Rivista e Edizione

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 4 (December 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 3 (November 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 2 (October 2019)

Volume 12 (2019): Edizione 1 (September 2019)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 4 (December 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 3 (October 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 2 (August 2018)

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 1 (May 2018)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 3 (November 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 2 (October 2017)

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 1 (September 2017)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 3-4 (December 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 2 (June 2016)

Volume 9 (2016): Edizione 1 (March 2016)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)

Volume 8 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)

Volume 7 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 6 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 3 (September 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 5 (2012): Edizione 1 (March 2012)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 4 (December 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 3 (September 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 2 (June 2011)

Volume 4 (2011): Edizione 1 (March 2011)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 4 (December 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 3 (September 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 2 (June 2010)

Volume 3 (2010): Edizione 1 (March 2010)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 4 (December 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 3 (September 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 2 (June 2009)

Volume 2 (2009): Edizione 1 (March 2009)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 3-4 (December 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 2 (September 2008)

Volume 1 (2008): Edizione 1 (June 2008)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 11 (2018): Edizione 2 (August 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

8 Articoli
Accesso libero

Glutathione S-transferase is a good biomarker in acrylamide induced neurotoxicity and genotoxicity

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 115 - 121

Astratto

Abstract

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are major defence enzymes of the antioxidant enzymatic system. Cytosolic GSTs are more involved in the detoxification than mitochondrial and microsomal GSTs. GSTs are localized in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the rat brain. Acrylamide (AC) is a well assessed neurotoxin of both animals and humans and it produces skeletal muscle weakness and ataxia. AC is extensively used in several industries such as cosmetic, paper, textile, in ore processing, as soil conditioners, flocculants for waste water treatment and it is present in daily consumed food products, like potato chips, French fries, bread, breakfast cereals and beverages like coffee; it is detected on tobacco smoking. GST acts as a biomarker in response to acrylamide. AC can interact with DNA and therefore generate mutations. In rats, low level expression of glutathione S-trasferase (GST) decreases both memory and life span. The major aim of this review is to provide better information on the antioxidant role of GST against AC induced neurotoxicity and genotoxicity.

Parole chiave

  • glutathione S-transferases
  • biomarker
  • acrylamide
  • neurotoxicity
  • genotoxicity
Accesso libero

Antidotal effects of thymoquinone against neurotoxic agents

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 122 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

Several plants which contain the active component thymoquinone (TQ) have been traditionally used in herbal medicine to treat various diseases. Several studies indicated the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents. The present study was aimed to highlight the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents. For this reason, the literature from 1998 to 2017 regarding the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents and their involvement mechanisms has been studied. The present review suggests the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents in experimental models. More clinical trial studies are however needed to confirm the antidotal effects of TQ in human intoxication.

Parole chiave

  • thymoquinone
  • neurotoxic agents
  • antioxidant
  • antidote
Accesso libero

Dichlorvos toxicity: A public health perspective

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 129 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

Pesticides are used in agriculture and in domestic pest control. Dichlorvos, an organophosphate, is a predominant pesticide used in domestic insect control in developing countries. Acute and prolonged exposure may lead to death, genotoxic, neurological, reproductive, carcinogenic, immunological, hepatic, renal, respiratory, metabolic, dermal and other systemic effects. Its toxicity is due to the ability of the compound to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase at cholinergic junction of the nervous system. This study is a review of the toxicological effects of dichlorvos in a public health perspective.

