Rivista e Edizione

Volume 6 (2022): Edizione 3 (July 2022)

Volume 6 (2022): Edizione 2 (April 2022)

Volume 6 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione 4 (October 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione 3 (July 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione 2 (April 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione s2 (December 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione s1 (June 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 4 (October 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 3 (July 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 4 (October 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 3 (July 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 2 (April 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Edizione 1 (January 2019)

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione 4 (October 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione 3 (July 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione 2 (April 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione s1 (September 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione 1 (January 2018)

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione 4 (October 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione 3 (July 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione s2 (December 2017)
MAGI group activity - Research, diagnosis and treatment of genetic and rare diseases

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione 2 (May 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione s1 (October 2017)
EBTNA Utility Gene Test on Ophthalmology

Volume 1 (2017): Edizione 1 (January 2017)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2564-615X
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Jan 2017
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 2 (2018): Edizione 2 (April 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2564-615X
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Jan 2017
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

7 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Can biotechnology contribute to the development of research and innovation smart specialization strategy (RIS3) in Central and East European countries? Reminiscences from the European Workshop

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 73 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents main results and recommendations of the recent European Workshop dedicated to the evaluation of current state and prospects for Biotechnology with the attention to Central and European countries. The contribution of Biotechnology to the RIS3 strategy is also briefly presented. It is believed that there is still insufficient integration of research and innovation, especially in Central and Eastern European countries. Another problem is the weak interest and lack of mechanisms for the entry of potential investors into biotechnology capital–intensive areas. Series of proposals and recommendations coming from the Workshop on how to increase the regional cooperation in the field of Biotechnology is briefly described together with the potential role of international institutions (JRC-EC, CEI, ICGEB, EBTNA) in such cooperation.

Parole chiave

  • Biotechnology
  • research and innovation smart specialization strategy
  • cooperation in biotechnology in Central and East European countries
  • current state and prospects
Accesso libero

Artificial intelligence used in genome analysis studies

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 78 - 88

Astratto

Abstract

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) or deep sequencing technology enables parallel reading of multiple individual DNA fragments, thereby enabling the identification of millions of base pairs in several hours. Recent research has clearly shown that machine learning technologies can efficiently analyse large sets of genomic data and help to identify novel gene functions and regulation regions. A deep artificial neural network consists of a group of artificial neurons that mimic the properties of living neurons. These mathematical models, termed Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), can be used to solve artificial intelligence engineering problems in several different technological fields (e.g., biology, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics). In practical terms, neural networks are non-linear statistical structures that are organized as modelling tools and are used to simulate complex genomic relationships between inputs and outputs. To date, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) have been demonstrated to be the best tools for improving performance in problem solving tasks within the genomic field.

Parole chiave

  • deep learning
  • NGS
  • genomics
  • molecular diagnosis
Accesso libero

Advanced approaches to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters in a sustainable and economic fashion

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 89 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), the only group of “bioplastics” sensu stricto, are accumulated by various prokaryotes as intracellular “carbonosomes”. When exposed to exogenous stress or starvation, presence of these microbial polyoxoesters of hydroxyalkanoates assists microbes to survive.

“Bioplastics” such as PHA must be competitive with petrochemically manufactured plastics both in terms of material quality and manufacturing economics. Cost-effectiveness calculations clearly show that PHA production costs, in addition to bioreactor equipment and downstream technology, are mainly due to raw material costs. The reason for this is PHA production on an industrial scale currently relying on expensive, nutritionally relevant “1st-generation feedstocks”, such as like glucose, starch or edible oils. As a way out, carbon-rich industrial waste streams (“2nd-generation feedstocks”) can be used that are not in competition with the supply of food; this strategy not only reduces PHA production costs, but can also make a significant contribution to safeguarding food supplies in various disadvantaged parts of the world. This approach increases the economics of PHA production, improves the sustainability of the entire lifecycle of these materials, and makes them unassailable from an ethical perspective.

In this context, our EU-funded projects ANIMPOL and WHEYPOL, carried out by collaborative consortia of academic and industrial partners, successfully developed PHA production processes, which resort to waste streams amply available in Europe. As real 2nd-generation feedstocks”, waste lipids and crude glycerol from animal-processing and biodiesel industry, and surplus whey from dairy and cheese making industry were used in these processes. Cost estimations made by our project partners determine PHA production prices below 3 € (WHEYPOL) and even less than 2 € (ANIMPOL), respectively, per kg; these values already reach the benchmark of economic feasibility.

The presented studies clearly show that the use of selected high-carbon waste streams of (agro)industrial origin contributes significantly to the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of PHA biopolyester production on an industrial scale.

