Rivista e Edizione

Volume 68 (2022): Edizione 4 (December 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Edizione 3 (September 2022)

Volume 68 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)

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Volume 67 (2021): Edizione 4 (December 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Edizione 3 (September 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Edizione 2 (June 2021)

Volume 67 (2021): Edizione 1 (March 2021)

Volume 66 (2020): Edizione 4 (December 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Edizione 3 (September 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Edizione 2 (June 2020)

Volume 66 (2020): Edizione 1 (March 2020)

Volume 65 (2019): Edizione 3-4 (September 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Edizione 2 (June 2019)

Volume 65 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)

Volume 64 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)

Volume 64 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)

Volume 63 (2017): Edizione 4 (September 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Edizione 2-3 (June 2017)

Volume 63 (2017): Edizione 1 (March 2017)

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 2 (June 2013)

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 1 (March 2013)

Volume 58 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Edizione 3 (September 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Edizione 2 (June 2012)

Volume 58 (2012): Edizione 1 (March 2012)

Volume 57 (2011): Edizione 4 (December 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Edizione 3 (September 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Edizione 2 (June 2011)

Volume 57 (2011): Edizione 1 (March 2011)

Volume 56 (2010): Edizione 4 (December 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Edizione 3 (September 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Edizione 2 (June 2010)

Volume 56 (2010): Edizione 1 (March 2010)

Volume 55 (2009): Edizione 4 (December 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Edizione 3 (September 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Edizione 2 (June 2009)

Volume 55 (2009): Edizione 1 (March 2009)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 67 (2021): Edizione 3 (September 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Quarter of a century of forest fertilization and liming research at the Department of Silviculture in Prague, Czech Republic

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 123 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

Fertilization and liming began to be used in forestry at the beginning of the 20th century in order to increase growth, for improvement of health status or higher resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The review summarizes results of 48 studies of forest fertilization, nutrition and liming published in scientific journals by authors of Department of Silviculture in Prague over the past more than 20 years. They deal mainly with monitoring of the effect of fertilization and liming applied during planting or shortly after planting of 18 tree species. Moreover, the results of fertilization in older stands are presented. Separate chapters deal with enhancing substrates (soil conditioners and phytohormones). All forest vegetation ranges are covered, from lowland forests to the subalpine belt of grass vegetation in 11 Natural Forest Areas. Forest fertilizing and liming proved beneficial according to most of the studies. The use of fertilizers can be detected in soils after decades. On the other hand, only in a minority of cases was fertilization reflected in the chemistry of the assimilation apparatus and other parts of the trees for a longer period. The main positive effect of fertilization and liming was increase of tree growth and foliation and decrease of mortality and yellowing symptoms. Inconsistent results were documented in some cases, especially for brassinosteroids and alginite compared to good results in slow release fertilizer done by spot-application. The type of product, concentration, time and method of application play an important role in the appropriate use of fertilization and liming.

Parole chiave

  • afforestation
  • chemical amelioration
  • nutrition
  • tree resistance
  • growth increase
Accesso libero

Gap regeneration and dynamics: the case study of mixed forests at Křtiny in the Czech Republic

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 135 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

Gap regeneration remains the best silviculture technique for sustainable forest regeneration in mixed forests. The study examined tree species composition, diversity and dynamics of natural regeneration in gaps under three contrasting forest stands at Křtiny in the Czech Republic. In spring 2013, experimental gap design begins, when semi-permanent 1 m2 circular sub-sampling plots along North-South-East-West transects were delineated under 6 selected natural canopy openings ≤ 20 m2. In winter 2013/14, these naturally originated openings were artificially enlarged to the current gap sizes ranging between 255 and 1149 m2 through group felling. Natural regeneration in gaps was measured four times: from the growing season before disturbance (BD) in 2013 to the next three consecutive growing seasons after disturbance in 2014 – 2016, respectively. Seven (7) new species with light demanding growth strategy that were previously not present at mother stands were occurring there during the first growing season after disturbance (FGS), yielding the highest taxa (14 species) and diversity (Shannon diversity index, H = 1.7) while BD attained the lowest (8 species; H = 0.9), respectively. Study site being part of Fagus sylvatica vegetation community and providing favorable natural conditions for the optimal growth of Picea abies significantly explains the regeneration dominance of these species in gap regeneration from BD until the third growing season after disturbance (TGS), respectively. Small scale gap-disturbance contributed to the higher regeneration densities of all studied species during FGS. However, drought, competition from other life forms, and browsing activities substantially caused a progressive decline in natural regeneration during three consecutive years after disturbance.

