1. bookVolume 24 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
04 May 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
access type Accesso libero

Role of Social Justice in the Relationship Between Cultural Intelligence and Attitude Toward Teaching Profession

Pubblicato online: 09 Jul 2022
Volume & Edizione: Volume 24 (2022) - Edizione 1 (June 2022)
Pagine: 87 - 104
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
04 May 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno

The research investigated the role of social justice in the relationship between cultural intelligence and attitude toward teaching profession. For a sustainable education, social justice and cultural intelligence are seen crucial in teaching profession. The data of the study were collected from 404 prospective teachers studying at a state university in Turkey by using a paper-based survey. For collecting the data, “Cultural Intelligence Scale (CIS)” developed by Ang et al. (2007) and adapted into Turkish by Ilhan and Cetin (2014); “Social Justice Scale (SJS)” developed by Torres-Harding et al. (2012) and adapted into Turkish by Cirik (2015); and “Attitude Scale of Teaching Profession” developed by Üstüner (2006) were used. A structural model was established and conducted to hypothesize the research questions. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to validate the measurement and structural model. The SEM-based mediating analysis using SPSS AMOS was employed to test the hypothesized relationships. According to the results, cultural intelligence predicted the attitude towards the teaching profession and also social justice. Moreover, social justice was found to be in the full mediating role in the relationship between cultural intelligence and attitude towards the teaching profession. The research concluded that social justice was an important factor in increasing cultural intelligence competencies of teacher candidates to enhance their positive attitude towards teaching profession.


Akbaba, B. (2013). The attitudes of pre-service social studies teachers’ towards teaching profession and their self-efficacy about using instruction materials. Mevlana International Journal of Education, 3(2), 157–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.13054/mije. Search in Google Scholar

Akbulut, Ö. E., & Karakuş, F. (2011). The investigation of secondary school science and mathematics pre-service teachers attitudes towards teaching profession. Educational Research and Reviews, 6(6), 489–496. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR.9000363 Search in Google Scholar

Alkhateeb, H. M. (2013). Attitudes towards teaching profession of education students in Qatar. Comprehensive Psychology, 2, 01–03. https://doi.org/10.2466/01.03.IT.2.9 Search in Google Scholar

Andronache, D., Bocoş, M., Bocoş, V., & Macri, C. (2014). Attitude towards teaching profession. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 142, 628–632. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.677 Search in Google Scholar

Ang, S., & Inkpen, A. C. (2008). Cultural intelligence and offshore outsourcing success: A framework of firmlevel intercultural capability. Decision Sciences, 39(3), 337–358. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-5915.2008.00195.x Search in Google Scholar

Ang, S., Rockstuhl, T., & Tan, M. L. (2015). Cultural intelligence and competencies. International Encyclopedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2, 433–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.25050-210.1016/B978-0-08-097086-8.25050-2 Search in Google Scholar

Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., Koh, C., Ng, K. Y., Templer, K. J., Tay, C., & Chandrasekar, N. A. (2007). Cultural intelligence: Its measurement and effects on cultural judgment and decision making, cultural adaptation and task performance. Management and Organization Review, 3(3), 335–371. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8784.2007.00082.x Search in Google Scholar

Babu, B. P., & Raju, T. J. M. S. (2013). Attitude of student teachers towards their profession. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 2(1), 1–6. Search in Google Scholar

Banerjee, S., & Santosh, K. B. (2014). An investigation into the attitude of secondary school teachers towards teaching profession in Purulia District of West Bengal, India. International Journal of Academic Research in Education and Review, 2(3), 56–63. Search in Google Scholar

Banks, J. A. (2004). Teaching for social justice, diversity, and citizenship in a global world. The Educational Forum, 68(4), 296–305. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131720408984645 Search in Google Scholar

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182.10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173 Search in Google Scholar

Barwal, S. K. (2011). Attitude of secondary school teachers towards their teaching profession. International Journal of Education & Allied Sciences, 3(1). Search in Google Scholar

Bektaş, F., & Nalçaci, A. (2012). The relationship between personal values and attitude towards teaching profession. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 12(2), 1244–1248. Search in Google Scholar

Bhargava, A., & Pathy, M. (2014). Attitude of student teachers towards teaching profession. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 15(3), 27–36. https://doi.org/10.17718/tojde.15072 Search in Google Scholar

Bilgin, H., & Aykac, N. (2016). Pre-service teachers’ teaching-learning conceptions and their attitudes towards teaching profession. Educational Process: International Journal, 5(2), 139. https://doi.org/10.12973/edupij.2016.52.5 Search in Google Scholar