Parole chiave

  • Animal-processing industry
  • biodiesel
  • biopolyesters
  • biopolymers
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
  • raw materials
  • sustainability
  • waste streams
  • whey
Accesso libero

The genus Portulaca as a suitable model to study the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought and salinity

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 104 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

Drought and soil salinity are at present the major factors responsible for the global reduction of crop yields, and the problem will become more severe in the coming decades because of climate change effects. The most promising strategy to achieve the increased agricultural production that will be required to meet food demands worldwide will be based on the enhancement of crop stress tolerance, by both, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. This, in turn, requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance which, although based on a conserved set of basic responses, vary widely among plant species. Therefore, the use of different plant models to investigate these mechanisms appears to be a sensible approach. The genus Portulaca could be a suitable model to carry out these studies, as some of its taxa have been described as tolerant to drought and/or salinity. Information on relevant mechanisms of tolerance to salt and water stress can be obtained by correlating the activation of specific defence pathways with the relative stress resistance of the investigated species. Also, species of the genus could be economically attractive as ‘new’ crops for ‘saline’ and ‘arid’, sustainable agriculture, as medicinal plants, highly nutritious vegetable crops and ornamentals.

Parole chiave

  • Climate change
  • new crops
  • purslane
  • salt stress
  • water deficit

Research Article

Accesso libero

Fluorescence lifetime imaging of red yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum during growth

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 114 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

Red yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum autofluorescence was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to reveal distribution of carotenoids inside the cells. Yeasts were cultivated in 2L fermentor on glucose medium at permanent light exposure and aeration. Samples were collected at different times for CLSM, gravimetric determination of biomass and HPLC determination of pigments. To compare FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) images and coupled data (obtained by CLSM) with model systems, FLIM analysis was performed on micelles of SDS:ergosterol and SDS:coenzyme Q with different content of ergosterol and coenzyme Q, respectively, and with constant addition of beta-carotene. Liposomes lecithin:ergosterol:beta-carotene were investigated too. Two different intracellular forms of carotenoids were observed during most of cultivations, with third form appeared at the beginning of stationary phase. Observed behavior is probably due to formation of some kind of carotenoid protective system in membranes of different compartments of yeast cell, especially cytoplasmic membrane.

Parole chiave

  • autofluorescence
  • carotenoids
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging
  • red yeasts
Accesso libero

Inhibitory effects of agmatine on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity: Reconciling the discrepancies

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 121 - 127

Astratto

Abstract

Agmatine has been functionally characterized as an important hormone and co-neurotransmitter in mammals. Given its ability in binding Imidazoline sites, a regolatory site of monoaminoxydase, it has been suggested to be involved in many neurological aspects. However, its inhibitory effect on this enzyme still remains an unanswered question. This present study is aimed to asses whether different experimental conditions could affect the agmatine action on monoaminoxydase activity. We demonstrate that the monoaminoxydase inhibition by agmatine is obtained under alkaline conditions and a long time of incubation. No inhibitiory action was found for shorter times of reaction at elevated pH, or at neutral condition and long time of incubation. No inhibition was also detected by substituting the monoamineoxydase substrate tyramine with kynuramine, however, while in these conditions a remarkable inhibition was shown by two aminoxydase inhibitors tranylcypromine and idazoxan. Herein, we discuss a mechanism model and the functional consequences of agmatine action on monoaminoxydase.

Parole chiave

  • Agmatine
  • MAO inhibition
  • imidizoline receptors
  • co-neurotransmitters and neurological disorders
Accesso libero

Genetic bases of tomatо marker-assisted selection in Belarus

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 128 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

To develop tomato hybrids and varieties with a high fruit quality, we gradually solved the following tasks: development of DNA-marking methods for long shelf life genes; the genes modifying the biosynthesis of carotenoids and their composition; testing of the elaborated methods on the developed breeding material; the selection of samples with different allelic composition of fruit quality genes; the development of F1 hybrids using the method of successive crosses and their study; the selection of tomato forms by DNA-typing methods with target genes in F2 populations to develop valuable breeding samples; the study of carotenoids’ accumulation peculiarities and their inheritance.

We used DNA-identification methods for fruit quality genes: nor, rin, norA (long shelf life), B, ogc, hp2dg, gf-3 (carotenoid content). The tomato hybrids, combining two pigment content genes and one long shelf life gene and the model forms with different combinations of fruit quality genes (B/rin/gf-3, B/rin/hp2dg; B /nor/gf-3, B /nor/hp2dg; оgc /rin/gf-3, оgc /rin/hp2dg; оgc /nor/gf-3, оgc /nor/hp2dg) in a homozygous state were developed.

