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Volume 32 (2022): Edizione 3 (September 2022)
Recent Advances in Modelling, Analysis and Implementation of Cyber-Physical Systems (Special section, pp. 345-413), Remigiusz Wiśniewski, Luis Gomes and Shaohua Wan (Eds.)

Volume 32 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)
Towards Self-Healing Systems through Diagnostics, Fault-Tolerance and Design (Special section, pp. 171-269), Marcin Witczak and Ralf Stetter (Eds.)

Volume 32 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)

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Advanced Machine Learning Techniques in Data Analysis (special section, pp. 549-611), Maciej Kusy, Rafał Scherer, and Adam Krzyżak (Eds.)

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Volume 29 (2019): Edizione 4 (December 2019)
New Perspectives in Nonlinear and Intelligent Control (In Honor of Alexander P. Kurdyukov) (special section, pp. 629-712), Julio B. Clempner, Enso Ikonen, Alexander P. Kurdyukov (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Edizione 3 (September 2019)
Information Technology for Systems Research (special section, pp. 427-515), Piotr Kulczycki, Janusz Kacprzyk, László T. Kóczy, Radko Mesiar (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Edizione 2 (June 2019)
Advances in Complex Cloud and Service Oriented Computing (special section, pp. 213-274), Anna Kobusińska, Ching-Hsien Hsu, Kwei-Jay Lin (Eds.)

Volume 29 (2019): Edizione 1 (March 2019)
Exploring Complex and Big Data (special section, pp. 7-91), Johann Gamper, Robert Wrembel (Eds.)

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Advanced Diagnosis and Fault-Tolerant Control Methods (special section, pp. 233-333), Vicenç Puig, Dominique Sauter, Christophe Aubrun, Horst Schulte (Eds.)

Volume 28 (2018): Edizione 1 (March 2018)
Ediziones in Parameter Identification and Control (special section, pp. 9-122), Abdel Aitouche (Ed.)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 4 (December 2017)

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Systems Analysis: Modeling and Control (special section, pp. 457-499), Vyacheslav Maksimov and Boris Mordukhovich (Eds.)

Volume 27 (2017): Edizione 2 (June 2017)

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Volume 25 (2015): Edizione 4 (December 2015)
Special issue: Complex Problems in High-Performance Computing Systems, Editors: Mauro Iacono, Joanna Kołodziej

Volume 25 (2015): Edizione 3 (September 2015)

Volume 25 (2015): Edizione 2 (June 2015)

Volume 25 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)
Safety, Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control in Aerospace Systems, Silvio Simani, Paolo Castaldi (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Edizione 4 (December 2014)

Volume 24 (2014): Edizione 3 (September 2014)
Modelling and Simulation of High Performance Information Systems (special section, pp. 453-566), Pavel Abaev, Rostislav Razumchik, Joanna Kołodziej (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Edizione 2 (June 2014)
Signals and Systems (special section, pp. 233-312), Ryszard Makowski and Jan Zarzycki (Eds.)

Volume 24 (2014): Edizione 1 (March 2014)
Selected Problems of Biomedical Engineering (special section, pp. 7 - 63), Marek Kowal and Józef Korbicz (Eds.)

Volume 23 (2013): Edizione 4 (December 2013)

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Volume 22 (2012): Edizione 4 (December 2012)
Hybrid and Ensemble Methods in Machine Learning (special section, pp. 787 - 881), Oscar Cordón and Przemysław Kazienko (Eds.)

Volume 22 (2012): Edizione 3 (September 2012)

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Analysis and Control of Spatiotemporal Dynamic Systems (special section, pp. 245 - 326), Dariusz Uciński and Józef Korbicz (Eds.)

Volume 22 (2012): Edizione 1 (March 2012)
Advances in Control and Fault-Tolerant Systems (special issue), Józef Korbicz, Didier Maquin and Didier Theilliol (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Edizione 4 (December 2011)

Volume 21 (2011): Edizione 3 (September 2011)
Ediziones in Advanced Control and Diagnosis (special section, pp. 423 - 486), Vicenç Puig and Marcin Witczak (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Edizione 2 (June 2011)
Efficient Resource Management for Grid-Enabled Applications (special section, pp. 219 - 306), Joanna Kołodziej and Fatos Xhafa (Eds.)

