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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
ISSN
0323-1046
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 59 (2013): Edizione 3 (September 2013)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2454-0358
ISSN
0323-1046
Pubblicato per la prima volta
14 Dec 2009
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Above-Ground Net Primary Productivity in Young Stands of Beech and Spruce

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 154 - 162

Astratto

Abstract

One of the expected consequences of climate change and its inherent phenomena to forest ecosystems is the gradual modification of their tree species composition (i.e. expansion of resistant species instead of less resistant ones). Climate change accompanied with increasing temperatures and a lack of precipitations may present a threat especially to spruce stands in the European part of the temperate zone. European beech is one of the possible forest tree species which might replace the potentially endangered spruce. In this paper, we observed, by using a combination of continual measurements and destructive whole-tree sampling, standing stocks of above-ground biomass (i.e. stem, branches, and foliage) and its annual net primary productivity (NPP) in naturally regenerated young stands of beech and spruce. We intentionally selected a site where the changing climate conditions are better suited to the ecological demands of beech rather than spruce (the species is dominant in the observed area). We recorded only small differences in the standing stock of stems of the beech, if based on tons per ha. However, this is in favor of spruce if based on cubic meters per ha. The largest difference between the species was found for the standing stock of foliage, spruce retained three times the biomass of beech. Also, beech allocated more carbohydrates to stem than spruce. On the other hand, we estimated nearly the same production of foliages and branches in both stands.

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • net primary productivity
  • above-ground biomass
  • standing stock
  • tree compartments
Accesso libero

Fine Root Standing Stock and Production in Young Beech and Spruce Stands

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 163 - 171

Astratto

Abstract

Fine roots (defined by a maximum diameter of 2 mm) and assimilatory organs are the compartments which rotate carbon much faster than any other tree part. We focused on quantification of fine roots in young European beech and Norway spruce trees growing under the same ecological conditions. Standing stock of fine roots was estimated by soil coring during 2009 - 2012. Fine root production was established by the in-growth bag method. Standing stock and productions of fine roots were comparable in both tree species. The quantity of fine root biomass (at a soil depth of 0 -50 cm) varied inter-annually between 6.08 and 7.41 t per ha in the beech and from 5.10 to 6.49 t per ha in the spruce stand. Annual production of fine roots (soil depth of 0 - 30 cm) was between 1.11 and 1.63 t ha-1 in beech and between 0.95 and 1.54 t.ha-1 in spruce. We found that fine root standing stock at the beginning of each growing season was related to climatic conditions in the previous year. Annual fine root production was influenced by the climatic situation of the current year. In general, a maximum standing stock of fine roots as well as a relatively slow fine root turnover is expected in young forest stands. Whereas production of fine roots prevailed over mortality in a favorable year (sufficiency of precipitations and slightly above-average temperatures in 2010), there was a reverse situation in an unfavorable year (drought episodes in 2011). We concluded that although both forest types represented contrasting turnovers of assimilatory organs (once a year and once in 5 years in beech and spruce respectively), fine root turnover rates were very similar (approx. once per four years).

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • fine roots
  • turnover
  • production
Accesso libero

Indices of Tree Competition in Dense Spruces Stand Originated from Natural Regeneration

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 172 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims to quantify relationships between the biometric parameters of young, 15-year old spruce stands at the Experimental Site Vrchslatina. In 2011, 40 spruce trees were selected to cover four classes of bio-sociological status (dominant, co-dominant, sub-dominant, and suppressed - 10 individuals each). The trees were measured for their height increments (by recording the distances between the successive whorls) and the increments of lateral branches at all whorls. The sample trees were then cut down and discs were taken from the stem base. In the laboratory, the discs were measured for the annual ring widths using WinDendro software. We focused on detailed analyses of the relationship between the bio-sociological status of the trees on the radial and height increments. Minor differences were found in the increments in the newest lateral whorls. The ratio between height increments and lateral branch increments was found to be higher in dominant trees (height increments is two times higher than the increments on the lateral branches). Conversely, the smallest ratio was found in suppressed trees (the ratio was around 1). The ratio between tree height and diameter at the stem base, as well as the ratio between height and radial increments, was the smallest for dominant and the highest for suppressed trees. Hence, relationships between height and diameter increments (both annual and cumulative) proved to reflect competition intensity among trees.