Use of the developed accessions with carotenoid content genes (ogc/hp2dg, B/hp2dg) as maternal forms and the accessions with complex fruit quality genes (ogc/hp2dg/nor, ogc/hp2dg/rin, B/hp2dg/nor, B/hp2dg/rin, ogc/gf-3/nor, ogc/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/nor) as paternal forms for hybridization contributes to high accumulation of carotenoids and a lond period of fruit storability.

Parole chiave

  • tomato
  • DNA-marker
  • fruit quality breeding
7 Articoli

Review

Accesso libero

Can biotechnology contribute to the development of research and innovation smart specialization strategy (RIS3) in Central and East European countries? Reminiscences from the European Workshop

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 73 - 77

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents main results and recommendations of the recent European Workshop dedicated to the evaluation of current state and prospects for Biotechnology with the attention to Central and European countries. The contribution of Biotechnology to the RIS3 strategy is also briefly presented. It is believed that there is still insufficient integration of research and innovation, especially in Central and Eastern European countries. Another problem is the weak interest and lack of mechanisms for the entry of potential investors into biotechnology capital–intensive areas. Series of proposals and recommendations coming from the Workshop on how to increase the regional cooperation in the field of Biotechnology is briefly described together with the potential role of international institutions (JRC-EC, CEI, ICGEB, EBTNA) in such cooperation.

Parole chiave

  • Biotechnology
  • research and innovation smart specialization strategy
  • cooperation in biotechnology in Central and East European countries
  • current state and prospects
Accesso libero

Artificial intelligence used in genome analysis studies

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 78 - 88

Astratto

Abstract

Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) or deep sequencing technology enables parallel reading of multiple individual DNA fragments, thereby enabling the identification of millions of base pairs in several hours. Recent research has clearly shown that machine learning technologies can efficiently analyse large sets of genomic data and help to identify novel gene functions and regulation regions. A deep artificial neural network consists of a group of artificial neurons that mimic the properties of living neurons. These mathematical models, termed Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), can be used to solve artificial intelligence engineering problems in several different technological fields (e.g., biology, genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics). In practical terms, neural networks are non-linear statistical structures that are organized as modelling tools and are used to simulate complex genomic relationships between inputs and outputs. To date, Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) have been demonstrated to be the best tools for improving performance in problem solving tasks within the genomic field.

Parole chiave

  • deep learning
  • NGS
  • genomics
  • molecular diagnosis
Accesso libero

Advanced approaches to produce polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) biopolyesters in a sustainable and economic fashion

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 89 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA), the only group of “bioplastics” sensu stricto, are accumulated by various prokaryotes as intracellular “carbonosomes”. When exposed to exogenous stress or starvation, presence of these microbial polyoxoesters of hydroxyalkanoates assists microbes to survive.

“Bioplastics” such as PHA must be competitive with petrochemically manufactured plastics both in terms of material quality and manufacturing economics. Cost-effectiveness calculations clearly show that PHA production costs, in addition to bioreactor equipment and downstream technology, are mainly due to raw material costs. The reason for this is PHA production on an industrial scale currently relying on expensive, nutritionally relevant “1st-generation feedstocks”, such as like glucose, starch or edible oils. As a way out, carbon-rich industrial waste streams (“2nd-generation feedstocks”) can be used that are not in competition with the supply of food; this strategy not only reduces PHA production costs, but can also make a significant contribution to safeguarding food supplies in various disadvantaged parts of the world. This approach increases the economics of PHA production, improves the sustainability of the entire lifecycle of these materials, and makes them unassailable from an ethical perspective.

In this context, our EU-funded projects ANIMPOL and WHEYPOL, carried out by collaborative consortia of academic and industrial partners, successfully developed PHA production processes, which resort to waste streams amply available in Europe. As real 2nd-generation feedstocks”, waste lipids and crude glycerol from animal-processing and biodiesel industry, and surplus whey from dairy and cheese making industry were used in these processes. Cost estimations made by our project partners determine PHA production prices below 3 € (WHEYPOL) and even less than 2 € (ANIMPOL), respectively, per kg; these values already reach the benchmark of economic feasibility.

The presented studies clearly show that the use of selected high-carbon waste streams of (agro)industrial origin contributes significantly to the cost-effectiveness and sustainability of PHA biopolyester production on an industrial scale.

Parole chiave

  • Animal-processing industry
  • biodiesel
  • biopolyesters
  • biopolymers
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
  • raw materials
  • sustainability
  • waste streams
  • whey
Accesso libero

The genus Portulaca as a suitable model to study the mechanisms of plant tolerance to drought and salinity

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 104 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

Drought and soil salinity are at present the major factors responsible for the global reduction of crop yields, and the problem will become more severe in the coming decades because of climate change effects. The most promising strategy to achieve the increased agricultural production that will be required to meet food demands worldwide will be based on the enhancement of crop stress tolerance, by both, traditional breeding and genetic engineering. This, in turn, requires a deep understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance which, although based on a conserved set of basic responses, vary widely among plant species. Therefore, the use of different plant models to investigate these mechanisms appears to be a sensible approach. The genus Portulaca could be a suitable model to carry out these studies, as some of its taxa have been described as tolerant to drought and/or salinity. Information on relevant mechanisms of tolerance to salt and water stress can be obtained by correlating the activation of specific defence pathways with the relative stress resistance of the investigated species. Also, species of the genus could be economically attractive as ‘new’ crops for ‘saline’ and ‘arid’, sustainable agriculture, as medicinal plants, highly nutritious vegetable crops and ornamentals.