Volume 21 (2011): Edizione 1 (March 2011)
Semantic Knowledge Engineering (special section, pp. 9 - 95), Grzegorz J. Nalepa and Antoni Ligęza (Eds.)

Volume 20 (2010): Edizione 4 (December 2010)

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Volume 20 (2010): Edizione 2 (June 2010)

Volume 20 (2010): Edizione 1 (March 2010)
Computational Intelligence in Modern Control Systems (special section, pp. 7 - 84), Józef Korbicz and Dariusz Uciński (Eds.)

Volume 19 (2009): Edizione 4 (December 2009)
Robot Control Theory (special section, pp. 519 - 588), Cezary Zieliński (Ed.)

Volume 19 (2009): Edizione 3 (September 2009)
Verified Methods: Applications in Medicine and Engineering (special issue), Andreas Rauh, Ekaterina Auer, Eberhard P. Hofer and Wolfram Luther (Eds.)

Volume 19 (2009): Edizione 2 (June 2009)

Volume 19 (2009): Edizione 1 (March 2009)

Volume 18 (2008): Edizione 4 (December 2008)
Ediziones in Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control (special issue), Józef Korbicz and Dominique Sauter (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Edizione 3 (September 2008)
Selected Problems of Computer Science and Control (special issue), Krzysztof Gałkowski, Eric Rogers and Jan Willems (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Edizione 2 (June 2008)
Selected Topics in Biological Cybernetics (special section, pp. 117 - 170), Andrzej Kasiński and Filip Ponulak (Eds.)

Volume 18 (2008): Edizione 1 (March 2008)
Applied Image Processing (special issue), Anton Kummert and Ewaryst Rafajłowicz (Eds.)

Volume 17 (2007): Edizione 4 (December 2007)

Volume 17 (2007): Edizione 3 (September 2007)
Scientific Computation for Fluid Mechanics and Hyperbolic Systems (special issue), Jan Sokołowski and Eric Sonnendrücker (Eds.)

Volume 17 (2007): Edizione 2 (June 2007)

Volume 17 (2007): Edizione 1 (March 2007)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-8492
Pubblicato per la prima volta
05 Apr 2007
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 25 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)
Safety, Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerant Control in Aerospace Systems, Silvio Simani, Paolo Castaldi (Eds.)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2083-8492
Pubblicato per la prima volta
05 Apr 2007
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

14 Articoli
Accesso libero

Robust Quasi–LPV Model Reference FTC of a Quadrotor Uav Subject to Actuator Faults

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 7 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

A solution for fault tolerant control (FTC) of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed. It relies on model reference-based control, where a reference model generates the desired trajectory. Depending on the type of reference model used for generating the reference trajectory, and on the assumptions about the availability and uncertainty of fault estimation, different error models are obtained. These error models are suitable for passive FTC, active FTC and hybrid FTC, the latter being able to merge the benefits of active and passive FTC while reducing their respective drawbacks. The controller is generated using results from the robust linear parameter varying (LPV) polytopic framework, where the vector of varying parameters is used to schedule between uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) systems. The design procedure relies on solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in order to achieve regional pole placement and H∞ norm bounding constraints. Simulation results are used to compare the different FTC strategies.

Keywords

  • linear parameter varying systems
  • fault tolerant control
  • quadrotor
  • model reference-based control
  • linear matrix inequalities
Accesso libero

Model–Based Techniques for Virtual Sensing of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 23 - 38

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction of fly-by-wire and increasing levels of automation significantly improve the safety of civil aircraft, and result in advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. However, this higher complexity requires the availability of some key flight parameters to be extended. Hence, the monitoring and consolidation of those signals is a significant issue, usually achieved via many functionally redundant sensors to extend the way those parameters are measured. This solution penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, maintenance, and so on. Other alternatives rely on signal processing or model-based techniques that make a global use of all or part of the sensor data available, supplemented by a model-based simulation of the flight mechanics. That processing achieves real-time estimates of the critical parameters and yields dissimilar signals. Filtered and consolidated information is delivered in unfaulty conditions by estimating an extended state vector, including wind components, and can replace failed signals in degraded conditions. Accordingly, this paper describes two model-based approaches allowing the longitudinal flight parameters of a civil A/C to be estimated on-line. Results are displayed to evaluate the performances in different simulated and real flight conditions, including realistic external disturbances and modeling errors.