Parole chiave

  • dichlorvos
  • organophosphate
  • pesticide
  • insecticide
  • acetyl cholinesterase
  • toxicity
Accesso libero

Toxicity assessment of agrochemical Almix in Heteropneustes fossilis through histopathological alterations

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 138 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of the agrochemical Almix on comparative basis in gill, liver and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis through histological and ultrastructural observations under field (8 g/acre) and laboratory (66.67 mg/L) conditions. Exposure duration of both experiments was 30 days. Gill showed atrophy in secondary lamellae, hypertrophied gill epithelium, damage in chloride and pillar cells, and detachment of chloride cells from gill epithelium under laboratory condition, but hypertrophy in gill epithelium and fusion in secondary lamellae were seen under field condition. In gill, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fragmentation in microridges, hyper-secretion of mucus and loss of normal array in microridges, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed dilated mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), abnormal sized vacuolation in chloride cells under laboratory condition. In liver, hypertrophied and pyknotic nuclei, disarrangement of hepatic cords, and cytoplasmic vacuolation were prominent under laboratory study but in field condition the liver showed little alterations. TEM study showed severe degeneration in RER and mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuolation under laboratory condition but dilated mitochondria were prominent in field observation. Kidney showed severe nephropathic effects including degenerative changes in proximal and distal convolute tubule, damage in glomerulus under light microscopy, while deformity in nucleus, fragmentation in RER, severe vacuolation and necrosis in kidney were prominent under TEM study. The results clearly demonstrated that responses were more prominent in laboratory than field study. Thus the responses displayed by different tissues of concerned fish species exposed to Almix could be considered as indications of herbicide toxicity in aquatic ecosystem.

Parole chiave

  • Almix
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • transmission electron microscopy
Accesso libero

Blood biomarkers of common toad Rhinella arenarum following chlorpyrifos dermal exposure

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 148 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum pesticide commonly used for insect control, has great affinity for lipids and is thus a potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of CPF using the common toad Rhinella arenarum via dermal uptake in plastic bucket to simulate their natural exposition in ponds. R. arenarum toads were exposed individually to solutions containing a nominal concentration of a commercial formulation of CPF insecticide (5 and 10 mg/L). Different enzyme biomarkers (BChE: butyrylcholinesterase, CbE: carboxylesterase, and CAT: catalase) were measured in blood tissue after exposition. The capacity of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) to reverse OP-inhibited plasma BChE and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes (H/L) as hematological indicators of stress were also determined. The normal values of plasma B-sterases (BChE and CbE) were highly inhibited (until ≈ 70%) in toads 48 h after exposure to CPF. The results indicate that 2-PAM produced BChE reactivation as well. The activity of CAT was also inducted for dermal exposure at more than double of that in the control toads (CPF; 5 mg/L). H/L ratios did not reveal a significantly increased stress. The study suggests that CPF via dermal uptake induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the common toad R. areanum. Thus, some blood biomarkers employed in our study (i.e. BChE, CbE, 2-PAM, and CAT) might be used as predictors in health and ecological risk assessment of amphibian populations exposed to CPF.

Parole chiave

  • blood
  • chlorpyrifos dermal exposure
  • B-esterases
  • catalase
Accesso libero

Washing soda induced alteration of the differential cell count, nonself surface adhesion efficacy and nuclear morphology of the polyphenotypic cells of a freshwater sponge of India

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 155 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

Washing soda has been identified as a precarious contaminant of the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of Eunapius carteri. Treatment of sublethal concentrations of washing soda for 384 hours exhibited a significant decrease in the densities of blast like cells, small and large amoebocytes. The percentage occurrence of granular cells and archaeocytes yielded a marked increase against the experimental concentrations of washing soda. Washing soda mediated alterations in the differential cell densities of E. carteri indicative of a state of physiological stress and an undesirable shift in the cellular homeostasis of the organism distributed in polluted environment. Experimental exposure of washing soda yielded a significant increase in the cellular dimensions of large amoebocytes and archaeocytes. Prolonged treatment with washing soda presented a gross reduction in nonself surface adhesion efficacy of E. carteri cells. Experimental concentrations of washing soda resulted in a dose dependent increment in the frequencies of binucleation and micronucleation in the cells of E. carteri. The data were indicative of a high level of genotoxicity of washing soda in E. carteri. The present investigation provides an important information base in understanding the toxin induced chemical stress on the archaic immune defense of a primitive urmetazoa.