Parole chiave

  • composition
  • diversity
  • disturbance
  • growing season
  • tree species
Accesso libero

Spatial resolution of unmanned aerial vehicles acquired imagery as a result of different processing conditions

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 148 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

Increasing availability of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and different software for processing of UAV imagery data brings new possibilities for on-demand monitoring of environment, making it accessible to broader spectra of professionals with variable expertise in image processing and analysis. This brings also new questions related to imagery quality standards. One of important characteristics of imagery is its spatial resolution as it directly impacts the results of object recognition and further imagery processing. This study aims at identifying relationship between spatial resolution of UAV acquired imagery and variables of imagery acquiring conditions, especially UAV flight height, flight speed and lighting conditions. All of these characteristics has been proved as significantly influencing spatial resolution quality and all subsequent data based on this imagery. Higher flight height as well as flight speed brings lower spatial resolution, whereas better lighting conditions lead to better spatial resolution of imagery. In this article we conducted a study testing various heights, flight speeds and light conditions and tested the impact of these parameters on Ground Resolved Distance (GRD). We proved that from among the variables, height is the most significant factor, second position is speed and finally the light condition. All of these factors could be relevant for instance in implementation of UAV in forestry sector, where imagery data must be often collected in diverse terrain conditions and/or complex stand (especially vertical) structure, as well as different weather conditions.

Parole chiave

  • spatial resolution
  • ground resolved distance
  • light conditions
  • object identification
  • forestry sector
Accesso libero

Qualitative and value production of tree species in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands under the conditions of the Western Carpathians

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 155 - 165

Astratto

Abstract

Value production is one of the most important information for comparing different tree species composition and management strategies in forestry. Although the value production of forest stands is affected by various factors thinning can be considered as one of the most important one. This paper aims at the evaluation of qualitative and value production in mixed Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, which were managed by crown thinning for a period of 44 to 50 years and/or left to self-development. More than 1,500 individual trees aged from 61 to 132 years from 15 subplots established in western part of the Low Tatras Mts. and the Great Fatra Mts. in Slovakia were assessed. The proportion of stems in the highest quality A (stem quality classes) reached a low percentage, i.e. 12% in beech, 28% in spruce and 13% in fir out of the number of evaluated trees. The percentage of the highest quality log classes (assortments I + II) of beech ranged from 0 to 23% and of coniferous ones from 2 to 12%. Regarding the management method used, this percentage accounted for 0.1 to 23% for plot with self-development, whereas in plots with tending it was from 1 to 23%. Value production of coniferous tree species was always higher compared to beech, regardless of the management method. Regarding individual tree species, we found the highest value production in fir (81.4 € m−3) and the lowest in beech (46.5 € m−3).

Parole chiave

  • Norway spruce
  • silver fir
  • European beech
  • stem quality
  • assortment structure
  • thinning
Accesso libero

Effect of game browsing on natural regeneration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Krušné hory Mts. (Czech Republic and Germany)

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 166 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

Tree damage by game browsing is one of the biggest threats to forest ecosystems at the time of climate change and large-scale forest disturbances. The aim of the paper was to determine the effect of browsing by ungulates on the diversity, abundance and species composition of natural regeneration in forest stands dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The research was conducted on 10 permanent research plots in the Krušné hory Mts. in the Czech Republic and Germany. The density of natural regeneration was in the range of 23,300–114,100 recruits ha−1. A higher proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) was found in the regeneration compared to the mature stands. A total of 78% of recruits was damaged by browsing. The most frequently damaged tree species were sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.; 98%) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn.; 97%), while Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst; 31%) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl.; 50%) were the least affected. Seventy-nine percent of European beech recruits were damaged. The game significantly reduced the height of regeneration by up to 40%, especially by terminal browsing. Browsing also negatively affected the quality and abundance of regeneration. For successful dynamics of species-rich natural forest ecosystems, it is necessary to minimize tree damage by game browsing. These main measures include the reduction of ungulate population levels and the optimization of their age structure and sex ratio, an increase in the number of overwintering enclosures and food fields for game and a change in the political approach to game management with sufficient consideration of forestry interests.

Parole chiave

  • tree damage
  • forest structure
  • biodiversity
  • forest protection
  • Central Europe
Accesso libero

Optimization of maturity age for coppice oak forests within Left-Bank Forest-Steppe in Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 181 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

Oak (Quercus robur L.) forest stands are among the most common forest formations in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. Investigations of the patterns of distribution of trees by diameter and the dynamics of the commodity structure of mature oak stands of coppice origin were carried out based on the forest survey data from 28 temporary sample plots, on the sites designated for the final felling in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine (Sumy, Kharkiv, and Poltava Regions). We distributed trees by diameter classes and technical suitability categories. To establish the commodity structure of the stand, we selected model trees that corresponded to the average size of trees in terms of diameter classes and their qualitative characteristics. Then, we constructed a model tree stem profile using Institute of Forest Ecosystems Research (IFER)’s method of “6 points”. Based on stands’ structure and quality condition as well as on the growth tables, the commodity structure dynamics table for the changes in the commodity structure for the coppice oak stands in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine has been developed. The results of the analysis of wood stock dynamics showed that the maximum average increment of class A and B wood is 90–100 years. Therefore, the age of technical maturity and the associated age for the final felling in commercial oak forests of second site class and above should be assigned to 91–100 years.

