiography, clinical pathology and ovarian weight of experimental beagle dogs: a retrospective analysis

Pubblicato online: 20 Feb 2020
Pagine: 149 - 156

Astratto

Abstract

Estrous cycle is a repetitive phenomenon occurring during the reproductive life of a female dog. The duration of the canine estrous cycle is considerably longer than one in the most of the other animals and is broadly grouped into follicular phase (proestrus and estrus), luteal phase (diestrus) and non-seasonal anestrus. Dogs in the same stage of cycle can be inadvertently assigned to same group during routine safety and metabolic studies leading to possible erroneous interpretation of test-item related effects. This retrospective analysis was conducted by analyzing data of 86 female beagle dogs from control/placebo treated groups to correlate any possible effect of estrous stages with electrocardiography, clinical pathology and ovarian weight. Different estrous cycle stages of beagles were confirmed histologically by evaluating ovary, uterus, vagina and mammary glands. The incidence of beagles in diestrus was the highest, followed by anestrus, proestrus and estrus. No significant effect was noticed on heart rate, P–A, P–D, RR, QRS and QT intervals across different stages of estrous cycle. However, significantly higher PQ (PR) interval in dogs in proestrus stage was observed compared to dogs in anestrus and estrus. Marginally higher WBCs, neutrophils, lymphocytes, RBCs, hemoglobin, AST and lower hematocrit, lipid profile (total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides), ALP level was evident in estrous period. Relative ovary weight was significantly higher in dogs in diestrus stage. Considering these results, one may need to exercise caution while interpreting experimental data from female beagle dogs.

Parole chiave

  • estrous cycle
  • electrocardiography
  • clinical pathology
  • ovarian weight
  • beagle dogs

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