Parole chiave

  • cellular adhesion
  • differential cell count
  • genotoxicity
  • sodium carbonate
Accesso libero

Prophylactic efficacy of some chemoprotectants against abrin induced lethality

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 169 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

Abrin is a highly toxic protein produced by Abrus precatorius. Exposure to abrin, either through accident or by act of terrorism, poses a significant risk to human health and safety. Abrin functions as a ribosome-inactivating protein by depurinating the 28S rRNA and inhibits protein synthesis. It is a potent toxin warfare agent. There are no antidotes available for abrin intoxication. Supportive care is the only option for treatment of abrin exposure. It is becoming increasingly important to develop countermeasures for abrin by developing pre- and post-exposure therapy. The aim of this study is to screen certain pharmaceutical compounds for their chemoprotective properties against abrin toxicity in vivo in BALB/c male mice. Twenty-one compounds having either antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective properties or combination of them, were screened and administered as 1h pre-treatment followed by exposure of lethal dose (2×LD50, intraperitoneally) of abrin. To assess the protective efficacy of the compounds, survival and body weight was monitored. Fifteen compounds extended the survival time of animals significantly, as compared to abrin. The following five of these compounds, namely: Epicatechin-3-gallate, Gallic Acid, Lipoic Acid, GSH and Indomethacin extended the life time ranging from 6 to 9 days. These compounds also attenuated the abrin induced inflammation and enzymes associated with liver function, but none of them could prevent abrin induced lethality. The compounds offering extension of life could be useful to provide a time-window for other supportive treatment and could also be used as combinatorial therapy with other medical countermeasures against abrin induced lethality.

Parole chiave

  • Abrin
  • antidote screening
  • medical counter-measures
  • ribosome inactivating protein
  • ricin
Accesso libero

Multiple giant cell formation – A consequence of type II pyrethroid intoxication

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 178 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

Pesticides are the main remedy for pest eradication, but their use has been found to be harmful also to various non-target organisms. In this study, giant cell formation was observed in hepatocytes of experimental albino rats following two type II pyrethroid pesticdes, Cypermethrin and Beta-cyfluthrin. Histopathological examination was done for this purpose and the results revealed the formation of giant cells and polyploidy condition following intoxication of these experimental compounds with Beta-cyfluthrin, with an edge over, and Cypermethrin, probably due to structural differences.

Parole chiave

  • pyrethroids
  • toxicity
  • liver
8 Articoli
Accesso libero

Glutathione S-transferase is a good biomarker in acrylamide induced neurotoxicity and genotoxicity

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 115 - 121

Astratto

Abstract

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are major defence enzymes of the antioxidant enzymatic system. Cytosolic GSTs are more involved in the detoxification than mitochondrial and microsomal GSTs. GSTs are localized in the cerebellum and hippocampus of the rat brain. Acrylamide (AC) is a well assessed neurotoxin of both animals and humans and it produces skeletal muscle weakness and ataxia. AC is extensively used in several industries such as cosmetic, paper, textile, in ore processing, as soil conditioners, flocculants for waste water treatment and it is present in daily consumed food products, like potato chips, French fries, bread, breakfast cereals and beverages like coffee; it is detected on tobacco smoking. GST acts as a biomarker in response to acrylamide. AC can interact with DNA and therefore generate mutations. In rats, low level expression of glutathione S-trasferase (GST) decreases both memory and life span. The major aim of this review is to provide better information on the antioxidant role of GST against AC induced neurotoxicity and genotoxicity.

Parole chiave

  • glutathione S-transferases
  • biomarker
  • acrylamide
  • neurotoxicity
  • genotoxicity
Accesso libero

Antidotal effects of thymoquinone against neurotoxic agents

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 122 - 128

Astratto

Abstract

Several plants which contain the active component thymoquinone (TQ) have been traditionally used in herbal medicine to treat various diseases. Several studies indicated the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents. The present study was aimed to highlight the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents. For this reason, the literature from 1998 to 2017 regarding the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents and their involvement mechanisms has been studied. The present review suggests the protective effects of TQ against neurotoxic agents in experimental models. More clinical trial studies are however needed to confirm the antidotal effects of TQ in human intoxication.