Parole chiave

  • oak
  • industrial timber
  • coppice stand
  • commodity structure
  • marketability dynamics
6 Articoli
Accesso libero

Quarter of a century of forest fertilization and liming research at the Department of Silviculture in Prague, Czech Republic

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 123 - 134

Astratto

Abstract

Fertilization and liming began to be used in forestry at the beginning of the 20th century in order to increase growth, for improvement of health status or higher resistance to biotic and abiotic factors. The review summarizes results of 48 studies of forest fertilization, nutrition and liming published in scientific journals by authors of Department of Silviculture in Prague over the past more than 20 years. They deal mainly with monitoring of the effect of fertilization and liming applied during planting or shortly after planting of 18 tree species. Moreover, the results of fertilization in older stands are presented. Separate chapters deal with enhancing substrates (soil conditioners and phytohormones). All forest vegetation ranges are covered, from lowland forests to the subalpine belt of grass vegetation in 11 Natural Forest Areas. Forest fertilizing and liming proved beneficial according to most of the studies. The use of fertilizers can be detected in soils after decades. On the other hand, only in a minority of cases was fertilization reflected in the chemistry of the assimilation apparatus and other parts of the trees for a longer period. The main positive effect of fertilization and liming was increase of tree growth and foliation and decrease of mortality and yellowing symptoms. Inconsistent results were documented in some cases, especially for brassinosteroids and alginite compared to good results in slow release fertilizer done by spot-application. The type of product, concentration, time and method of application play an important role in the appropriate use of fertilization and liming.

Parole chiave

  • afforestation
  • chemical amelioration
  • nutrition
  • tree resistance
  • growth increase
Accesso libero

Gap regeneration and dynamics: the case study of mixed forests at Křtiny in the Czech Republic

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 135 - 147

Astratto

Abstract

Gap regeneration remains the best silviculture technique for sustainable forest regeneration in mixed forests. The study examined tree species composition, diversity and dynamics of natural regeneration in gaps under three contrasting forest stands at Křtiny in the Czech Republic. In spring 2013, experimental gap design begins, when semi-permanent 1 m2 circular sub-sampling plots along North-South-East-West transects were delineated under 6 selected natural canopy openings ≤ 20 m2. In winter 2013/14, these naturally originated openings were artificially enlarged to the current gap sizes ranging between 255 and 1149 m2 through group felling. Natural regeneration in gaps was measured four times: from the growing season before disturbance (BD) in 2013 to the next three consecutive growing seasons after disturbance in 2014 – 2016, respectively. Seven (7) new species with light demanding growth strategy that were previously not present at mother stands were occurring there during the first growing season after disturbance (FGS), yielding the highest taxa (14 species) and diversity (Shannon diversity index, H = 1.7) while BD attained the lowest (8 species; H = 0.9), respectively. Study site being part of Fagus sylvatica vegetation community and providing favorable natural conditions for the optimal growth of Picea abies significantly explains the regeneration dominance of these species in gap regeneration from BD until the third growing season after disturbance (TGS), respectively. Small scale gap-disturbance contributed to the higher regeneration densities of all studied species during FGS. However, drought, competition from other life forms, and browsing activities substantially caused a progressive decline in natural regeneration during three consecutive years after disturbance.

Parole chiave

  • composition
  • diversity
  • disturbance
  • growing season
  • tree species
Accesso libero

Spatial resolution of unmanned aerial vehicles acquired imagery as a result of different processing conditions

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 148 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

Increasing availability of Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and different software for processing of UAV imagery data brings new possibilities for on-demand monitoring of environment, making it accessible to broader spectra of professionals with variable expertise in image processing and analysis. This brings also new questions related to imagery quality standards. One of important characteristics of imagery is its spatial resolution as it directly impacts the results of object recognition and further imagery processing. This study aims at identifying relationship between spatial resolution of UAV acquired imagery and variables of imagery acquiring conditions, especially UAV flight height, flight speed and lighting conditions. All of these characteristics has been proved as significantly influencing spatial resolution quality and all subsequent data based on this imagery. Higher flight height as well as flight speed brings lower spatial resolution, whereas better lighting conditions lead to better spatial resolution of imagery. In this article we conducted a study testing various heights, flight speeds and light conditions and tested the impact of these parameters on Ground Resolved Distance (GRD). We proved that from among the variables, height is the most significant factor, second position is speed and finally the light condition. All of these factors could be relevant for instance in implementation of UAV in forestry sector, where imagery data must be often collected in diverse terrain conditions and/or complex stand (especially vertical) structure, as well as different weather conditions.