Keywords

  • model-based estimation
  • fault detection
  • virtual sensor
  • Kalman filtering
  • surrogate modeling
Accesso libero

A Safe Supervisory Flight Control Scheme in the Presence of Constraints and Anomalies

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 39 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper the hybrid supervisory control architecture developed by Famularo et al. (2011) for constrained control systems is adopted with the aim to improve safety in aircraft operations when critical events like command saturations or unpredicted anomalies occur. The capabilities of a low-computational demanding predictive scheme for the supervision of non-linear dynamical systems subject to sudden switchings amongst operating conditions and time-varying constraints are exploited in the flight control systems framework. The strategy is based on command governor ideas and is tailored to jointly take into account time-varying set-points/constraints. Unpredictable anomalies in the nominal plant behaviour, whose models fall in the category of time-varying constraints, can also be tolerated by the control scheme. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, simulations both on a high altitude performance demonstrator unmanned aircraft with redundant control surfaces and the P92 general aviation aircraft are discussed.

Keywords

  • supervisory control
  • command governor
  • failures
  • fault tolerant control
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Detection and Identification of Loss of Efficiency Faults of Flight Actuators

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 53 - 63

Astratto

Abstract

We propose linear parameter-varying (LPV) model-based approaches to the synthesis of robust fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) systems for loss of efficiency (LOE) faults of flight actuators. The proposed methods are applicable to several types of parametric (or multiplicative) LOE faults such as actuator disconnection, surface damage, actuator power loss or stall loads. For the detection of these parametric faults, advanced LPV-model detection techniques are proposed, which implicitly provide fault identification information. Fast detection of intermittent stall loads (seen as nuisances, rather than faults) is important in enhancing the performance of various fault detection schemes dealing with large input signals. For this case, a dedicated fast identification algorithm is devised. The developed FDD systems are tested on a nonlinear actuator model which is implemented in a full nonlinear aircraft simulation model. This enables the validation of the FDD system’s detection and identification characteristics under realistic conditions.

Keywords

  • aerospace engineering
  • fault detection and diagnosis
  • loss of efficiency type of faults
  • flight actuator faults
Accesso libero

A Hamiltonian Approach to Fault Isolation in a Planar Vertical Take–Off and Landing Aircraft Model

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 65 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of fault detection and isolation in a class of nonlinear systems having a Hamiltonian representation is considered. In particular, a model of a planar vertical take-off and landing aircraft with sensor and actuator faults is studied. A Hamiltonian representation is derived from an Euler-Lagrange representation of the system model considered. In this form, nonlinear decoupling is applied in order to obtain subsystems with (as much as possible) specific fault sensitivity properties. The resulting decoupled subsystem is represented as a Hamiltonian system and observer-based residual generators are designed. The results are presented through simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords

  • Hamiltonian
  • observer
  • fault diagnosis
  • nonlinear systems
  • UAVs
Accesso libero

Increasing Pursuer Capturability by Using Hybrid Dynamics

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 77 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

A robust interception of a maneuverable target (evader) by an interceptor (pursuer) with hybrid dynamics is considered. The controls of the pursuer and the evader are bounded. The duration of the engagement is prescribed. The pursuer has two possible dynamic modes, which can be switched once during the engagement, while the dynamics of the evader are fixed. The case where for both dynamic modes there exists an unbounded capture zone was analyzed in our previous work. The conditions under which the pursuer can increase its capturability by utilizing the hybrid dynamics were established and the new robust capture zone was constructed. In the present paper, we extend this result to the cases where at least for one dynamic mode of the pursuer the capture zone is bounded. For these instances, conditions of increasing the pursuer’s hybrid capturability are derived. Respective capture zones are constructed. Illustrative examples and results of extensive simulation for a realistic non-linear engagement model in the presence of a random wind are given.

Keywords

  • interception problem
  • hybrid interceptor’s dynamics
  • robust capture zone
Accesso libero

A Fault Tolerant Direct Control Allocation Scheme with Integral Sliding Modes

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 93 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, integral sliding mode control ideas are combined with direct control allocation in order to create a fault tolerant control scheme. Traditional integral sliding mode control can directly handle actuator faults; however, it cannot do so with actuator failures. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be adopted to distribute the control effort amongst the remaining functioning actuators in cases of faults or failures, so that an acceptable level of closed-loop performance can be retained. This paper considers the possibility of introducing fault tolerance even if fault or failure information is not provided to the control strategy. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme, a high fidelity nonlinear model of a large civil aircraft is considered in the simulations in the presence of wind, gusts and sensor noise.

