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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 64 (2018): Edizione 2 (June 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

6 Articoli

Original Paper

Accesso libero

Towards understanding the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forest phosphorus cycling : a modelling approach

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 79 - 95

Astratto

Abstract

Many studies have shown the importance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in forests both for nutrient availability and for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in the soil. Yet so far they are not incorporated in forest ecosystem growth and yield models. Recent research suggests phosphorus (P) shortage could be a major constraints to forest productivity in the future. For a realistic simulation of future forest ecosystem functioning, inclusion of detailed soil P cycling and the trees-EM interaction is necessary. We developed a full ecosystem P model that simulates P uptake by roots and EM, allocation within trees, physiological deficiency effects on C assimilation and allocation, release through litter decomposition, coupled with water, C and nitrogen (N) fluxes accounted for in the mechanistic forest stand model ANAFORE. Our results confirm the importance of incorporating EM in forest ecosystem models and suggest that the lack of incorporation of P in models may result in an under- or overestimation of forest growth. This new model has the potential of being used to assess the response of trees and/or stands to nutrient availability under different climate and management scenarios. With the current parameterization it is functional as a scientific research tool to investigate hypotheses.

Parole chiave

  • nutrient cycling
  • mechanistic model
  • pine forest
  • ectomycorrhizal fungi
  • phosphorus
Accesso libero

Merchantability and assortment structure of pine stands affected by root rot in the Volyn Polissya region, Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 96 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

The study was conducted in the forests of the State Enterprise “Gorodotske Forest Economy”, located in the Manevytsko-Volodymyretsky region of the Volyn Polissya in Ukraine. The annosum root rot (Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) impact on timber merchantability was investigated. The comparison of the cost estimation of stands assortment structure was carried out on the basis of the market value at current selling prices of the State Enterprise “Gorodotske Forest Economy” of the Volyn Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting as of 2017, taking into account the quality and the average length of the assortments. We present a comparative analysis of productivity, merchantability and assortment structure and financial value of timber volume by various assortments of pine and birch stands of the Volyn Polissya region affected by annosum root rot. We found that in the pine plantations, the overall productivity and the value of merchantable wood was higher by 42% in the control sites (areas between the fungal disease centers) as compared with those in the root rot disease centers. In the middle-aged birch-pine stands, the value of merchantable wood was higher than that in pine plantations of 34 the comparable age: by 9% in the disease centers and by 8% in control sites.

Parole chiave

  • artificial pine stands
  • annosum root rot
  • disease center
  • merchantability
  • assortment structure
  • assortment value
Accesso libero

The energy intensity of the production of energy chips from dendromass stands on long-term uncultivated agricultural land

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 104 - 115

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the energy intensity of the fuel wood chips production on unused agricultural land. The unused agricultural land, overgrown with forest trees, also called white areas, is the result of the end of the traditional intensive management of agricultural land by the natural succession of forest stands and pioneers’ wood species on the borders of forest and non-forest land. These stands are advantageously localized due to previous method of the land utilization, accessible and therefore very interesting from the point of view of obtaining fuel dendromass. The logging and subsequent dendromass processing was carried out for the purpose of further land use as pasture land and also for the production of fuel wood chips and their subsequent sale to the end user. With the utilization of technology chain saw-forwarder-chipper, the energy intensity of each operation, expressed in terms of the amount of fuel consumed per unit of produced wood fuel, was determined. The share of energy consumed in the energy value of the harvested tree dendromass in the evaluated sites ranged from 0.43 to 0.62%, approximately 0.64 to 0.88% and the chipping 0.42 to 0.54%. The total amount of energy consumed after calculation the chipper transfers to an average distance of 180 km was within 1.46 to 2.11%. The average weight of the harvested trees caused the biggest impact on the energy intensity of the production process.

Parole chiave

  • wood chips
  • biomass transportation
  • energy ratio
  • dendromass
  • unused agricultural land
Accesso libero

Forest biodiversity and production potential of post-mining landscape: opting for afforestation or leaving it to spontaneous development?

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 116 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

Land reclamation of post-mining sites strongly influences not only diversity and biomass of frequently studied ground vegetation, but also diversity of forest ecosystem. In most cases, spoil heaps are afforested after coal mining, but some reclaimed sites are left to spontaneous development, such as our study locality – surroundings of the Sokolov town, Czech Republic. Structure, species diversity and production potential were studied on three heap sites, artificially afforested by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stands, and compared with three permanent research plots (PRP) left to natural succession processes with prevailing European aspen (Populus tremula L.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and also with silver birch. The timber production increased from the willow stand (28 m3 ha−1) to birch ones (97 m3 ha−1, all 45 years old). The mean stand volumes were significantly higher on afforested PRPs (74 m3 ha−1) than on succession PRPs (51 m3 ha−1), just as tree diameters. However, in terms of production quality, occurrence of breaks was significantly higher on afforested PRPs (15%) compared to succession PRPs (7%), while the opposite situation was observed in the stem quality. Horizontal structure of trees was regular on afforested PRPs, while spatial pattern on succession PRPs was aggregated. The highest differences in favor of succession PRPs was found in species richness and total stand diversity. These results imply a need for combined approaches in post-mining landscape management to support economic benefit and especially ecological value.

Parole chiave

  • natural succession
  • forestry reclamation
  • ecological value
  • Antonín-Sokolov spoil heap
  • Czech Republic
Accesso libero

Is cable yarding a dangerous occupation? A Survey from the public and private sector

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 127 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Cable yarding is a physically demanding and dangerous occupation in forest harvesting. Currently, the technology is gaining interest due to its low environmental impacts compared to the ground based technologies. This paper was focused on comparing the subjective opinions regarding occupational safety and work environment with objective findings found in the literature. We used a questionnaire with 33 questions, divided into three main parts: (i) personal traits of the participants; (ii) occupation description; and (iii) the occupational risks identified the participants. The sample consisted of 92 workers who operated cable yarders from both the public and the private sector. Our survey showed that 90% of public and 75% of private sector employees view their work as physically very demanding. Regarding risky behaviour, 50% of public, and 54% of private employees stated they risked only when the circumstances forced them to. However, more than 41% of public and 50% of private employees stated they suffered an occupational accident in the last ten years of working with this technology. Considering the workers worked in unstable climatic conditions, on unstable terrain, and the work environment presents other hazards, such as the loads, sharp tools and equipment, this result was not surprising.

Parole chiave

  • occupational accident
  • occupational risks
  • cable yarding
  • public and private sector
  • questionnaire
Accesso libero

Species diversity of fungi on damaged branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in different types of stands in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 133 - 139

Astratto

Abstract

The diversity of fungi on branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, F. ornus) in Slovakia was studied. Symptomatic material collected in Slovakia during the period of 2013 to 2017 and herbarium specimens previously collected were examined. In total, 30 fungal taxa (15 Deuteromycetes, 14 Ascomycetes and one Basidiomycetes) were recorded. Twenty-three of them have never been recorded on ashes in the country. The most frequently occurring fungi were Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea) that causes necrosis of shoots and branches, and Phyllactinia fraxini, a foliar pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease. Fungal diversity on ashes growing in different types of stands was compared. Species richness was the greatest in seed orchards (20 fungal taxa) compared to private gardens, which contained the lowest (two fungal taxa). Species diversity in forest stands comprised 18 fungal taxa and the urban greenery was represented by 10 fungal taxa. Nine fungal taxa were recorded in tree alley along the road. The widest fungal species spectrum was recorded on F. excelsior.

Parole chiave

  • mycobiota
  • ash dieback
  • plant pathogens
  • saprophytes
6 Articoli

Original Paper

Accesso libero

Towards understanding the role of ectomycorrhizal fungi in forest phosphorus cycling : a modelling approach

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 79 - 95

Astratto

Abstract

Many studies have shown the importance of ectomycorrhizal fungi (EM) in forests both for nutrient availability and for carbon (C) and nutrient cycling in the soil. Yet so far they are not incorporated in forest ecosystem growth and yield models. Recent research suggests phosphorus (P) shortage could be a major constraints to forest productivity in the future. For a realistic simulation of future forest ecosystem functioning, inclusion of detailed soil P cycling and the trees-EM interaction is necessary. We developed a full ecosystem P model that simulates P uptake by roots and EM, allocation within trees, physiological deficiency effects on C assimilation and allocation, release through litter decomposition, coupled with water, C and nitrogen (N) fluxes accounted for in the mechanistic forest stand model ANAFORE. Our results confirm the importance of incorporating EM in forest ecosystem models and suggest that the lack of incorporation of P in models may result in an under- or overestimation of forest growth. This new model has the potential of being used to assess the response of trees and/or stands to nutrient availability under different climate and management scenarios. With the current parameterization it is functional as a scientific research tool to investigate hypotheses.

Parole chiave

  • nutrient cycling
  • mechanistic model
  • pine forest
  • ectomycorrhizal fungi
  • phosphorus
Accesso libero

Merchantability and assortment structure of pine stands affected by root rot in the Volyn Polissya region, Ukraine

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 96 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

The study was conducted in the forests of the State Enterprise “Gorodotske Forest Economy”, located in the Manevytsko-Volodymyretsky region of the Volyn Polissya in Ukraine. The annosum root rot (Heterobasidion annosum (Fr.) Bref.) impact on timber merchantability was investigated. The comparison of the cost estimation of stands assortment structure was carried out on the basis of the market value at current selling prices of the State Enterprise “Gorodotske Forest Economy” of the Volyn Regional Department of Forestry and Hunting as of 2017, taking into account the quality and the average length of the assortments. We present a comparative analysis of productivity, merchantability and assortment structure and financial value of timber volume by various assortments of pine and birch stands of the Volyn Polissya region affected by annosum root rot. We found that in the pine plantations, the overall productivity and the value of merchantable wood was higher by 42% in the control sites (areas between the fungal disease centers) as compared with those in the root rot disease centers. In the middle-aged birch-pine stands, the value of merchantable wood was higher than that in pine plantations of 34 the comparable age: by 9% in the disease centers and by 8% in control sites.

Parole chiave

  • artificial pine stands
  • annosum root rot
  • disease center
  • merchantability
  • assortment structure
  • assortment value
Accesso libero

The energy intensity of the production of energy chips from dendromass stands on long-term uncultivated agricultural land

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 104 - 115

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this work was to investigate the energy intensity of the fuel wood chips production on unused agricultural land. The unused agricultural land, overgrown with forest trees, also called white areas, is the result of the end of the traditional intensive management of agricultural land by the natural succession of forest stands and pioneers’ wood species on the borders of forest and non-forest land. These stands are advantageously localized due to previous method of the land utilization, accessible and therefore very interesting from the point of view of obtaining fuel dendromass. The logging and subsequent dendromass processing was carried out for the purpose of further land use as pasture land and also for the production of fuel wood chips and their subsequent sale to the end user. With the utilization of technology chain saw-forwarder-chipper, the energy intensity of each operation, expressed in terms of the amount of fuel consumed per unit of produced wood fuel, was determined. The share of energy consumed in the energy value of the harvested tree dendromass in the evaluated sites ranged from 0.43 to 0.62%, approximately 0.64 to 0.88% and the chipping 0.42 to 0.54%. The total amount of energy consumed after calculation the chipper transfers to an average distance of 180 km was within 1.46 to 2.11%. The average weight of the harvested trees caused the biggest impact on the energy intensity of the production process.

Parole chiave

  • wood chips
  • biomass transportation
  • energy ratio
  • dendromass
  • unused agricultural land
Accesso libero

Forest biodiversity and production potential of post-mining landscape: opting for afforestation or leaving it to spontaneous development?

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 116 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

Land reclamation of post-mining sites strongly influences not only diversity and biomass of frequently studied ground vegetation, but also diversity of forest ecosystem. In most cases, spoil heaps are afforested after coal mining, but some reclaimed sites are left to spontaneous development, such as our study locality – surroundings of the Sokolov town, Czech Republic. Structure, species diversity and production potential were studied on three heap sites, artificially afforested by pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.), black alder (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertn) and silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) stands, and compared with three permanent research plots (PRP) left to natural succession processes with prevailing European aspen (Populus tremula L.), goat willow (Salix caprea L.) and also with silver birch. The timber production increased from the willow stand (28 m3 ha−1) to birch ones (97 m3 ha−1, all 45 years old). The mean stand volumes were significantly higher on afforested PRPs (74 m3 ha−1) than on succession PRPs (51 m3 ha−1), just as tree diameters. However, in terms of production quality, occurrence of breaks was significantly higher on afforested PRPs (15%) compared to succession PRPs (7%), while the opposite situation was observed in the stem quality. Horizontal structure of trees was regular on afforested PRPs, while spatial pattern on succession PRPs was aggregated. The highest differences in favor of succession PRPs was found in species richness and total stand diversity. These results imply a need for combined approaches in post-mining landscape management to support economic benefit and especially ecological value.

Parole chiave

  • natural succession
  • forestry reclamation
  • ecological value
  • Antonín-Sokolov spoil heap
  • Czech Republic
Accesso libero

Is cable yarding a dangerous occupation? A Survey from the public and private sector

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 127 - 132

Astratto

Abstract

Cable yarding is a physically demanding and dangerous occupation in forest harvesting. Currently, the technology is gaining interest due to its low environmental impacts compared to the ground based technologies. This paper was focused on comparing the subjective opinions regarding occupational safety and work environment with objective findings found in the literature. We used a questionnaire with 33 questions, divided into three main parts: (i) personal traits of the participants; (ii) occupation description; and (iii) the occupational risks identified the participants. The sample consisted of 92 workers who operated cable yarders from both the public and the private sector. Our survey showed that 90% of public and 75% of private sector employees view their work as physically very demanding. Regarding risky behaviour, 50% of public, and 54% of private employees stated they risked only when the circumstances forced them to. However, more than 41% of public and 50% of private employees stated they suffered an occupational accident in the last ten years of working with this technology. Considering the workers worked in unstable climatic conditions, on unstable terrain, and the work environment presents other hazards, such as the loads, sharp tools and equipment, this result was not surprising.

Parole chiave

  • occupational accident
  • occupational risks
  • cable yarding
  • public and private sector
  • questionnaire
Accesso libero

Species diversity of fungi on damaged branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus spp.) in different types of stands in Slovakia

Pubblicato online: 14 May 2018
Pagine: 133 - 139

Astratto

Abstract

The diversity of fungi on branches and leaves of ashes (Fraxinus angustifolia, F. excelsior, F. ornus) in Slovakia was studied. Symptomatic material collected in Slovakia during the period of 2013 to 2017 and herbarium specimens previously collected were examined. In total, 30 fungal taxa (15 Deuteromycetes, 14 Ascomycetes and one Basidiomycetes) were recorded. Twenty-three of them have never been recorded on ashes in the country. The most frequently occurring fungi were Hymenoscyphus fraxineus (anamorph Chalara fraxinea) that causes necrosis of shoots and branches, and Phyllactinia fraxini, a foliar pathogen that causes powdery mildew disease. Fungal diversity on ashes growing in different types of stands was compared. Species richness was the greatest in seed orchards (20 fungal taxa) compared to private gardens, which contained the lowest (two fungal taxa). Species diversity in forest stands comprised 18 fungal taxa and the urban greenery was represented by 10 fungal taxa. Nine fungal taxa were recorded in tree alley along the road. The widest fungal species spectrum was recorded on F. excelsior.

Parole chiave

  • mycobiota
  • ash dieback
  • plant pathogens
  • saprophytes

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