Brodie, J. M. (2007). Reforming social justice in neoliberal times. Studies in Social Justice, 1(2), 93–107. https://doi.org/10.26522/ssj.v1i2.972 Search in Google Scholar

Broido, E. M. (2000). The development of social justice allies during college: A phenomenological investigation. Journal of College Student Development, 41(1), 3–18. Search in Google Scholar

Çağlar, C. (2013). The relationship between the levels of alienation of the education faculty students and their attitudes towards the teaching profession. Educational Sciences: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 1507–1513. Search in Google Scholar

Chakraborty, A., & Mondal, B. C. (2014). Attitude of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. American Journal of Social Sciences, 2(6), 120–125. Search in Google Scholar

Cirik, I. (2015). Psychometric characteristics of the social justice scale’s Turkish form and a structural equation modeling. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 61, 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.14689/ejer.2015.61.210.14689/ejer.2015.61.2 Search in Google Scholar

Crowne, K. A. (2008). What leads to cultural intelligence? Business Horizons, 51(5), 391–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2008.03.010 Search in Google Scholar

Crowne, K. A. (2009). The relationships among social intelligence, emotional intelligence and cultural intelligence. Organization Management Journal, 6(3), 148–163. https://doi.org/10.1057/omj.2009.20 Search in Google Scholar

Earley, P. C. (2002). Redefining interactions across cultures and organizations: Moving forward with cultural intelligence. Research in Organizational Behavior, 24, 271–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(02)24008-3 Search in Google Scholar

Earley, P. C., & Mosakowski, E. (2004). Cultural intelligence. Harvard Business Review, 82(10), 139–146. Search in Google Scholar

Earley, P. C. & Ang, S. (2003). Cultural intelligence: Individual interactions across cultures. Stanford University Press.10.1515/9780804766005 Search in Google Scholar

Echegoyen-Sanz, Y., & Martín-Ezpeleta, A. (2021). A holistic approach to education for sustainability: Ecofeminism as a tool to enhance sustainability attitudes in pre-service teachers. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(1), 5–21. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0002 Search in Google Scholar

Egwu, S. O. (2015). Attitude of students towards teaching profession in Nigeria: Implications for education development. Journal of Education and Practice, 6(29), 21–25. Search in Google Scholar

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39–50. https://doi.org/10.1177/002224378101800104 Search in Google Scholar

Gewirtz, S. (1998). Conceptualizing social justice in education: Mapping the territory. Journal of Education Policy, 13(4), 469–484. https://doi.org/10.1080/0268093980130402 Search in Google Scholar

Güneyli, A., & Aslan, C. (2009). Evaluation of Turkish prospective teachers’ attitudes towards teaching profession (Near East University case). Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 1(1), 313–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.059 Search in Google Scholar

Hackman, H. (2005). Five essential components for social justice education. Equity & Excellence in Education, 38, 103–109. https://doi.org/10.1080/10665680590935034 Search in Google Scholar

Hair, J., Hollingsworth, C. L., Randolph, A. B., & Chong, A. Y. L. (2017). An updated and expanded assessment of PLS-SEM in information systems research. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 117(3), 442–458. https://doi.org/10.1108/IMDS-04-2016-0130 Search in Google Scholar

Hayes, A. F. (2017). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. Guilford publications. Search in Google Scholar

Hytten, K., & Bettez, S. C. (2011). Understanding education for social justice. Educational Foundations, 25, 7–24. Search in Google Scholar

Ilhan, M., & Cetin, B. (2014). Validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the cultural intelligence scale. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi (H. U. Journal of Education), 29(2), 94–114. Search in Google Scholar

Imai, L., & Gelfand, M. J. (2010). The culturally intelligent negotiator: The impact of cultural intelligence (CQ) on negotiation sequences and outcomes. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 112(2), 83–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2010.02.001 Search in Google Scholar

Jean-Marie, G., Normore, A. H., & Brooks, J. S. (2009). Leadership for social justice: Preparing 21st century school leaders for a new social order. Journal of Research on Leadership Education, 4(1), 1–31. https://doi.org/10.1177/194277510900400102 Search in Google Scholar

Jyoti, J., & Kour, S. (2015). Assessing the cultural intelligence and task performance equation. Cross Cultural Management, 22(2), 236–258. https://doi.org/10.1108/CCM-04-2013-0072 Search in Google Scholar