Parole chiave

  • young spruce trees
  • natural regeneration
  • inter-tree competition
  • height increment
  • diameter increment
Accesso libero

Modelling Effects of Weather Condition on Seasonal Dynamics of the Stem Circumference Increment in a Mixed Stand of Norway Spruce and European Beech

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 180 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

This study was aimed at modelling seasonal variation of stem circumference increments in a mixed stand composed of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Moreover, we focused on the quantification of the main climatic factors governing the increments. The measurements were performed at a site established at about 970 m a.s.l. from the locality of Vrchslatina (Central Slovakia). Data was collected from 20 European beech trees and 20 Norway spruce trees, from 2009 to 2012. The increments (measured at 130 cm above ground level) were recorded circa biweekly using manual band dendrometers. Lognormal function was used for the modelling of the seasonal trend of the increments. Hourly-based records of climatic variables such as air temperature, precipitation, and derived vapour pressure deficit were used for the modelling. The effect of climatic parameters on the seasonal variations of the increments was tested by including them directly into the lognormal function. The results suggest that while the sum of precipitation was a better predicting factor for spruce, the mean temperature was the better predictor for beech. In addition, both temperature and vapour pressure deficits also had an effect on the increments of spruce, but these parameters did not contribute to the explanation of the variability of increments for beech. Overall, the variability clarified by the final model was 72% for spruce and 78% for beech. At the same time, climatic parameters as a part of the model helped to explain 10% of the variability for the spruce (precipitations) and 3% of the variability for the beech (temperature). We also found lower variability in the increments of beech compared to spruce. This suggests that for the specific site conditions spruce are more sensitive to environmental conditions than beech

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • seasonal circumference increment
  • weather conditions
  • growth modelling
Accesso libero

Preliminary Results of Soil Respiration in Beech, Spruce and Grassy Stands

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 189 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

Soil respiration constitutes the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study provides the preliminary results of soil respiration (Rs) observations in three different stands, including two types of young forest stands (beech and spruce) and grassy clearings. The average values of Rs ranged from 0.92 to 15.20 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the beech stand, from 1.14 to 11.26 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the spruce stand and from 0.96 to 12.92 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the grassy stand, respectively during the whole measuring period. Maximum rates of Rs were observed on all stands at the beginning of August and minimum rates of Rs at the beginning of November. Soil CO2 efflux exhibited a clear seasonality for all measured stands. Seasonal fluctuations of soil respiration for all stands are closely related to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture.

Parole chiave

  • experimental site Vrchslatina
  • soil respiration
  • soil temperature
  • soil moisture
Accesso libero

Post-Harvest Biomass Stock and Productivity of Calamagrostis Epigejos Community Under Beech and Spruce Forest Stand

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 197 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

We investigated the above- and below-ground standing biomass and production of plant communities dominated by bushgrass (Calamagrostis epigejos) colonizing forest clearings created by harvesting beechspruce forest stands. Above-ground living biomass of these communities was 6.6 t.ha-1, while above-ground litter made up 5.6 t.ha-1. Below-ground standing biomass was 6.6 t.ha-1 and production was 1.6 t.ha-1. Inter-annual fluctuations in production were rather high and did not clearly follow weather alternations. We hypothesize about some of the reasons for this. A negative correlation between litter and production of bushgrass rhizomes and root were found. The amount of bushgrass above-ground biomass did not affect species’ richness, but a higher amount of its roots inhibited occurrence of other species, especially other dominants in the forest clearings Epilobium angustifolium and Rubus idaeus. The bushgrass produced rhizomes mainly at micro-sites with higher proportions to other species. The number and average length of the bushgrass blades are related to its above-ground biomass. We conclude that the competition between bushgrass and other species takes place most heavily in the top soil layer. Biomass production of bushgrass communities is not sensitive to weather patterns under the conditions of beech-spruce forest clearings. In terms of the carbon accumulation and nutrient cycling, these communities have an important role in certain periods of forest life.

Parole chiave

  • forest clearings
  • production
  • species richness
  • interspecific competition
  • grass community
Accesso libero

The Research Site Vrchslatina – An Experimental Design and the Main Aims

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 203 - 213

Astratto

Abstract

The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts), we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages) sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation) in the particular years for net primary productivity.

Parole chiave

  • European beech
  • Norway spruce
  • grass community
  • net primary productivity
  • biomass standing stock
7 Articoli
Accesso libero

Above-Ground Net Primary Productivity in Young Stands of Beech and Spruce

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 154 - 162

Astratto

Abstract

One of the expected consequences of climate change and its inherent phenomena to forest ecosystems is the gradual modification of their tree species composition (i.e. expansion of resistant species instead of less resistant ones). Climate change accompanied with increasing temperatures and a lack of precipitations may present a threat especially to spruce stands in the European part of the temperate zone. European beech is one of the possible forest tree species which might replace the potentially endangered spruce. In this paper, we observed, by using a combination of continual measurements and destructive whole-tree sampling, standing stocks of above-ground biomass (i.e. stem, branches, and foliage) and its annual net primary productivity (NPP) in naturally regenerated young stands of beech and spruce. We intentionally selected a site where the changing climate conditions are better suited to the ecological demands of beech rather than spruce (the species is dominant in the observed area). We recorded only small differences in the standing stock of stems of the beech, if based on tons per ha. However, this is in favor of spruce if based on cubic meters per ha. The largest difference between the species was found for the standing stock of foliage, spruce retained three times the biomass of beech. Also, beech allocated more carbohydrates to stem than spruce. On the other hand, we estimated nearly the same production of foliages and branches in both stands.

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • net primary productivity
  • above-ground biomass
  • standing stock
  • tree compartments
Accesso libero

Fine Root Standing Stock and Production in Young Beech and Spruce Stands

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 163 - 171

Astratto

Abstract

Fine roots (defined by a maximum diameter of 2 mm) and assimilatory organs are the compartments which rotate carbon much faster than any other tree part. We focused on quantification of fine roots in young European beech and Norway spruce trees growing under the same ecological conditions. Standing stock of fine roots was estimated by soil coring during 2009 - 2012. Fine root production was established by the in-growth bag method. Standing stock and productions of fine roots were comparable in both tree species. The quantity of fine root biomass (at a soil depth of 0 -50 cm) varied inter-annually between 6.08 and 7.41 t per ha in the beech and from 5.10 to 6.49 t per ha in the spruce stand. Annual production of fine roots (soil depth of 0 - 30 cm) was between 1.11 and 1.63 t ha-1 in beech and between 0.95 and 1.54 t.ha-1 in spruce. We found that fine root standing stock at the beginning of each growing season was related to climatic conditions in the previous year. Annual fine root production was influenced by the climatic situation of the current year. In general, a maximum standing stock of fine roots as well as a relatively slow fine root turnover is expected in young forest stands. Whereas production of fine roots prevailed over mortality in a favorable year (sufficiency of precipitations and slightly above-average temperatures in 2010), there was a reverse situation in an unfavorable year (drought episodes in 2011). We concluded that although both forest types represented contrasting turnovers of assimilatory organs (once a year and once in 5 years in beech and spruce respectively), fine root turnover rates were very similar (approx. once per four years).

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • fine roots
  • turnover
  • production
Accesso libero

Indices of Tree Competition in Dense Spruces Stand Originated from Natural Regeneration

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 172 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

This paper aims to quantify relationships between the biometric parameters of young, 15-year old spruce stands at the Experimental Site Vrchslatina. In 2011, 40 spruce trees were selected to cover four classes of bio-sociological status (dominant, co-dominant, sub-dominant, and suppressed - 10 individuals each). The trees were measured for their height increments (by recording the distances between the successive whorls) and the increments of lateral branches at all whorls. The sample trees were then cut down and discs were taken from the stem base. In the laboratory, the discs were measured for the annual ring widths using WinDendro software. We focused on detailed analyses of the relationship between the bio-sociological status of the trees on the radial and height increments. Minor differences were found in the increments in the newest lateral whorls. The ratio between height increments and lateral branch increments was found to be higher in dominant trees (height increments is two times higher than the increments on the lateral branches). Conversely, the smallest ratio was found in suppressed trees (the ratio was around 1). The ratio between tree height and diameter at the stem base, as well as the ratio between height and radial increments, was the smallest for dominant and the highest for suppressed trees. Hence, relationships between height and diameter increments (both annual and cumulative) proved to reflect competition intensity among trees.

Parole chiave

  • young spruce trees
  • natural regeneration
  • inter-tree competition
  • height increment
  • diameter increment
Accesso libero

Modelling Effects of Weather Condition on Seasonal Dynamics of the Stem Circumference Increment in a Mixed Stand of Norway Spruce and European Beech

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 180 - 188

Astratto

Abstract

This study was aimed at modelling seasonal variation of stem circumference increments in a mixed stand composed of Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.). Moreover, we focused on the quantification of the main climatic factors governing the increments. The measurements were performed at a site established at about 970 m a.s.l. from the locality of Vrchslatina (Central Slovakia). Data was collected from 20 European beech trees and 20 Norway spruce trees, from 2009 to 2012. The increments (measured at 130 cm above ground level) were recorded circa biweekly using manual band dendrometers. Lognormal function was used for the modelling of the seasonal trend of the increments. Hourly-based records of climatic variables such as air temperature, precipitation, and derived vapour pressure deficit were used for the modelling. The effect of climatic parameters on the seasonal variations of the increments was tested by including them directly into the lognormal function. The results suggest that while the sum of precipitation was a better predicting factor for spruce, the mean temperature was the better predictor for beech. In addition, both temperature and vapour pressure deficits also had an effect on the increments of spruce, but these parameters did not contribute to the explanation of the variability of increments for beech. Overall, the variability clarified by the final model was 72% for spruce and 78% for beech. At the same time, climatic parameters as a part of the model helped to explain 10% of the variability for the spruce (precipitations) and 3% of the variability for the beech (temperature). We also found lower variability in the increments of beech compared to spruce. This suggests that for the specific site conditions spruce are more sensitive to environmental conditions than beech

Parole chiave

  • Fagus sylvatica
  • Picea abies
  • seasonal circumference increment
  • weather conditions
  • growth modelling
Accesso libero

Preliminary Results of Soil Respiration in Beech, Spruce and Grassy Stands

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 189 - 196

Astratto

Abstract

Soil respiration constitutes the second largest flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. This study provides the preliminary results of soil respiration (Rs) observations in three different stands, including two types of young forest stands (beech and spruce) and grassy clearings. The average values of Rs ranged from 0.92 to 15.20 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the beech stand, from 1.14 to 11.26 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the spruce stand and from 0.96 to 12.92 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1 in the grassy stand, respectively during the whole measuring period. Maximum rates of Rs were observed on all stands at the beginning of August and minimum rates of Rs at the beginning of November. Soil CO2 efflux exhibited a clear seasonality for all measured stands. Seasonal fluctuations of soil respiration for all stands are closely related to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture.

Parole chiave

  • experimental site Vrchslatina
  • soil respiration
  • soil temperature
  • soil moisture
Accesso libero

Post-Harvest Biomass Stock and Productivity of Calamagrostis Epigejos Community Under Beech and Spruce Forest Stand

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 197 - 202

Astratto

Abstract

We investigated the above- and below-ground standing biomass and production of plant communities dominated by bushgrass (Calamagrostis epigejos) colonizing forest clearings created by harvesting beechspruce forest stands. Above-ground living biomass of these communities was 6.6 t.ha-1, while above-ground litter made up 5.6 t.ha-1. Below-ground standing biomass was 6.6 t.ha-1 and production was 1.6 t.ha-1. Inter-annual fluctuations in production were rather high and did not clearly follow weather alternations. We hypothesize about some of the reasons for this. A negative correlation between litter and production of bushgrass rhizomes and root were found. The amount of bushgrass above-ground biomass did not affect species’ richness, but a higher amount of its roots inhibited occurrence of other species, especially other dominants in the forest clearings Epilobium angustifolium and Rubus idaeus. The bushgrass produced rhizomes mainly at micro-sites with higher proportions to other species. The number and average length of the bushgrass blades are related to its above-ground biomass. We conclude that the competition between bushgrass and other species takes place most heavily in the top soil layer. Biomass production of bushgrass communities is not sensitive to weather patterns under the conditions of beech-spruce forest clearings. In terms of the carbon accumulation and nutrient cycling, these communities have an important role in certain periods of forest life.

Parole chiave

  • forest clearings
  • production
  • species richness
  • interspecific competition
  • grass community
Accesso libero

The Research Site Vrchslatina – An Experimental Design and the Main Aims

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2013
Pagine: 203 - 213

Astratto

Abstract

The research site “Vrchslatina” was established in the spring of 2009 with the aim of studying production processes and the structure of net primary productivity in young forest stands. The beech and spruce stands grown at the site were selected because they originated from natural regeneration and are nearly of the same age. In 2009, we established 5 research plots in each stand with the aim of measuring basic tree characteristics. Moreover, we excavated entire trees to construct allometric relations for the specific tree compartments. In the consecutive years (2010, 2011 and 2012), we also included grass communities dominated by Calamagrostis epigejos in our studies. Besides studying production processes of all tree compartments (i.e. for trees: foliages, branches, stem, coarse and fine roots, for grasses and herbs: below- and above-ground parts), we monitored several atmospheric characteristics, followed by soil characteristics and eventually added a measurement of soil respiration. The results indicated that forest stands (even though they were in their initial growth stages) sequestrated much more carbon than the grass communities. Moreover, we proved the considerable influence of climatic conditions (especially the sum of precipitation) in the particular years for net primary productivity.

Parole chiave

  • European beech
  • Norway spruce
  • grass community
  • net primary productivity
  • biomass standing stock

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