Parole chiave

  • thymoquinone
  • neurotoxic agents
  • antioxidant
  • antidote
Accesso libero

Dichlorvos toxicity: A public health perspective

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 129 - 137

Astratto

Abstract

Pesticides are used in agriculture and in domestic pest control. Dichlorvos, an organophosphate, is a predominant pesticide used in domestic insect control in developing countries. Acute and prolonged exposure may lead to death, genotoxic, neurological, reproductive, carcinogenic, immunological, hepatic, renal, respiratory, metabolic, dermal and other systemic effects. Its toxicity is due to the ability of the compound to inhibit acetyl cholinesterase at cholinergic junction of the nervous system. This study is a review of the toxicological effects of dichlorvos in a public health perspective.

Parole chiave

  • dichlorvos
  • organophosphate
  • pesticide
  • insecticide
  • acetyl cholinesterase
  • toxicity
Accesso libero

Toxicity assessment of agrochemical Almix in Heteropneustes fossilis through histopathological alterations

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 138 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

The present study was designed to assess the adverse effects of the agrochemical Almix on comparative basis in gill, liver and kidney of Heteropneustes fossilis through histological and ultrastructural observations under field (8 g/acre) and laboratory (66.67 mg/L) conditions. Exposure duration of both experiments was 30 days. Gill showed atrophy in secondary lamellae, hypertrophied gill epithelium, damage in chloride and pillar cells, and detachment of chloride cells from gill epithelium under laboratory condition, but hypertrophy in gill epithelium and fusion in secondary lamellae were seen under field condition. In gill, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed fragmentation in microridges, hyper-secretion of mucus and loss of normal array in microridges, while transmission electron microscopy (TEM) displayed dilated mitochondria and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), abnormal sized vacuolation in chloride cells under laboratory condition. In liver, hypertrophied and pyknotic nuclei, disarrangement of hepatic cords, and cytoplasmic vacuolation were prominent under laboratory study but in field condition the liver showed little alterations. TEM study showed severe degeneration in RER and mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuolation under laboratory condition but dilated mitochondria were prominent in field observation. Kidney showed severe nephropathic effects including degenerative changes in proximal and distal convolute tubule, damage in glomerulus under light microscopy, while deformity in nucleus, fragmentation in RER, severe vacuolation and necrosis in kidney were prominent under TEM study. The results clearly demonstrated that responses were more prominent in laboratory than field study. Thus the responses displayed by different tissues of concerned fish species exposed to Almix could be considered as indications of herbicide toxicity in aquatic ecosystem.

Parole chiave

  • Almix
  • scanning electron microscopy
  • transmission electron microscopy
Accesso libero

Blood biomarkers of common toad Rhinella arenarum following chlorpyrifos dermal exposure

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 148 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad spectrum pesticide commonly used for insect control, has great affinity for lipids and is thus a potential for bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of CPF using the common toad Rhinella arenarum via dermal uptake in plastic bucket to simulate their natural exposition in ponds. R. arenarum toads were exposed individually to solutions containing a nominal concentration of a commercial formulation of CPF insecticide (5 and 10 mg/L). Different enzyme biomarkers (BChE: butyrylcholinesterase, CbE: carboxylesterase, and CAT: catalase) were measured in blood tissue after exposition. The capacity of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride (2-PAM) to reverse OP-inhibited plasma BChE and the ratio of heterophils and lymphocytes (H/L) as hematological indicators of stress were also determined. The normal values of plasma B-sterases (BChE and CbE) were highly inhibited (until ≈ 70%) in toads 48 h after exposure to CPF. The results indicate that 2-PAM produced BChE reactivation as well. The activity of CAT was also inducted for dermal exposure at more than double of that in the control toads (CPF; 5 mg/L). H/L ratios did not reveal a significantly increased stress. The study suggests that CPF via dermal uptake induced neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in the common toad R. areanum. Thus, some blood biomarkers employed in our study (i.e. BChE, CbE, 2-PAM, and CAT) might be used as predictors in health and ecological risk assessment of amphibian populations exposed to CPF.

