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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (2017): Edizione 2 (October 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1337-9569
Pubblicato per la prima volta
19 Jun 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli

Original Article

Accesso libero

Effect of 60 and 90 days of isotretinoin treatment on the structure of the small intestine mucosa in young male Wistar rats

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 45 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

Isotretinoin is a substance used in cases of severe acne and acne resistant to other treatments. This skin disease affects patients of all ages and can interfere with social life, especially in adolescents. The drug acts by suppressing sebaceous gland activity and creating an inhospitable environment for Propionibacterium acne. The integrity of the small intestine is important for correct nutrition and patient treatment. We intended to assess the small intestine structure after treatment with 5 mg/kg isotretinoin solution and after a period without the drug, which could be considered a rest period. Young male Wistar rats (n=24) were separated into 4 groups (n=6): C: water; D0: soybean oil; D5a: 5 mg/kg; D5b: 5 mg/kg for 60 days followed by 30 days of rest period. Soybean oil was used to dilute the drug and it was offered daily by gavage. The animals were euthanized and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for analysis with light and scanning electron microscopy. The treatment stimulated tissue proliferation in the jejunum and ileum but had no significant effect in the duodenum. The results also showed a modification in goblet cell frequency in the duodenum and ileum. A further finding was that some modifications disappeared during the rest period. The protocol showed that the small intestine was somewhat altered by the treatment yet no lasting damage was caused.

Parole chiave

  • small intestine
  • microscopy
  • Wistar rats
  • histology
Accesso libero

Increased intracellular and extracellular oxidant production in phagocytes of rheumatic patients treated with biological therapy – whole blood quantification

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 52 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Infectious complications, resulting from reduced activity of immune cells, are the most severe and common adverse effects of biological therapy. This study analyzed the effect of biological therapy on blood phagocytes, focusing on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor in the defence against invading pathogens. Intra- and extracellular ROS production were recorded separately, on the basis of luminol and isoluminol chemiluminescence in patients treated with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α or against interleukin-6 receptor. In comparison to healthy donors or to rheumatic patients treated with classical immunosuppressive drugs, biological therapy increased ROS formation in both compartments. This indicates that the anti-microbial activity of blood phagocytes was not reduced by TNFα- or IL-6-neutralizing therapy, at least in terms of ROS.

The method presented does not require blood fractionation, which could modify activity of phagocytes and cause loss of some sub-populations of these cells. The technique is simple, requires microliter volumes of blood and is thus well applicable to clinical studies.

Parole chiave

  • blood phagocytes
  • intracellular and extracellular chemiluminescence
  • rheumatic patients
  • biological therapy
Accesso libero

Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 56 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

In this study we investigated the effect of five therapeutically used drugs and four natural polyphenolic compounds on the mechanism of oxidative burst of human neutrophils concerning their participation in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The compounds investigated decreased the oxidative burst of whole blood in the rank order of potency: N-feruloylserotonin > quercetin > curcumin > arbutin > dithiaden > carvedilol. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in isolated neutrophils decreased in the same rank order, while carvedilol was ineffective. Scavenging of extracellular oxygen radicals followed the rank order of potency: N-feruloylserotonin > curcumin > quercetin > dithiaden. Arbutin and carvedilol had no effect. All compounds tested increased the activity of caspase-3 in cell-free system indicating a positive effect on apoptosis of neutrophils. Activation of protein kinase C was significantly decreased by dithiaden, curcumin, quercetin and N-feruloylserotonin. Carvedilol, dithiaden, quercetin and arbutin reduced activated neutrophil myeloperoxidase release more significantly compared with their less pronounced effect on superoxide generation The presented results are indicative of pharmacological intervention with neutrophils in pathological processes. Of particular interest was the effect of natural compounds. Intracellular inhibition of oxidative burst in isolated neutrophils by the drugs tested and natural antioxidants has to be further analysed since ROS play an important role in immunological responses of neutrophils.