Keywords

  • fault tolerant control
  • integral sliding mode control
  • linear matrix inequalities
Accesso libero

A Probabilistic Method for Certification of Analytically Redundant Systems

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 103 - 116

Astratto

Abstract

Analytical fault detection algorithms have the potential to reduce the size, power and weight of safety-critical aerospace systems. Analytical redundancy has been successfully applied in many non-safety critical applications. However, acceptance for aerospace applications will require new methods to rigorously certify the impact of such algorithms on the overall system reliability. This paper presents a theoretical method to assess the probabilistic performance for an analytically redundant system. Specifically, a fault tolerant actuation system is considered. The system consists of dual-redundant actuators and an analytical fault detection algorithm to switch between the hardware components. The exact system failure rate per hour is computed using the law of total probability. This analysis requires knowledge of the failure rates for the hardware components. In addition, knowledge of specific probabilistic performance metrics for the fault detection logic is needed. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the proposed analysis method.

Keywords

  • avionics
  • certification
  • safety-critical systems
  • reliability
  • fault detection
  • fault-tolerant systems
Accesso libero

Supervisory Fault Tolerant Control of the GTM UAV Using LPV Methods

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 117 - 131

Astratto

Abstract

A multi-level reconfiguration framework is proposed for fault tolerant control of over-actuated aerial vehicles, where the levels indicate how much authority is given to the reconfiguration task. On the lowest, first level the fault is accommodated by modifying only the actuator/sensor configuration, so the fault remains hidden from the baseline controller. A dynamic reallocation scheme is applied on this level. The allocation mechanism exploits the actuator/sensor redundancy available on the aircraft. When the fault cannot be managed at the actuator/sensor level, the reconfiguration process has access to the baseline controller. Based on the LPV control framework, this is done by introducing fault-specific scheduling parameters. The baseline controller is designed to provide an acceptable performance level along all fault scenarios coded in these scheduling variables. The decision on which reconfiguration level has to be initiated in response to a fault is determined by a supervisor unit. The method is demonstrated on a full six-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation model of the GTM UAV.

Keywords

  • fault tolerant control
  • linear parameter-varying systems
  • supervisory architecture
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 133 - 148

Astratto

Abstract

Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

Keywords

  • fault-tolerant control
  • Gaussian process
  • model predictive control
  • aircraft control
  • probabilistic modelling
Accesso libero

An SFDI Observer–Based Scheme for a General Aviation Aircraft

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 149 - 158

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of detecting and isolating sensor faults (sensor fault detection and isolation-SFDI) on a general aviation aircraft, in the presence of external disturbances, is considered. The proposed approach consists of an extended Kalman observer applied to an augmented aircraft plant, where some integrators are added to the output variables subject to faults. The output of the integrators should be ideally zero in the absence of model uncertainties, external disturbances and sensor faults. A threshold-based decision making system is adopted where the residuals are weighted with gains coming from the solution to an optimization problem. The proposed nonlinear observer was tested both numerically on a large database of simulations in the presence of disturbances and model uncertainties and on input-output data recorded during real flights. In this case, the possibility of successfully applying the proposed technique to detect and isolate faults on inertial and air data sensors, modelled as step or ramp signals artificially added to the real measurements, is shown.

Keywords

  • model-based FDI
  • sensor FDI
  • extended Kalman filtering
  • analytical redundancy
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Systematic Fault Tolerant Control Based on Adaptive Thau Observer Estimation for Quadrotor Uavs

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 159 - 174

Astratto

Abstract

A systematic fault tolerant control (FTC) scheme based on fault estimation for a quadrotor actuator, which integrates normal control, active and passive FTC and fault parking is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an adaptive Thau observer (ATO) is presented to estimate the quadrotor rotor fault magnitudes, and then faults with different magnitudes and time-varying natures are rated into corresponding fault severity levels based on the pre-defined fault-tolerant boundaries. Secondly, a systematic FTC strategy which can coordinate various FTC methods is designed to compensate for failures depending on the fault types and severity levels. Unlike former stand-alone passive FTC or active FTC, our proposed FTC scheme can compensate for faults in a way of condition-based maintenance (CBM), and especially consider the fatal failures that traditional FTC techniques cannot accommodate to avoid the crashing of UAVs. Finally, various simulations are carried out to show the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords

  • systematic fault tolerant control
  • fault estimation
  • adaptive Thau observer
  • fault tolerant capacity boundaries
  • time-varying fault
Accesso libero

Simultaneous State and Parameter Estimation Based Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for an Unmanned Helicopter

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 175 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Simultaneous state and parameter estimation based actuator fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) for single-rotor unmanned helicopters (UHs) is investigated in this paper. A literature review of actuator FDD for UHs is given firstly. Based on actuator healthy coefficients (AHCs), which are introduced to represent actuator faults, a combined dynamic model is established with the augmented state containing both the flight state and AHCs. Then the actuator fault detection and diagnosis problem is transformed into a general nonlinear estimation one: given control inputs and the measured flight state contaminated by measurement noises, estimate both the flight state and AHCs recursively in each time-step, which is also known as the simultaneous state and parameter estimation problem. The estimated AHCs can further be used for fault tolerant control (FTC). Based on the existing widely used nonlinear estimation methods such as the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the extended set-membership filter (ESMF), three kinds of adaptive schemes (KF-UKF, MIT-UKF and MIT-ESMF) are proposed by our team to improve the actuator FDD performance. A comprehensive comparative study on these different estimation methods is given in detail to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages when applied to unmanned helicopter actuator FDD.

Keywords

  • actuator fault detection and diagnosis
  • unmanned helicopter
  • Kalman filter
  • set-membership filter
  • adaptive scheme
Accesso libero

Smac–Fdi: A Single Model Active Fault Detection and Isolation System for Unmanned Aircraft

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 189 - 201

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents a single model active fault detection and isolation system (SMAC-FDI) which is designed to efficiently detect and isolate a faulty actuator in a system, such as a small (unmanned) aircraft. This FDI system is based on a single and simple aerodynamic model of an aircraft in order to generate some residuals, as soon as an actuator fault occurs. These residuals are used to trigger an active strategy based on artificial exciting signals that searches within the residuals for the signature of an actuator fault. Fault isolation is carried out through an innovative mechanism that does not use the previous residuals but the actuator control signals directly. In addition, the paper presents a complete parameter-tuning strategy for this FDI system. The novel concepts are backed-up by simulations of a small unmanned aircraft experiencing successive actuator failures. The robustness of the SMAC-FDI method is tested in the presence of model uncertainties, realistic sensor noise and wind gusts. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the computational efficiency of the method and its ability to run on small microcontrollers.

Keywords

  • fault detection and isolation
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • Kalman filtering
  • computationally efficient diagnosis system
  • active fault diagnosis
  • artificial excitation system
14 Articoli
Accesso libero

Robust Quasi–LPV Model Reference FTC of a Quadrotor Uav Subject to Actuator Faults

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 7 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

A solution for fault tolerant control (FTC) of a quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed. It relies on model reference-based control, where a reference model generates the desired trajectory. Depending on the type of reference model used for generating the reference trajectory, and on the assumptions about the availability and uncertainty of fault estimation, different error models are obtained. These error models are suitable for passive FTC, active FTC and hybrid FTC, the latter being able to merge the benefits of active and passive FTC while reducing their respective drawbacks. The controller is generated using results from the robust linear parameter varying (LPV) polytopic framework, where the vector of varying parameters is used to schedule between uncertain linear time invariant (LTI) systems. The design procedure relies on solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) in order to achieve regional pole placement and H∞ norm bounding constraints. Simulation results are used to compare the different FTC strategies.

Keywords

  • linear parameter varying systems
  • fault tolerant control
  • quadrotor
  • model reference-based control
  • linear matrix inequalities
Accesso libero

Model–Based Techniques for Virtual Sensing of Longitudinal Flight Parameters

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 23 - 38

Astratto

Abstract

Introduction of fly-by-wire and increasing levels of automation significantly improve the safety of civil aircraft, and result in advanced capabilities for detecting, protecting and optimizing A/C guidance and control. However, this higher complexity requires the availability of some key flight parameters to be extended. Hence, the monitoring and consolidation of those signals is a significant issue, usually achieved via many functionally redundant sensors to extend the way those parameters are measured. This solution penalizes the overall system performance in terms of weight, maintenance, and so on. Other alternatives rely on signal processing or model-based techniques that make a global use of all or part of the sensor data available, supplemented by a model-based simulation of the flight mechanics. That processing achieves real-time estimates of the critical parameters and yields dissimilar signals. Filtered and consolidated information is delivered in unfaulty conditions by estimating an extended state vector, including wind components, and can replace failed signals in degraded conditions. Accordingly, this paper describes two model-based approaches allowing the longitudinal flight parameters of a civil A/C to be estimated on-line. Results are displayed to evaluate the performances in different simulated and real flight conditions, including realistic external disturbances and modeling errors.