Parole chiave

  • blood
  • chlorpyrifos dermal exposure
  • B-esterases
  • catalase
Accesso libero

Washing soda induced alteration of the differential cell count, nonself surface adhesion efficacy and nuclear morphology of the polyphenotypic cells of a freshwater sponge of India

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 155 - 168

Astratto

Abstract

Washing soda has been identified as a precarious contaminant of the freshwater ponds and lakes, the natural habitat of Eunapius carteri. Treatment of sublethal concentrations of washing soda for 384 hours exhibited a significant decrease in the densities of blast like cells, small and large amoebocytes. The percentage occurrence of granular cells and archaeocytes yielded a marked increase against the experimental concentrations of washing soda. Washing soda mediated alterations in the differential cell densities of E. carteri indicative of a state of physiological stress and an undesirable shift in the cellular homeostasis of the organism distributed in polluted environment. Experimental exposure of washing soda yielded a significant increase in the cellular dimensions of large amoebocytes and archaeocytes. Prolonged treatment with washing soda presented a gross reduction in nonself surface adhesion efficacy of E. carteri cells. Experimental concentrations of washing soda resulted in a dose dependent increment in the frequencies of binucleation and micronucleation in the cells of E. carteri. The data were indicative of a high level of genotoxicity of washing soda in E. carteri. The present investigation provides an important information base in understanding the toxin induced chemical stress on the archaic immune defense of a primitive urmetazoa.

Parole chiave

  • cellular adhesion
  • differential cell count
  • genotoxicity
  • sodium carbonate
Accesso libero

Prophylactic efficacy of some chemoprotectants against abrin induced lethality

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 169 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

Abrin is a highly toxic protein produced by Abrus precatorius. Exposure to abrin, either through accident or by act of terrorism, poses a significant risk to human health and safety. Abrin functions as a ribosome-inactivating protein by depurinating the 28S rRNA and inhibits protein synthesis. It is a potent toxin warfare agent. There are no antidotes available for abrin intoxication. Supportive care is the only option for treatment of abrin exposure. It is becoming increasingly important to develop countermeasures for abrin by developing pre- and post-exposure therapy. The aim of this study is to screen certain pharmaceutical compounds for their chemoprotective properties against abrin toxicity in vivo in BALB/c male mice. Twenty-one compounds having either antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and cyto-protective properties or combination of them, were screened and administered as 1h pre-treatment followed by exposure of lethal dose (2×LD50, intraperitoneally) of abrin. To assess the protective efficacy of the compounds, survival and body weight was monitored. Fifteen compounds extended the survival time of animals significantly, as compared to abrin. The following five of these compounds, namely: Epicatechin-3-gallate, Gallic Acid, Lipoic Acid, GSH and Indomethacin extended the life time ranging from 6 to 9 days. These compounds also attenuated the abrin induced inflammation and enzymes associated with liver function, but none of them could prevent abrin induced lethality. The compounds offering extension of life could be useful to provide a time-window for other supportive treatment and could also be used as combinatorial therapy with other medical countermeasures against abrin induced lethality.

Parole chiave

  • Abrin
  • antidote screening
  • medical counter-measures
  • ribosome inactivating protein
  • ricin
Accesso libero

Multiple giant cell formation – A consequence of type II pyrethroid intoxication

Pubblicato online: 02 Mar 2019
Pagine: 178 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

Pesticides are the main remedy for pest eradication, but their use has been found to be harmful also to various non-target organisms. In this study, giant cell formation was observed in hepatocytes of experimental albino rats following two type II pyrethroid pesticdes, Cypermethrin and Beta-cyfluthrin. Histopathological examination was done for this purpose and the results revealed the formation of giant cells and polyploidy condition following intoxication of these experimental compounds with Beta-cyfluthrin, with an edge over, and Cypermethrin, probably due to structural differences.

Parole chiave

  • pyrethroids
  • toxicity
  • liver

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