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# Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation

###### Accettato: 21 Apr 2022
Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2444-8656
Prima pubblicazione
01 Jan 2016
Frequenza di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Build mathematical models

In order to better grasp the indoor environment design parameters of comprehensive commercial shopping center, such as temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc., design staff should build the mathematical model as shown below by numerical simulation on the basis of clear environmental characteristics and accumulated experience based on previous building operation:

Governing Equation

According to the research results of indoor environment of comprehensive commercial shopping center, fluid flow can be accurately judged by using Reynolds number. One is laminar flow, which belongs to stratified and regular flow state, and the other is turbulent flow, which belongs to extremely irregular flow state. The Navier-Stokes equation proposed by researchers in practical exploration is mainly used in turbulence analysis, but it is difficult to obtain effective solutions of turbulent flow equations by using equations in unstable states, so numerical simulation is proposed to solve the above problems. In this paper, we study mainly according to the comprehensive commercial shopping center in a given area of three-dimensional steady-state problem, by default, Launder and others put forward in the study of k - epsilon both routine turbulence model, select the finite volume method of solving control equations are scattered, which involves the energy equation, composition equation, momentum equation, contact engineering, such as content, specific as follows[1.2]:

Definition 1

On the other hand, governing equations. Firstly, it refers to the continuous equation, and the control body studied in this paper should conform to this content. For incompressible fluid, the actual density is constant, and the corresponding governing equation can be converted to: $∂ui∂xi=0$ \frac{{\partial {u_i}}}{{\partial {x_i}}} = 0

Theorem 1

In the above formula, UI represents the velocity in the I direction.

The second is momentum equation. The controller studied in this paper should also conform to this content. The actual content is as follows:

The momentum equation in the a and X directions is: $∂(ρu)∂t+∂(ρuu)∂x+∂(ρuv)∂y+∂(ρuv)∂v=∂∂x(μ∂μ∂x)+∂∂y(μ∂μ∂y)+∂∂z(μ∂μ∂z)−∂p∂x+Su$ \begin{gathered} \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho u} \right)}}{{\partial t}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{u}u} \right)}}{{\partial x}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{u}v} \right)}}{{\partial y}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{u}v} \right)}}{{\partial v}} \hfill \\ = \frac{\partial }{{\partial x}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial \mu }}{{\partial x}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial y}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial \mu }}{{\partial y}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial z}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial \mu }}{{\partial z}}} \right) - \frac{{\partial p}}{{\partial x}} + {S_u} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}

The momentum formula in the B and Y directions is: $∂(ρv)∂t+∂(ρvu)∂x+∂(ρvv)∂y+∂(ρvw)∂v=∂∂x(μ∂v∂x)+∂∂y(μ∂v∂y)+∂∂z(μ∂v∂z)−∂p∂y+Sv$ \begin{gathered} \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho v} \right)}}{{\partial t}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{v}u} \right)}}{{\partial x}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{v}v} \right)}}{{\partial y}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho vw} \right)}}{{\partial v}} \hfill \\ = \frac{\partial }{{\partial x}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial v}}{{\partial x}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial y}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial v}}{{\partial y}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial z}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial v}}{{\partial z}}} \right) - \frac{{\partial p}}{{\partial y}} + {S_v} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}

Proposition 2

The momentum formula in the C and Z directions is: $∂(ρw)∂t+∂(ρwu)∂x+∂(ρwv)∂y+∂(pww)∂z=∂∂x(μ∂w∂x)+∂∂y(μ∂w∂y)+∂∂z(μ∂w∂z)−∂p∂z+Sw$ \begin{gathered} \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho w} \right)}}{{\partial t}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{w}u} \right)}}{{\partial x}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho \user1{w}v} \right)}}{{\partial y}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {pww} \right)}}{{\partial z}} \hfill \\ = \frac{\partial }{{\partial x}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial w}}{{\partial x}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial y}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial w}}{{\partial y}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial z}}\left( {\mu \frac{{\partial w}}{{\partial z}}} \right) - \frac{{\partial p}}{{\partial z}} + {S_w} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}

In the above formula, p represents the pressure on the microgroup of fluid in Pa; U stands for dynamic viscosity in Pa•s; Su, Sv, Sw represent the generalized source term of momentum equation in three directions.

The third is the energy conservation equation, the specific formula is as follows: $∂(ρT)∂t+∂(ρuT)∂x+∂(ρvT)∂y+∂(pwT)∂z=∂∂x(kCP∂T∂x)+∂∂y(∂CP∂T∂y)+∂∂z(kCP∂T∂z)+ST$ \begin{gathered} \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho T} \right)}}{{\partial t}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho uT} \right)}}{{\partial x}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {\rho vT} \right)}}{{\partial y}} + \frac{{\partial \left( {pwT} \right)}}{{\partial z}} \hfill \\ = \frac{\partial }{{\partial x}}\left( {\frac{k}{{{C_P}}}\frac{{\partial T}}{{\partial x}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial y}}\left( {\frac{\partial }{{{C_P}}}\frac{{\partial T}}{{\partial y}}} \right) + \frac{\partial }{{\partial z}}\left( {\frac{k}{{{C_P}}}\frac{{\partial T}}{{\partial z}}} \right) + {S_T} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}

Lemma 3

In the above formula, Cp represents the fixed heat ratio of the fluid in W/ (°C•kg); K represents the coefficient of molecular import, in units of W/ (°C•kg); ST represents the energy source term in units of.

Finally, it refers to the turbulence model equation, and the standard equation formula is as follows: $ρdkdt=∂∂xi⌊ (μ+μtσk)∂ε∂xi ⌋+Gk+Gb−ρερdεdt=∂∂xi[ (μ+μtσε)∂ε∂xi ]+C1εk(Gk+C3Gb)−C2ρε2k$ \begin{gathered} \rho \frac{{dk}}{{dt}} = \frac{\partial }{{\partial {x_i}}}\left\lfloor {\left( {\mu + \frac{{\mu t}}{{{\sigma _k}}}} \right)\frac{{\partial \varepsilon }}{{\partial {x_i}}}} \right\rfloor + {G_k} + {G_b} - \rho \varepsilon \hfill \\ \rho \frac{{d\varepsilon }}{{dt}} = \frac{\partial }{{\partial {x_i}}}\left[ {\left( {\mu + \frac{{{\mu _t}}}{{{\sigma _\varepsilon }}}} \right)\frac{{\partial \varepsilon }}{{\partial {x_i}}}} \right] + {C_1}\frac{\varepsilon }{k}\left( {{G_k} + {C_3}{G_b}} \right) - \frac{{{C_2}\rho {\varepsilon ^2}}}{k} \hfill \\ \end{gathered}

Conjecture 5

In the above formula, UT represents the viscosity of turbulence and meets the condition of μt = ρCμ k2 / ε Gk represents the turbulence function caused by the average velocity gradient. Gb represents the turbulent kinetic energy generated by Welfare; C1ε, C2ε, C3ε represents empirical coefficient, and meets the condition of C1ε = 1.44, C2ε = 1.92, C3ε = 0.09; β represents thermal expansion coefficient; σk, σε represents the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate Prandtl number, and meets the condition of σk = 1.0, σε;= 1.3.

Clarify the single value condition

Firstly, the geometric conditions are considered, and the geometric shape and size of the research object are calculated. Secondly, physical conditions should be considered to verify the physical characteristics of the control body during flow and heat transfer and accurately judge whether the relevant parameters are related to temperature. In this paper, the temperature parameters of canal water, summer and air conditioning in the comprehensive commercial shopping center are shown in the following table 1:

Design parameters of indoor environment

The temperature°C Relative humidity% The wind speed/(ms−1) The water temperature°C
In the summer 26 60 <0.3 23
In the winter 22 45 <0.3 18
Example 6

First, human calorific value. According to the research data, the personnel density of the mall corridor design is 4 square meters, and the clustering coefficient has reached 0.89. Under the condition of refrigeration, the indoor temperature is under 26 degrees Celsius, the heat dissipation of adult men should be calculated according to 181W; Under the heating condition, the indoor temperature is under 22 degrees Celsius, and the heat loss of adult men should be calculated according to 181W. The specific formula is as follows: Q1 = Φnq1

In the above formula, Q1 represents the heat flux density of personnel cooling, the unit is W/m2; φ stands for clustering coefficient, which was selected as 0.89 in this study. N is the number of people per unit area; Q1 represents the heat dissipation of adult male under light working condition, in unit W. According to the calculation and analysis of this formula, it is found that the heat flux of human body can reach 40.27W/m2.[3.4]

Note 7

First, lighting equipment. In this paper, the lighting equipment load index of commercial buildings is mainly controlled between 25W/m2 and 35W/m2, which are evenly placed on the wall and top surface according to the form of heat flux density. The actual formula is as follows:[5.6] $Q2=q2A/S$ [{Q_2} = {q_2}A/S

In the above formula, A represents the corridor area, and the actual unit is m2. S represents the area of wall and top surface, the actual unit is m2; Represents the unit area design composite index, the actual unit is W/m2. According to the calculation and analysis of this formula, it is found that the heat flux of the corridor wall and the top surface can reach 18:02W/m2.

Open Problem 8

Third, the moisture content of the canal surface. This content directly affects the distribution of water vapor mass concentration and temperature field during the overall numerical simulation. Therefore, in order to obtain safe and effective data information, the following formula should be used for comparative analysis:

According to the formula shown below, calculate and analyze the moisture loss of open water: $W1=β(Pqb−Pq)F×B/B′×3.6×103$ [{W_1} = \beta \left( {{P_{qb}} - {P_q}} \right)F \times B/B' \times 3.6 \times {10^3}

According to the hVAC design requirements of civil buildings, the calculation is as follows: $W1=(α+0.00013v)×(Pqb−Pq)F×B/B′$ [{W_1} = \left( {\alpha + 0.00013v} \right) \times \left( {{P_{qb}} - {P_q}} \right)F \times B/B'

The simple calculation formula is: $W1=F×g×B/B′$ {W_1} = F \times g \times B/B'

In the above formula, W represents the surface moisture volume of open water, and the actual unit is Pa; β represents evaporation coefficient, the actual unit is kg/ (N•s), which should be clarified according to the formula β = (α+0.00363v)10−5; Pqb represents the saturated air vapor pressure at the surface temperature of the canal, and the actual unit is Pa. Pq represents the actual water vapor pressure in the air, the actual unit is Pa; F stands for water surface area, the actual unit is m2, which is set as 10250m2 in this paper. B is the standard atmospheric pressure, the actual value is 10325Pa; B ’is the local atmospheric pressure, the actual unit is Pa; G represents evaporation per unit area, mainly analyzing the evaporation per unit area of open water, which is actually set as 0.0968kg/ (m2•h); α represents the diffusivity under different water temperatures when the ambient air temperature is controlled between 15 and 30 degrees Celsius. The actual unit is kg/ (N•s), and the specific value range is shown in the following table. V represents the velocity of the air around the water surface, in actual units of m/s. Combined with the above calculation methods, the calculation results obtained according to the hVAC design code of civil buildings are the largest, which is regarded as the main basis for practical research. Specific values are shown in the following table2:

Diffusion coefficients at different water temperatures

The water temperature°C <30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
α / kg.(N.s)−1 0.0043 0.0058 0.0069 0.0077 0.0088 0.0096 0.0106 0.0125

First, human body moisture volume. Inside the building, human body loses to the air through respiration or perspiration, and the actual calculation formula is as follows: $W2=Φn′w$ {W_2} = \Phi n'w

In the above formula, φ represents the clustering coefficient, which is 0.89 in actual research. N ’represents the total number of people in the mall; W represents the amount of dehumidification per person per hour under light labor, and the actual unit is g/h. Specific values are shown in the following table3:

Moisture volume of human body under different conditions

Indoor temperature°C Static Mild labor Moderate Labour Heavy labor
18 40 68 131 223
20 40 80 145 245
22 44 92 163 267
24 48 106 190 300
26 56 122 199 311
28 65 136 216 333
30 77 152 233 357

Combined with the above calculation and analysis, it is found that the loss of human body can reach 0.018 in summer and 0.012 in winter.

Finally, boundary conditions should be studied, which can clarify the variation rules of variables. According to the model analysis in this paper, the boundary conditions can be divided into four categories: air inlet, any water surface, maintenance structure and air outlet. It should be noted that the initial state of numerical simulation refers to the spatial distribution of various variables at the initial moment of heat value exchange, but the case studied in this paper has the problem of steady flow of incompressible fluid, so the initial conditions of simulation do not need to be studied.

Solution analysis

With the rapid development of computer software and hardware, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software has been widely used, and the practical application tools have gradually got rid of the traditional manual operation mode, prompting researchers to focus on numerical simulation. Therefore, this paper mainly used FLUENT14.0 software to conduct indoor analysis of a comprehensive commercial shopping center in a certain area, combined with boundary conditions and numerical values obtained in the above research to conduct numerical simulation, select appropriate gas solution and relaxation factors, and finally divide the model into three individuals for grid division.

Validation analysis
Test Introduction

The data model is constructed for the indoor environment of the comprehensive commercial shopping center, and the field test is carried out under the condition that the conditions support, including the water surface temperature, air supply port, top air supply port, relative humidity and so on. The selected instruments and equipment include glass rod thermometer, quality measuring instrument, etc., and the corresponding performance parameters are designed as shown in the following table 4:[5.6]

Performance parameters of the device

Category The name of the instrument Model Range Measuring the degree of Error range
The temperature Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) HYGRO-PALMI −20°C~70°C 0.1°C 0~40°C Precision±0.5°C
Relative humidity Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) HYGRO-PALMI 0~100% 0.1% RH±3% Readings of ±
Air volume Cap type air volume hood (FIG. 3-2) 8375 42~4250m3/hr Im3/hr 3% or±12m3/hr
The temperature Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) 7565 0~60°C 0.1°C ±0.6°C
The wind speed Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) 7565 0~40m/s 0.01m/s 3% or ± 0.02m/s
The temperature Glass thermometer (FIG. 3-4) / 0~60°C 0.1°C ±0.2°C
Test Scheme

First, the air volume and temperature of the air supply port should be studied. In this paper, the cap type air volume hood is mainly used to detect the amount of air at the air supply port, the TST detector is selected to understand the actual wind speed, and the formula shown below is used to study the average wind speed of the tuyere: $Q=F×v¯=abv¯$ Q = F \times \bar v = ab\bar v

In the above formula, Q represents the air volume of the tuyere, and the actual unit is m3/s. A and B represent the length and width of tuyere, and the actual unit is M. F represents the area of tuyere, the actual unit is m2; Represents the average wind speed of the tuyere, the actual unit is m/s.

Second, study the temperature and wind speed at a given location. In order to verify the effectiveness of the mathematical model, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the velocity, humidity and temperature inside the water street. In this paper, 16 measuring points were selected, and temperature and humidity instruments were placed in advance for independent measurement and recording.

Finally, study the temperature and humidity of the water surface. In this paper, the canal designed in the indoor environment of the comprehensive commercial shopping center is located in the center of water Street. During the measurement period, the segmented measurement method is used and the corresponding average value is calculated, so as to provide effective basis for practical analysis.[7.8]

Result Analysis

First, test results of the air supply port are shown in the following table 5:

Test results of air supply port

Tuyere number Supply air velocity/°C Wet bulb temperature/°C Moisture content of air supply/(gkg−1) Air volume/(mh−1) The wind speed/(ms−1)
1 16.7 10.4 5.21 2379.6 3.51
2 16.5 10.2 5.16 2271.6 4.24
3 / / / / /
4 16.9 10.3 5.20 2790.9 5.53
5 17.3 10.8 5.25 2531.7 5.82
6 17.1 10.7 5.26 2408.4 5.17
7 17.4 10.9 5.33 2127.6 4.81
8 16.8 10.4 5.15 1557.9 5.43
9 16.3 10.1 5.14 1766.7 4.52
10 16.9 10.8 5.32 1377.0 3.74
11 17.1 11.2 5.21 1572.3 4.01
12 16.8 10.4 5.11 2553.3 4.62
13 16.9 10.6 5.23 2041.2 5.23
14 16.2 10.2 5.15 2.41.2 4.91

Combined with the above table, it is found that there is a large deviation between the design value and the actual air volume of the indoor air conditioning system of the shopping center studied.

Second, the test results of the top air supply port are shown in the following table 6:

Test results of the top air supply port

Tuyere number Supply air velocity/°C Wet bulb temperature/°C Moisture content of air supply/(gkg−1) Air volume/(mh−1) The wind speed/(ms−1)
1 16.2 10.2 5.11 1299.5 2.31
2 16.4 10.2 5.05 1267.2 2.24
3 16.3 10.2 5.07 1209.6 2.13
4 16.5 10.4 5.19 1100.7 1.92
5 16.9 10.5 5.15 774.1 1.32
6 17.1 10.6 5.14 684.9 1.21
7 16.7 10.5 5.18 736.1 1.34
8 16.2 10.2 5.13 646.3 1.13
9 / / / / /
10 / / / / /
11 16.1 10.1 5.12 1414.7 2.52
12 16.5 10.3 5.09 1337.5 2.31
13 16.4 10.2 5.09 1401.4 2.42
14 16.8 10.4 5.11 1350.1 2.34
15 17.1 10.5 5.08 1260.9 2.21
16 16.9 10.5 5.10 1203.3 2.12

Combined with the analysis of the above table, it is found that the overall air supply quantity is not balanced, and there are two seals on the northeast side without continuous air supply.

Third, the test results of the specified area, recorded values as shown in the following table 7:

Test junction for the specified area

Measuring point The test wind speed/(m.s−1) Dry bulb temperature/°C Moisture content(g.kg−1)
1 0.82 18.7 5.70
2 0.57 18.2 6.13
3 0.45 18.4 5.94
4 0.42 18.4 5.48
5 0.49 18.6 5.26
6 0.44 19.3 6.08
7 0.51 19.4 6.54
8 0.76 19.4 6.40
9 0.88 18.6 5.76
10 0.56 18.3 5.47
11 0.52 17.6 5.30
12 0.43 17.9 5.40
13 0.54 18.0 5.53
14 0.57 18.1 5.71
15 0.67 18.1 5.64
16 0.54 18.2 5.53

Combined with the above table, it is found that due to the small number of participants in actual studies, only the relevant values of instantaneous temperature and relative humidity are recorded. This proves that the temperature and relative humidity inside the building are stable.

Fourth, water surface test results, as shown in the following table 8 :

Water surface test results

Number of surface survey points 1 2 3 4 5
The water temperature/°C 18.1 18.0 17.8 17.7 17.9
Temperature at 0.1m height/°C 18.2 18.1 17.9 17.8 18.0
Temperature at 0.5m height/°C 18.5 18.5 18.2 18.2 18.2
Temperature at 1.5m height/°C 18.8 18.9 18.7 18.7 18.8
Relative humidity at 0.1m height/°C 66.2 67.0 65.4 66.9 65.0
Relative humidity at 0.5m height/°C 54.3 57.1 54.7 56.2 55.6
Relative humidity at 1.5m height/°C 49.6 51.5 50.1 50.8 50.5
Water surface wind speed/(m.s−1) 0.12 0.11 0.14 0.15 0.14
Simulation results during the test

Combined with the results obtained from the above tests, CFD numerical simulation is used to analyze the indoor environment of comprehensive commercial shopping center, which is embodied in the following points: The first is the speed field. According to the actual results, the air supply track of all the measured air supply ports is not balanced with the actual speed. The actual wind speed of Nanfu side is larger, which can reach 3.10m/s. The second is the temperature field. According to the actual results, the air supply temperature of the tuyere in winter is not balanced. When the height reaches 1.5 meters, the average temperature of the indoor personnel stay area can reach 19.08°C, the overall temperature is low, and the design of the actual air supply outlet is not balanced, there is a significant temperature of 7 °C. Finally, it refers to the mass concentration field of water vapor. According to the actual research results, when the height of the personnel activity area reaches 1.5 meters, the mass concentration field of water vapor in the cross section is not balanced. The moisture content is higher at the top, lower at the east air outlet, and higher at the corridor and west side. The reason for this phenomenon is that the air supply port design of the internal air conditioning system is not balanced, resulting in the average humidity of the section reached 48.2%, which is higher than the relative humidity of the air conditioning room in winter. In essence, the interior design of water surface in a comprehensive commercial shopping center is to equip the interior with large humidifiers. Therefore, it is necessary to choose an appropriate air distribution scheme to ensure the balance of internal temperature, humidity and wind speed fields, so as to meet the comfort requirements of indoor personnel.

At the same time, the validity of the mathematic model is established in order to further research institute, according to the above set of 16 points and C F D simulation results contrast analysis, numerical simulation of the temperature measurement value higher than it actually is, the relative error is 2.22%, the reasons for this phenomenon is that during the simulation of load are mainly distributed in areas such as wall, ground, top, In actual measurement, the actual load at the measurement point may be lower than the average load. In the moisture content test analysis, the simulated average quality is higher, and the relative error can reach 10.67%. The reason for this is that the closure and setting values during the actual operation are not ideal. Therefore, in the range of allowable error, comprehensive commercial shopping center by means of numerical simulation analysis of indoor environment design has the rationality, by using the FLUENT software to simulate software analysis of indoor thermal environmental conditions with accuracy, the grid of the building is very ideal, the mathematical model and numerical simulation can be obtained can be convergence.[9]

Conclusion

To sum up, in view of the practical comprehensive commercial shopping center of the quality of indoor environment to build the corresponding model, and the running state of the measured under different conditions, can not only build accuracy of the models, can also according to the way of CFD numerical simulation have more actual simulation results, in order to provide effective basis for practical engineering construction innovation.

#### Diffusion coefficients at different water temperatures

The water temperature°C <30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
α / kg.(N.s)−1 0.0043 0.0058 0.0069 0.0077 0.0088 0.0096 0.0106 0.0125

#### Test results of air supply port

Tuyere number Supply air velocity/°C Wet bulb temperature/°C Moisture content of air supply/(gkg−1) Air volume/(mh−1) The wind speed/(ms−1)
1 16.7 10.4 5.21 2379.6 3.51
2 16.5 10.2 5.16 2271.6 4.24
3 / / / / /
4 16.9 10.3 5.20 2790.9 5.53
5 17.3 10.8 5.25 2531.7 5.82
6 17.1 10.7 5.26 2408.4 5.17
7 17.4 10.9 5.33 2127.6 4.81
8 16.8 10.4 5.15 1557.9 5.43
9 16.3 10.1 5.14 1766.7 4.52
10 16.9 10.8 5.32 1377.0 3.74
11 17.1 11.2 5.21 1572.3 4.01
12 16.8 10.4 5.11 2553.3 4.62
13 16.9 10.6 5.23 2041.2 5.23
14 16.2 10.2 5.15 2.41.2 4.91

#### Water surface test results

Number of surface survey points 1 2 3 4 5
The water temperature/°C 18.1 18.0 17.8 17.7 17.9
Temperature at 0.1m height/°C 18.2 18.1 17.9 17.8 18.0
Temperature at 0.5m height/°C 18.5 18.5 18.2 18.2 18.2
Temperature at 1.5m height/°C 18.8 18.9 18.7 18.7 18.8
Relative humidity at 0.1m height/°C 66.2 67.0 65.4 66.9 65.0
Relative humidity at 0.5m height/°C 54.3 57.1 54.7 56.2 55.6
Relative humidity at 1.5m height/°C 49.6 51.5 50.1 50.8 50.5
Water surface wind speed/(m.s−1) 0.12 0.11 0.14 0.15 0.14

#### Design parameters of indoor environment

The temperature°C Relative humidity% The wind speed/(ms−1) The water temperature°C
In the summer 26 60 <0.3 23
In the winter 22 45 <0.3 18

#### Test junction for the specified area

Measuring point The test wind speed/(m.s−1) Dry bulb temperature/°C Moisture content(g.kg−1)
1 0.82 18.7 5.70
2 0.57 18.2 6.13
3 0.45 18.4 5.94
4 0.42 18.4 5.48
5 0.49 18.6 5.26
6 0.44 19.3 6.08
7 0.51 19.4 6.54
8 0.76 19.4 6.40
9 0.88 18.6 5.76
10 0.56 18.3 5.47
11 0.52 17.6 5.30
12 0.43 17.9 5.40
13 0.54 18.0 5.53
14 0.57 18.1 5.71
15 0.67 18.1 5.64
16 0.54 18.2 5.53

#### Test results of the top air supply port

Tuyere number Supply air velocity/°C Wet bulb temperature/°C Moisture content of air supply/(gkg−1) Air volume/(mh−1) The wind speed/(ms−1)
1 16.2 10.2 5.11 1299.5 2.31
2 16.4 10.2 5.05 1267.2 2.24
3 16.3 10.2 5.07 1209.6 2.13
4 16.5 10.4 5.19 1100.7 1.92
5 16.9 10.5 5.15 774.1 1.32
6 17.1 10.6 5.14 684.9 1.21
7 16.7 10.5 5.18 736.1 1.34
8 16.2 10.2 5.13 646.3 1.13
9 / / / / /
10 / / / / /
11 16.1 10.1 5.12 1414.7 2.52
12 16.5 10.3 5.09 1337.5 2.31
13 16.4 10.2 5.09 1401.4 2.42
14 16.8 10.4 5.11 1350.1 2.34
15 17.1 10.5 5.08 1260.9 2.21
16 16.9 10.5 5.10 1203.3 2.12

#### Moisture volume of human body under different conditions

Indoor temperature°C Static Mild labor Moderate Labour Heavy labor
18 40 68 131 223
20 40 80 145 245
22 44 92 163 267
24 48 106 190 300
26 56 122 199 311
28 65 136 216 333
30 77 152 233 357

#### Performance parameters of the device

Category The name of the instrument Model Range Measuring the degree of Error range
The temperature Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) HYGRO-PALMI −20°C~70°C 0.1°C 0~40°C Precision±0.5°C
Relative humidity Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) HYGRO-PALMI 0~100% 0.1% RH±3% Readings of ±
Air volume Cap type air volume hood (FIG. 3-2) 8375 42~4250m3/hr Im3/hr 3% or±12m3/hr
The temperature Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) 7565 0~60°C 0.1°C ±0.6°C
The wind speed Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) 7565 0~40m/s 0.01m/s 3% or ± 0.02m/s
The temperature Glass thermometer (FIG. 3-4) / 0~60°C 0.1°C ±0.2°C

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