Keywords

  • model-based estimation
  • fault detection
  • virtual sensor
  • Kalman filtering
  • surrogate modeling
Accesso libero

A Safe Supervisory Flight Control Scheme in the Presence of Constraints and Anomalies

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 39 - 51

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper the hybrid supervisory control architecture developed by Famularo et al. (2011) for constrained control systems is adopted with the aim to improve safety in aircraft operations when critical events like command saturations or unpredicted anomalies occur. The capabilities of a low-computational demanding predictive scheme for the supervision of non-linear dynamical systems subject to sudden switchings amongst operating conditions and time-varying constraints are exploited in the flight control systems framework. The strategy is based on command governor ideas and is tailored to jointly take into account time-varying set-points/constraints. Unpredictable anomalies in the nominal plant behaviour, whose models fall in the category of time-varying constraints, can also be tolerated by the control scheme. In order to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach, simulations both on a high altitude performance demonstrator unmanned aircraft with redundant control surfaces and the P92 general aviation aircraft are discussed.

Keywords

  • supervisory control
  • command governor
  • failures
  • fault tolerant control
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Detection and Identification of Loss of Efficiency Faults of Flight Actuators

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 53 - 63

Astratto

Abstract

We propose linear parameter-varying (LPV) model-based approaches to the synthesis of robust fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) systems for loss of efficiency (LOE) faults of flight actuators. The proposed methods are applicable to several types of parametric (or multiplicative) LOE faults such as actuator disconnection, surface damage, actuator power loss or stall loads. For the detection of these parametric faults, advanced LPV-model detection techniques are proposed, which implicitly provide fault identification information. Fast detection of intermittent stall loads (seen as nuisances, rather than faults) is important in enhancing the performance of various fault detection schemes dealing with large input signals. For this case, a dedicated fast identification algorithm is devised. The developed FDD systems are tested on a nonlinear actuator model which is implemented in a full nonlinear aircraft simulation model. This enables the validation of the FDD system’s detection and identification characteristics under realistic conditions.

Keywords

  • aerospace engineering
  • fault detection and diagnosis
  • loss of efficiency type of faults
  • flight actuator faults
Accesso libero

A Hamiltonian Approach to Fault Isolation in a Planar Vertical Take–Off and Landing Aircraft Model

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 65 - 76

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of fault detection and isolation in a class of nonlinear systems having a Hamiltonian representation is considered. In particular, a model of a planar vertical take-off and landing aircraft with sensor and actuator faults is studied. A Hamiltonian representation is derived from an Euler-Lagrange representation of the system model considered. In this form, nonlinear decoupling is applied in order to obtain subsystems with (as much as possible) specific fault sensitivity properties. The resulting decoupled subsystem is represented as a Hamiltonian system and observer-based residual generators are designed. The results are presented through simulations to show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Keywords

  • Hamiltonian
  • observer
  • fault diagnosis
  • nonlinear systems
  • UAVs
Accesso libero

Increasing Pursuer Capturability by Using Hybrid Dynamics

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 77 - 92

Astratto

Abstract

A robust interception of a maneuverable target (evader) by an interceptor (pursuer) with hybrid dynamics is considered. The controls of the pursuer and the evader are bounded. The duration of the engagement is prescribed. The pursuer has two possible dynamic modes, which can be switched once during the engagement, while the dynamics of the evader are fixed. The case where for both dynamic modes there exists an unbounded capture zone was analyzed in our previous work. The conditions under which the pursuer can increase its capturability by utilizing the hybrid dynamics were established and the new robust capture zone was constructed. In the present paper, we extend this result to the cases where at least for one dynamic mode of the pursuer the capture zone is bounded. For these instances, conditions of increasing the pursuer’s hybrid capturability are derived. Respective capture zones are constructed. Illustrative examples and results of extensive simulation for a realistic non-linear engagement model in the presence of a random wind are given.