Parole chiave

  • spatial resolution
  • ground resolved distance
  • light conditions
  • object identification
  • forestry sector
Accesso libero

Qualitative and value production of tree species in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands under the conditions of the Western Carpathians

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 155 - 165

Astratto

Abstract

Value production is one of the most important information for comparing different tree species composition and management strategies in forestry. Although the value production of forest stands is affected by various factors thinning can be considered as one of the most important one. This paper aims at the evaluation of qualitative and value production in mixed Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.), silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) stands, which were managed by crown thinning for a period of 44 to 50 years and/or left to self-development. More than 1,500 individual trees aged from 61 to 132 years from 15 subplots established in western part of the Low Tatras Mts. and the Great Fatra Mts. in Slovakia were assessed. The proportion of stems in the highest quality A (stem quality classes) reached a low percentage, i.e. 12% in beech, 28% in spruce and 13% in fir out of the number of evaluated trees. The percentage of the highest quality log classes (assortments I + II) of beech ranged from 0 to 23% and of coniferous ones from 2 to 12%. Regarding the management method used, this percentage accounted for 0.1 to 23% for plot with self-development, whereas in plots with tending it was from 1 to 23%. Value production of coniferous tree species was always higher compared to beech, regardless of the management method. Regarding individual tree species, we found the highest value production in fir (81.4 € m−3) and the lowest in beech (46.5 € m−3).

Parole chiave

  • Norway spruce
  • silver fir
  • European beech
  • stem quality
  • assortment structure
  • thinning
Accesso libero

Effect of game browsing on natural regeneration of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests in the Krušné hory Mts. (Czech Republic and Germany)

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 166 - 180

Astratto

Abstract

Tree damage by game browsing is one of the biggest threats to forest ecosystems at the time of climate change and large-scale forest disturbances. The aim of the paper was to determine the effect of browsing by ungulates on the diversity, abundance and species composition of natural regeneration in forest stands dominated by European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). The research was conducted on 10 permanent research plots in the Krušné hory Mts. in the Czech Republic and Germany. The density of natural regeneration was in the range of 23,300–114,100 recruits ha−1. A higher proportion of silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) and rowan (Sorbus aucuparia L.) was found in the regeneration compared to the mature stands. A total of 78% of recruits was damaged by browsing. The most frequently damaged tree species were sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.; 98%) and black alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn.; 97%), while Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst; 31%) and sessile oak (Quercus petraea [Matt.] Liebl.; 50%) were the least affected. Seventy-nine percent of European beech recruits were damaged. The game significantly reduced the height of regeneration by up to 40%, especially by terminal browsing. Browsing also negatively affected the quality and abundance of regeneration. For successful dynamics of species-rich natural forest ecosystems, it is necessary to minimize tree damage by game browsing. These main measures include the reduction of ungulate population levels and the optimization of their age structure and sex ratio, an increase in the number of overwintering enclosures and food fields for game and a change in the political approach to game management with sufficient consideration of forestry interests.

Parole chiave

  • tree damage
  • forest structure
  • biodiversity
  • forest protection
  • Central Europe
Accesso libero

Optimization of maturity age for coppice oak forests within Left-Bank Forest-Steppe in Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 24 Jun 2021
Pagine: 181 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

Oak (Quercus robur L.) forest stands are among the most common forest formations in the forest-steppe zone of Ukraine. Investigations of the patterns of distribution of trees by diameter and the dynamics of the commodity structure of mature oak stands of coppice origin were carried out based on the forest survey data from 28 temporary sample plots, on the sites designated for the final felling in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine (Sumy, Kharkiv, and Poltava Regions). We distributed trees by diameter classes and technical suitability categories. To establish the commodity structure of the stand, we selected model trees that corresponded to the average size of trees in terms of diameter classes and their qualitative characteristics. Then, we constructed a model tree stem profile using Institute of Forest Ecosystems Research (IFER)’s method of “6 points”. Based on stands’ structure and quality condition as well as on the growth tables, the commodity structure dynamics table for the changes in the commodity structure for the coppice oak stands in the Left-Bank Forest Steppe of Ukraine has been developed. The results of the analysis of wood stock dynamics showed that the maximum average increment of class A and B wood is 90–100 years. Therefore, the age of technical maturity and the associated age for the final felling in commercial oak forests of second site class and above should be assigned to 91–100 years.

Parole chiave

  • oak
  • industrial timber
  • coppice stand
  • commodity structure
  • marketability dynamics

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