Parole chiave

  • Climate change
  • new crops
  • purslane
  • salt stress
  • water deficit

Research Article

Accesso libero

Fluorescence lifetime imaging of red yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum during growth

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 114 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

Red yeast Cystofilobasidium capitatum autofluorescence was studied by means of confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to reveal distribution of carotenoids inside the cells. Yeasts were cultivated in 2L fermentor on glucose medium at permanent light exposure and aeration. Samples were collected at different times for CLSM, gravimetric determination of biomass and HPLC determination of pigments. To compare FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy) images and coupled data (obtained by CLSM) with model systems, FLIM analysis was performed on micelles of SDS:ergosterol and SDS:coenzyme Q with different content of ergosterol and coenzyme Q, respectively, and with constant addition of beta-carotene. Liposomes lecithin:ergosterol:beta-carotene were investigated too. Two different intracellular forms of carotenoids were observed during most of cultivations, with third form appeared at the beginning of stationary phase. Observed behavior is probably due to formation of some kind of carotenoid protective system in membranes of different compartments of yeast cell, especially cytoplasmic membrane.

Parole chiave

  • autofluorescence
  • carotenoids
  • fluorescence lifetime imaging
  • red yeasts
Accesso libero

Inhibitory effects of agmatine on monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity: Reconciling the discrepancies

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 121 - 127

Astratto

Abstract

Agmatine has been functionally characterized as an important hormone and co-neurotransmitter in mammals. Given its ability in binding Imidazoline sites, a regolatory site of monoaminoxydase, it has been suggested to be involved in many neurological aspects. However, its inhibitory effect on this enzyme still remains an unanswered question. This present study is aimed to asses whether different experimental conditions could affect the agmatine action on monoaminoxydase activity. We demonstrate that the monoaminoxydase inhibition by agmatine is obtained under alkaline conditions and a long time of incubation. No inhibitiory action was found for shorter times of reaction at elevated pH, or at neutral condition and long time of incubation. No inhibition was also detected by substituting the monoamineoxydase substrate tyramine with kynuramine, however, while in these conditions a remarkable inhibition was shown by two aminoxydase inhibitors tranylcypromine and idazoxan. Herein, we discuss a mechanism model and the functional consequences of agmatine action on monoaminoxydase.

Parole chiave

  • Agmatine
  • MAO inhibition
  • imidizoline receptors
  • co-neurotransmitters and neurological disorders
Accesso libero

Genetic bases of tomatо marker-assisted selection in Belarus

Pubblicato online: 25 Apr 2018
Pagine: 128 - 135

Astratto

Abstract

To develop tomato hybrids and varieties with a high fruit quality, we gradually solved the following tasks: development of DNA-marking methods for long shelf life genes; the genes modifying the biosynthesis of carotenoids and their composition; testing of the elaborated methods on the developed breeding material; the selection of samples with different allelic composition of fruit quality genes; the development of F1 hybrids using the method of successive crosses and their study; the selection of tomato forms by DNA-typing methods with target genes in F2 populations to develop valuable breeding samples; the study of carotenoids’ accumulation peculiarities and their inheritance.

We used DNA-identification methods for fruit quality genes: nor, rin, norA (long shelf life), B, ogc, hp2dg, gf-3 (carotenoid content). The tomato hybrids, combining two pigment content genes and one long shelf life gene and the model forms with different combinations of fruit quality genes (B/rin/gf-3, B/rin/hp2dg; B /nor/gf-3, B /nor/hp2dg; оgc /rin/gf-3, оgc /rin/hp2dg; оgc /nor/gf-3, оgc /nor/hp2dg) in a homozygous state were developed.

Use of the developed accessions with carotenoid content genes (ogc/hp2dg, B/hp2dg) as maternal forms and the accessions with complex fruit quality genes (ogc/hp2dg/nor, ogc/hp2dg/rin, B/hp2dg/nor, B/hp2dg/rin, ogc/gf-3/nor, ogc/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/rin, B/gf-3/nor) as paternal forms for hybridization contributes to high accumulation of carotenoids and a lond period of fruit storability.

Parole chiave

  • tomato
  • DNA-marker
  • fruit quality breeding

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