Keywords

  • interception problem
  • hybrid interceptor’s dynamics
  • robust capture zone
Accesso libero

A Fault Tolerant Direct Control Allocation Scheme with Integral Sliding Modes

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 93 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper, integral sliding mode control ideas are combined with direct control allocation in order to create a fault tolerant control scheme. Traditional integral sliding mode control can directly handle actuator faults; however, it cannot do so with actuator failures. Therefore, a mechanism needs to be adopted to distribute the control effort amongst the remaining functioning actuators in cases of faults or failures, so that an acceptable level of closed-loop performance can be retained. This paper considers the possibility of introducing fault tolerance even if fault or failure information is not provided to the control strategy. To demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed scheme, a high fidelity nonlinear model of a large civil aircraft is considered in the simulations in the presence of wind, gusts and sensor noise.

Keywords

  • fault tolerant control
  • integral sliding mode control
  • linear matrix inequalities
Accesso libero

A Probabilistic Method for Certification of Analytically Redundant Systems

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 103 - 116

Astratto

Abstract

Analytical fault detection algorithms have the potential to reduce the size, power and weight of safety-critical aerospace systems. Analytical redundancy has been successfully applied in many non-safety critical applications. However, acceptance for aerospace applications will require new methods to rigorously certify the impact of such algorithms on the overall system reliability. This paper presents a theoretical method to assess the probabilistic performance for an analytically redundant system. Specifically, a fault tolerant actuation system is considered. The system consists of dual-redundant actuators and an analytical fault detection algorithm to switch between the hardware components. The exact system failure rate per hour is computed using the law of total probability. This analysis requires knowledge of the failure rates for the hardware components. In addition, knowledge of specific probabilistic performance metrics for the fault detection logic is needed. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the proposed analysis method.

Keywords

  • avionics
  • certification
  • safety-critical systems
  • reliability
  • fault detection
  • fault-tolerant systems
Accesso libero

Supervisory Fault Tolerant Control of the GTM UAV Using LPV Methods

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 117 - 131

Astratto

Abstract

A multi-level reconfiguration framework is proposed for fault tolerant control of over-actuated aerial vehicles, where the levels indicate how much authority is given to the reconfiguration task. On the lowest, first level the fault is accommodated by modifying only the actuator/sensor configuration, so the fault remains hidden from the baseline controller. A dynamic reallocation scheme is applied on this level. The allocation mechanism exploits the actuator/sensor redundancy available on the aircraft. When the fault cannot be managed at the actuator/sensor level, the reconfiguration process has access to the baseline controller. Based on the LPV control framework, this is done by introducing fault-specific scheduling parameters. The baseline controller is designed to provide an acceptable performance level along all fault scenarios coded in these scheduling variables. The decision on which reconfiguration level has to be initiated in response to a fault is determined by a supervisor unit. The method is demonstrated on a full six-degrees-of-freedom nonlinear simulation model of the GTM UAV.

Keywords

  • fault tolerant control
  • linear parameter-varying systems
  • supervisory architecture
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Fault Tolerant Control Using Gaussian Processes and Model Predictive Control

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 133 - 148

Astratto

Abstract

Essential ingredients for fault-tolerant control are the ability to represent system behaviour following the occurrence of a fault, and the ability to exploit this representation for deciding control actions. Gaussian processes seem to be very promising candidates for the first of these, and model predictive control has a proven capability for the second. We therefore propose to use the two together to obtain fault-tolerant control functionality. Our proposal is illustrated by several reasonably realistic examples drawn from flight control.

Keywords

  • fault-tolerant control
  • Gaussian process
  • model predictive control
  • aircraft control
  • probabilistic modelling
Accesso libero

An SFDI Observer–Based Scheme for a General Aviation Aircraft

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 149 - 158

Astratto

Abstract

The problem of detecting and isolating sensor faults (sensor fault detection and isolation-SFDI) on a general aviation aircraft, in the presence of external disturbances, is considered. The proposed approach consists of an extended Kalman observer applied to an augmented aircraft plant, where some integrators are added to the output variables subject to faults. The output of the integrators should be ideally zero in the absence of model uncertainties, external disturbances and sensor faults. A threshold-based decision making system is adopted where the residuals are weighted with gains coming from the solution to an optimization problem. The proposed nonlinear observer was tested both numerically on a large database of simulations in the presence of disturbances and model uncertainties and on input-output data recorded during real flights. In this case, the possibility of successfully applying the proposed technique to detect and isolate faults on inertial and air data sensors, modelled as step or ramp signals artificially added to the real measurements, is shown.

Keywords

  • model-based FDI
  • sensor FDI
  • extended Kalman filtering
  • analytical redundancy
  • flight control
Accesso libero

Systematic Fault Tolerant Control Based on Adaptive Thau Observer Estimation for Quadrotor Uavs

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 159 - 174

Astratto

Abstract

A systematic fault tolerant control (FTC) scheme based on fault estimation for a quadrotor actuator, which integrates normal control, active and passive FTC and fault parking is proposed in this paper. Firstly, an adaptive Thau observer (ATO) is presented to estimate the quadrotor rotor fault magnitudes, and then faults with different magnitudes and time-varying natures are rated into corresponding fault severity levels based on the pre-defined fault-tolerant boundaries. Secondly, a systematic FTC strategy which can coordinate various FTC methods is designed to compensate for failures depending on the fault types and severity levels. Unlike former stand-alone passive FTC or active FTC, our proposed FTC scheme can compensate for faults in a way of condition-based maintenance (CBM), and especially consider the fatal failures that traditional FTC techniques cannot accommodate to avoid the crashing of UAVs. Finally, various simulations are carried out to show the performance and effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords

  • systematic fault tolerant control
  • fault estimation
  • adaptive Thau observer
  • fault tolerant capacity boundaries
  • time-varying fault
Accesso libero

Simultaneous State and Parameter Estimation Based Actuator Fault Detection and Diagnosis for an Unmanned Helicopter

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 175 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Simultaneous state and parameter estimation based actuator fault detection and diagnosis (FDD) for single-rotor unmanned helicopters (UHs) is investigated in this paper. A literature review of actuator FDD for UHs is given firstly. Based on actuator healthy coefficients (AHCs), which are introduced to represent actuator faults, a combined dynamic model is established with the augmented state containing both the flight state and AHCs. Then the actuator fault detection and diagnosis problem is transformed into a general nonlinear estimation one: given control inputs and the measured flight state contaminated by measurement noises, estimate both the flight state and AHCs recursively in each time-step, which is also known as the simultaneous state and parameter estimation problem. The estimated AHCs can further be used for fault tolerant control (FTC). Based on the existing widely used nonlinear estimation methods such as the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the extended set-membership filter (ESMF), three kinds of adaptive schemes (KF-UKF, MIT-UKF and MIT-ESMF) are proposed by our team to improve the actuator FDD performance. A comprehensive comparative study on these different estimation methods is given in detail to illustrate their advantages and disadvantages when applied to unmanned helicopter actuator FDD.

Keywords

  • actuator fault detection and diagnosis
  • unmanned helicopter
  • Kalman filter
  • set-membership filter
  • adaptive scheme
Accesso libero

Smac–Fdi: A Single Model Active Fault Detection and Isolation System for Unmanned Aircraft

Pubblicato online: 25 Mar 2015
Pagine: 189 - 201

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents a single model active fault detection and isolation system (SMAC-FDI) which is designed to efficiently detect and isolate a faulty actuator in a system, such as a small (unmanned) aircraft. This FDI system is based on a single and simple aerodynamic model of an aircraft in order to generate some residuals, as soon as an actuator fault occurs. These residuals are used to trigger an active strategy based on artificial exciting signals that searches within the residuals for the signature of an actuator fault. Fault isolation is carried out through an innovative mechanism that does not use the previous residuals but the actuator control signals directly. In addition, the paper presents a complete parameter-tuning strategy for this FDI system. The novel concepts are backed-up by simulations of a small unmanned aircraft experiencing successive actuator failures. The robustness of the SMAC-FDI method is tested in the presence of model uncertainties, realistic sensor noise and wind gusts. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on the computational efficiency of the method and its ability to run on small microcontrollers.

Keywords

  • fault detection and isolation
  • unmanned aerial vehicles
  • Kalman filtering
  • computationally efficient diagnosis system
  • active fault diagnosis
  • artificial excitation system

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