Karataş, K. (2020a). A theoretical view of the teaching profession. Electronic Journal of Education Sciences, 9(17), 39–56. Search in Google Scholar

Karatas, K. (2020b). The competencies of the culturally responsive teacher: What, why and how?. i.e.: inquiry in education, 12(2), 2. Search in Google Scholar

Karatas, K. (2020c). Contributions of culturally responsive elementary school teachers in the education process. Excellence in Education Journal, 9(2), 97–120. Search in Google Scholar

Karatas, K., & Arpaci, I. (2021). The mediating role of tolerance in the relationship between cultural intelligence and xenophobia. Asia Pacific Education Review, 22(1), 119–127. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12564-021-09675-z Search in Google Scholar

Karatas, K., & Oral, B. (2019). Evaluating elementary teaching undergraduate programs in terms of culturally responsive elementary teacher training. i.e.: inquiry in education, 11(2), 6. Search in Google Scholar

Kim, Y. J., & Van Dyne, L. (2012). Cultural intelligence and international leadership potential: The importance of contact for members of the majority. Applied Psychology, 61(2), 272–294. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2011.00468.x Search in Google Scholar

Kline, R. B. (2015). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. Guilford publications. Search in Google Scholar

Kontaş, H. (2016). The effect of an education-themed movie on the academic motivation of teacher candidates and their attitude towards teaching profession. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(6), 93–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.11114/jets.v4i6.148310.11114/jets.v4i6.1483 Search in Google Scholar

Koskela, T., & Karkkainen, S. (2021). Student teachers’ change agency in education for sustainable development. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(1), 84–98. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0007 Search in Google Scholar

Kovalcikiene, K., & Buksnyte-Marmiene, L. (2021). Doctoral students as future teachers at universities: Factors related to professional identity. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(2), 45–61. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0016 Search in Google Scholar

Larson, C. L., & Murtadha, K. (2002). Leadership for social justice. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 101(1), 134–161.10.1111/j.1744-7984.2002.tb00007.x Search in Google Scholar

Lee, L. Y., & Sukoco, B. M. (2010). The effects of cultural intelligence on expatriate performance: The moderating effects of international experience. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21(7), 963–981. https://doi.org/10.1080/09585191003783397 Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, J. B. (2001). Social justice, social studies, and social foundations. The Social Studies, 92(5), 189–192. https://doi.org/10.1080/00377990109604001 Search in Google Scholar

Lin, Y. C., Chen, A. S. Y., & Song, Y. C. (2012). Does your intelligence help to survive in a foreign jungle? The effects of cultural intelligence and emotional intelligence on cross-cultural adjustment. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 541–552. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2012.03.001 Search in Google Scholar

MacNab, B. R., & Worthley, R. (2012). Individual characteristics as predictors of cultural intelligence development: The relevance of self-efficacy. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(1), 62–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2010.12.001 Search in Google Scholar

McDonald, M., & Zeichner, K. (2009). Social justice teacher education. In W. Ayers, T. Quinn, & D. Stovall (Eds.), The handbook of social justice in education (pp. 595–610). Taylor and Francis. Search in Google Scholar

Meesuk, P., Wongrugsa, A., & Wangkaewhiran, T. (2021). Sustainable teacher professional development through professional learning community: PLC. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(2), 30–44. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0015 Search in Google Scholar

Nagda, B. R. A., Gurin, P., & Lopez, G. E. (2003). Transformative pedagogy for democracy and social justice. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 6(2), 165–191. https://doi.org/10.1080/13613320308199 Search in Google Scholar

Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory. McGraw-Hill. Search in Google Scholar

Nussbaum, M. (2003). Capabilities as fundamental entitlements: Sen and social justice. Feminist Economics, 9(2–3), 33–59.10.1080/1354570022000077926 Search in Google Scholar

Ott, D. L., & Michailova, S. (2018). Cultural intelligence: A review and new research avenues. International Journal of Management Reviews, 20(1), 99–119. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijmr.12118 Search in Google Scholar

Pancholi, A., & Bharwad, A. B. J. (2015). Student-teachers’ attitude towards teaching profession. International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Sciences, 3(8), 40–43. Search in Google Scholar

Parvez, M., & Shakir, M. (2013). Attitudes of prospective teachers towards teaching profession. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(10), 172–178. Search in Google Scholar

Pegalajar-Palomino, M., Burgos-García, A., & Martinez-Valdivia, E. (2021). What does education for sustainable development offer in initial teacher training? A systematic review. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(1), 99–114. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0008 Search in Google Scholar