Parole chiave

  • human neutrophils
  • oxidative burst
  • therapeutical drugs
  • natural antioxidants
Accesso libero

The effects of berberine on reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils and in cell-free assays

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 61 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The health benefits of berberine have been recognized for years. Even so, its effects on human neutrophils, the first line of immune defense, have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine on the human neutrophil oxidative burst. Reactive oxygen species production was analyzed by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. The analysis was performed in spontaneous and stimulated (phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan particles (OZP)) whole blood and isolated neutrophils in the presence or absence of berberine. The effects of berberine on oxidant production in cell-free assays were evaluated using luminescence (H2O2-peroxidase-luminol) and fluorescence (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity – ORAC) techniques. Berberine decreased the production of reactive oxygen species in human whole blood and isolated neutrophils stimulated with either PMA or OZP with a different efficiency (EC50 was 69 μM and 197 μM for PMA and OZP, respectively). The effect was more pronounced in isolated neutrophils. Cell-free assays showed the antioxidant activity of berberine against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Based on our results, we suggest that the effects of berberine on reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils are due to its antioxidant activity.

Parole chiave

  • berberine
  • chemiluminescence
  • neutrophil
  • reactive oxygen species
Accesso libero

Content of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in biscuits for kids

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 66 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) is a thermal decomposition product of saccharides. There are two main ways for the formation of 5-HMF. First, 5-HMF is forming during Maillard reaction and second, during thermic dehydration of saccharides under acid conditions. Significant parameters of 5-HMF formation are temperature, time, pH, water activity, type of saccharide and amino acids. It is suspected that 5-HMF has genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. This chemical can be found in many food sources, e.g. honey, dried fruits, fruit juice and concentrates, alcoholic beverages, bakery products, roasted nuts and seeds, brown sugar, and milk. The present study aimed to determine the amount of 5-HMF in children's biscuits. The examined samples were divided into three groups. The first group of biscuits claimed availability for children older than six months, the second for children older than one year. The third group did not give a determined age range.

For the assessment of 5-HMF, a HPLC method with UV/VIS detection was used. In the first group of samples, the amount of 5-HMF ranged from 0.34±0.04 to 1.73±0.03 mg/kg, in the second group from 0.57±0.09 to 1.78±0.07 mg/kg, and in the third group the amounts of 5-HMF were from 1.80±0.05 to 34.99±0.22 mg/kg.

In conclusion, the results showed that the content of 5-HMF in biscuits without age group determination was significantly higher than in biscuits with declared availability for children older than six months or one year. Since the acceptable daily intake is 2 mg/kg bw, the established amount of 5-HMF in all samples cannot be regarded as dangerous in a normal dose of biscuits.

Parole chiave

  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde
  • biscuits
  • HPLC
  • children
Accesso libero

Impacts of dietary exposure to sodium or potassium salts of nitrate and nitrite on the development of Drosophila melanogaster

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 70 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

The effects of four food additives, namely sodium nitrite (NaNO2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), potassium nitrite (KNO2), and potassium nitrate (KNO3), on animal development were evaluated by using Drosophila melanogster, a model organism. Adult male and female flies were allowed to breed in culture medium, each containing one of 4 concentrations, i.e.10, 20, 30 or 40 mM of the above mentioned salts. The concentration of 40 mM, NaNO2 and KNO2 completely arrested the development of the flies. Of the different concentrations of the four salts tested, exposure of flies to 30 mM NaNO2 exhibited only significant delays in the initial appearances of third instar larvae, pupae and young adults, along with huge reduction in the number of pupae and young adults compared to controls. Rearrangements like inversions, deletion looping, regional shrinking, as well as highly enlarged puffing, etc. were also observed in the polytene chromosomes of the third instar larvae exposed to 30 mM NaNO2. Developmental outcomes of the flies exposed to varying concentrations of NaNO3 and KNO3 did not differ significantly from the controls. Owing to the extensive genetic homology between Drosophila and human and the successful uses of this fly as models in developmental and toxicological studies, we speculate that the experimental results exhibited by this organism in our study strongly advocate for abstaining from the dietary use of NaNO2 and KNO2 during human pregnancies to avoid possible negative developmental outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • food additives
  • polytene chromosomes
  • rearrangements
  • sodium nitrite
6 Articoli

Original Article

Accesso libero

Effect of 60 and 90 days of isotretinoin treatment on the structure of the small intestine mucosa in young male Wistar rats

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 45 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

Isotretinoin is a substance used in cases of severe acne and acne resistant to other treatments. This skin disease affects patients of all ages and can interfere with social life, especially in adolescents. The drug acts by suppressing sebaceous gland activity and creating an inhospitable environment for Propionibacterium acne. The integrity of the small intestine is important for correct nutrition and patient treatment. We intended to assess the small intestine structure after treatment with 5 mg/kg isotretinoin solution and after a period without the drug, which could be considered a rest period. Young male Wistar rats (n=24) were separated into 4 groups (n=6): C: water; D0: soybean oil; D5a: 5 mg/kg; D5b: 5 mg/kg for 60 days followed by 30 days of rest period. Soybean oil was used to dilute the drug and it was offered daily by gavage. The animals were euthanized and the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were collected for analysis with light and scanning electron microscopy. The treatment stimulated tissue proliferation in the jejunum and ileum but had no significant effect in the duodenum. The results also showed a modification in goblet cell frequency in the duodenum and ileum. A further finding was that some modifications disappeared during the rest period. The protocol showed that the small intestine was somewhat altered by the treatment yet no lasting damage was caused.

Parole chiave

  • small intestine
  • microscopy
  • Wistar rats
  • histology
Accesso libero

Increased intracellular and extracellular oxidant production in phagocytes of rheumatic patients treated with biological therapy – whole blood quantification

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 52 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Infectious complications, resulting from reduced activity of immune cells, are the most severe and common adverse effects of biological therapy. This study analyzed the effect of biological therapy on blood phagocytes, focusing on the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an important factor in the defence against invading pathogens. Intra- and extracellular ROS production were recorded separately, on the basis of luminol and isoluminol chemiluminescence in patients treated with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor-α or against interleukin-6 receptor. In comparison to healthy donors or to rheumatic patients treated with classical immunosuppressive drugs, biological therapy increased ROS formation in both compartments. This indicates that the anti-microbial activity of blood phagocytes was not reduced by TNFα- or IL-6-neutralizing therapy, at least in terms of ROS.

The method presented does not require blood fractionation, which could modify activity of phagocytes and cause loss of some sub-populations of these cells. The technique is simple, requires microliter volumes of blood and is thus well applicable to clinical studies.

Parole chiave

  • blood phagocytes
  • intracellular and extracellular chemiluminescence
  • rheumatic patients
  • biological therapy
Accesso libero

Pharmacological intervention with oxidative burst in human neutrophils

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 56 - 60

Astratto

Abstract

In this study we investigated the effect of five therapeutically used drugs and four natural polyphenolic compounds on the mechanism of oxidative burst of human neutrophils concerning their participation in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The compounds investigated decreased the oxidative burst of whole blood in the rank order of potency: N-feruloylserotonin > quercetin > curcumin > arbutin > dithiaden > carvedilol. The generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species in isolated neutrophils decreased in the same rank order, while carvedilol was ineffective. Scavenging of extracellular oxygen radicals followed the rank order of potency: N-feruloylserotonin > curcumin > quercetin > dithiaden. Arbutin and carvedilol had no effect. All compounds tested increased the activity of caspase-3 in cell-free system indicating a positive effect on apoptosis of neutrophils. Activation of protein kinase C was significantly decreased by dithiaden, curcumin, quercetin and N-feruloylserotonin. Carvedilol, dithiaden, quercetin and arbutin reduced activated neutrophil myeloperoxidase release more significantly compared with their less pronounced effect on superoxide generation The presented results are indicative of pharmacological intervention with neutrophils in pathological processes. Of particular interest was the effect of natural compounds. Intracellular inhibition of oxidative burst in isolated neutrophils by the drugs tested and natural antioxidants has to be further analysed since ROS play an important role in immunological responses of neutrophils.

Parole chiave

  • human neutrophils
  • oxidative burst
  • therapeutical drugs
  • natural antioxidants
Accesso libero

The effects of berberine on reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils and in cell-free assays

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 61 - 65

Astratto

Abstract

The health benefits of berberine have been recognized for years. Even so, its effects on human neutrophils, the first line of immune defense, have not been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of berberine on the human neutrophil oxidative burst. Reactive oxygen species production was analyzed by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. The analysis was performed in spontaneous and stimulated (phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan particles (OZP)) whole blood and isolated neutrophils in the presence or absence of berberine. The effects of berberine on oxidant production in cell-free assays were evaluated using luminescence (H2O2-peroxidase-luminol) and fluorescence (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity – ORAC) techniques. Berberine decreased the production of reactive oxygen species in human whole blood and isolated neutrophils stimulated with either PMA or OZP with a different efficiency (EC50 was 69 μM and 197 μM for PMA and OZP, respectively). The effect was more pronounced in isolated neutrophils. Cell-free assays showed the antioxidant activity of berberine against peroxyl radicals and hydrogen peroxide. Based on our results, we suggest that the effects of berberine on reactive oxygen species production in human neutrophils are due to its antioxidant activity.

Parole chiave

  • berberine
  • chemiluminescence
  • neutrophil
  • reactive oxygen species
Accesso libero

Content of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural in biscuits for kids

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 66 - 69

Astratto

Abstract

5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) is a thermal decomposition product of saccharides. There are two main ways for the formation of 5-HMF. First, 5-HMF is forming during Maillard reaction and second, during thermic dehydration of saccharides under acid conditions. Significant parameters of 5-HMF formation are temperature, time, pH, water activity, type of saccharide and amino acids. It is suspected that 5-HMF has genotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. This chemical can be found in many food sources, e.g. honey, dried fruits, fruit juice and concentrates, alcoholic beverages, bakery products, roasted nuts and seeds, brown sugar, and milk. The present study aimed to determine the amount of 5-HMF in children's biscuits. The examined samples were divided into three groups. The first group of biscuits claimed availability for children older than six months, the second for children older than one year. The third group did not give a determined age range.

For the assessment of 5-HMF, a HPLC method with UV/VIS detection was used. In the first group of samples, the amount of 5-HMF ranged from 0.34±0.04 to 1.73±0.03 mg/kg, in the second group from 0.57±0.09 to 1.78±0.07 mg/kg, and in the third group the amounts of 5-HMF were from 1.80±0.05 to 34.99±0.22 mg/kg.

In conclusion, the results showed that the content of 5-HMF in biscuits without age group determination was significantly higher than in biscuits with declared availability for children older than six months or one year. Since the acceptable daily intake is 2 mg/kg bw, the established amount of 5-HMF in all samples cannot be regarded as dangerous in a normal dose of biscuits.

Parole chiave

  • 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde
  • biscuits
  • HPLC
  • children
Accesso libero

Impacts of dietary exposure to sodium or potassium salts of nitrate and nitrite on the development of Drosophila melanogaster

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2018
Pagine: 70 - 78

Astratto

Abstract

The effects of four food additives, namely sodium nitrite (NaNO2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), potassium nitrite (KNO2), and potassium nitrate (KNO3), on animal development were evaluated by using Drosophila melanogster, a model organism. Adult male and female flies were allowed to breed in culture medium, each containing one of 4 concentrations, i.e.10, 20, 30 or 40 mM of the above mentioned salts. The concentration of 40 mM, NaNO2 and KNO2 completely arrested the development of the flies. Of the different concentrations of the four salts tested, exposure of flies to 30 mM NaNO2 exhibited only significant delays in the initial appearances of third instar larvae, pupae and young adults, along with huge reduction in the number of pupae and young adults compared to controls. Rearrangements like inversions, deletion looping, regional shrinking, as well as highly enlarged puffing, etc. were also observed in the polytene chromosomes of the third instar larvae exposed to 30 mM NaNO2. Developmental outcomes of the flies exposed to varying concentrations of NaNO3 and KNO3 did not differ significantly from the controls. Owing to the extensive genetic homology between Drosophila and human and the successful uses of this fly as models in developmental and toxicological studies, we speculate that the experimental results exhibited by this organism in our study strongly advocate for abstaining from the dietary use of NaNO2 and KNO2 during human pregnancies to avoid possible negative developmental outcomes.

Parole chiave

  • food additives
  • polytene chromosomes
  • rearrangements
  • sodium nitrite

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