Pham, D. H. (2021). The professional development of academic staff in higher education institution. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 23(1), 115–131. https://doi.org/10.2478/jtes-2021-0009 Search in Google Scholar

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891. https://doi.org/10.3758/BRM.40.3.879 Search in Google Scholar

Ratts, M. J., Singh, A. A., NassarMcMillan, S., Butler, S. K., & McCullough, J. R. (2016). Multicultural and social justice counseling competencies: Guidelines for the counseling profession. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 44(1), 28–48. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmcd.12035 Search in Google Scholar

Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. A. (2012). Essentials of organizational behavior. Global Edition. Search in Google Scholar

Rockstuhl, T., Seiler, S., Ang, S., Van Dyne, L., & Annen, H. (2011). Beyond general intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EQ): The role of cultural intelligence (CQ) on cross-border leadership effectiveness in a globalized world. Journal of Social Issues, 67(4), 825–840.10.1111/j.1540-4560.2011.01730.x Search in Google Scholar

Ryan, J. (2006). Inclusive leadership and social justice for schools. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 5(1), 3–17. https://doi.org/10.1080/15700760500483995 Search in Google Scholar

Şahin, F. S. (2010). Teacher candidates’ attitudes towards teaching profession and life satisfaction levels. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 2(2), 5196–5201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.845 Search in Google Scholar

Sarkar, D., & Behera, S. K. (2016). Attitude of college teachers towards teaching profession. American Journal of Educational Research, 4(11), 834–839. https://doi.org/10.12691/education-4-11-9 Search in Google Scholar

Saylık, A., & Han, B. (2021). The relationship between attitude towards profession and uncertainty avoidance and teaching long orientation abstract as cultural values. OPUS International Journal of Society Researches, 18(44), 7935–7967. https://doi.org/10.26466/opus.930935 Search in Google Scholar

Schaik, C. P., & Burkart, J. M. (2011). Social learning and evolution: The cultural intelligence hypothesis. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1567), 1008–1016. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0304 Search in Google Scholar

Sen, A. (2000). Social justice and the distribution of income. Handbook of Income Distribution, 1, 59–85. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1574-0056(00)80004-4 Search in Google Scholar

Spalding, E., Klecka, C. L., Lin, E., Odell, S. J., & Wang, J. (2010). Social justice and teacher education: A hammer, a bell, and a song. Journal of Teacher Education, 61(3), 191–196. https://doi.org/10.1177/0022487109359762 Search in Google Scholar

Torres-Harding, S. R., Siers, B., & Olson, B. D. (2012). Development and psychometric evaluation of the Social Justice Scale (SJS). American Journal of Community Psychology, 50(1), 77–88.10.1007/s10464-011-9478-2 Search in Google Scholar

Trivedi, R. P. (2012). A study of attitude of teachers towards teaching profession teaching at different level. International Multidisciplinary e-Journal, 1(5), 24–30. Search in Google Scholar

Tuleja, E. A. (2014). Developing cultural intelligence for global leadership through mindfulness. Journal of Teaching in International Business, 25(1), 5–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/08975930.2014.881275 Search in Google Scholar

Tyler, T. R. (2000). Social justice: Outcome and procedure. International Journal of Psychology, 35(2), 117–125. https://doi.org/10.1080/002075900399411 Search in Google Scholar

Üstüner, M. (2006). Reliability and validity study of an attitude scale of teaching profession. Kuram ve Uygulamada Eğitim Yönetimi, 45(45), 109–127. Search in Google Scholar

Üstüner, M. (2017). Personality and attitude towards teaching profession: Mediating role of self efficacy. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5(9), 70–82. https://doi.org/10.11114/jets.v5i9.2536 Search in Google Scholar

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., & Livermore, D. (2010). Cultural intelligence: A pathway for leading in a rapidly globalizing world. Leading Across Differences, 131–138. Search in Google Scholar

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S., Ng, K. Y., Rockstuhl, T., Tan, M. L., & Koh, C. (2012). Subdimensions of the four factor model of cultural intelligence: Expanding the conceptualization and measurement of cultural intelligence. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 6(4), 295–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2012.00429.x Search in Google Scholar

Yaakub, N. (1990). A multivariate analysis of attitude towards teaching. Pertanika, 13(2), 267, 273. Search in Google Scholar

Yeşil, H. (2010). The relationship between candidate teachers’ communication skills and their attitudes towards teaching profession. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 9, 919–922. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.12.259 Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo