In order to better grasp the indoor environment design parameters of comprehensive commercial shopping center, such as temperature, wind speed, humidity, etc., design staff should build the mathematical model as shown below by numerical simulation on the basis of clear environmental characteristics and accumulated experience based on previous building operation:

According to the research results of indoor environment of comprehensive commercial shopping center, fluid flow can be accurately judged by using Reynolds number. One is laminar flow, which belongs to stratified and regular flow state, and the other is turbulent flow, which belongs to extremely irregular flow state. The Navier-Stokes equation proposed by researchers in practical exploration is mainly used in turbulence analysis, but it is difficult to obtain effective solutions of turbulent flow equations by using equations in unstable states, so numerical simulation is proposed to solve the above problems. In this paper, we study mainly according to the comprehensive commercial shopping center in a given area of three-dimensional steady-state problem, by default, Launder and others put forward in the study of k - epsilon both routine turbulence model, select the finite volume method of solving control equations are scattered, which involves the energy equation, composition equation, momentum equation, contact engineering, such as content, specific as follows^{[1.2]}:

On the other hand, governing equations. Firstly, it refers to the continuous equation, and the control body studied in this paper should conform to this content. For incompressible fluid, the actual density is constant, and the corresponding governing equation can be converted to:

In the above formula, UI represents the velocity in the I direction.

The second is momentum equation. The controller studied in this paper should also conform to this content. The actual content is as follows:

The momentum equation in the a and X directions is:

The momentum formula in the B and Y directions is:

The momentum formula in the C and Z directions is:

In the above formula, p represents the pressure on the microgroup of fluid in Pa; U stands for dynamic viscosity in Pa•s; Su, Sv, Sw represent the generalized source term of momentum equation in three directions.

The third is the energy conservation equation, the specific formula is as follows:

In the above formula, Cp represents the fixed heat ratio of the fluid in W/ (°C•kg); K represents the coefficient of molecular import, in units of W/ (°C•kg); ST represents the energy source term in units of.

Finally, it refers to the turbulence model equation, and the standard equation formula is as follows:

In the above formula, UT represents the viscosity of turbulence and meets the condition of _{t}_{μ} k^{2} / ε Gk represents the turbulence function caused by the average velocity gradient. Gb represents the turbulent kinetic energy generated by Welfare; _{1}_{ε}_{2}_{ε}_{3}_{ε}_{1}_{ε}_{2}_{ε}_{3}_{ε}_{k}_{ε}_{k}_{ε}

Firstly, the geometric conditions are considered, and the geometric shape and size of the research object are calculated. Secondly, physical conditions should be considered to verify the physical characteristics of the control body during flow and heat transfer and accurately judge whether the relevant parameters are related to temperature. In this paper, the temperature parameters of canal water, summer and air conditioning in the comprehensive commercial shopping center are shown in the following table 1:

Design parameters of indoor environment

The temperature°C | Relative humidity% | The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
The water temperature°C | |
---|---|---|---|---|

In the summer | 26 | 60 | <0.3 | 23 |

In the winter | 22 | 45 | <0.3 | 18 |

First, human calorific value. According to the research data, the personnel density of the mall corridor design is 4 square meters, and the clustering coefficient has reached 0.89. Under the condition of refrigeration, the indoor temperature is under 26 degrees Celsius, the heat dissipation of adult men should be calculated according to 181W; Under the heating condition, the indoor temperature is under 22 degrees Celsius, and the heat loss of adult men should be calculated according to 181W. The specific formula is as follows: _{1} = Φ_{1}

In the above formula, Q1 represents the heat flux density of personnel cooling, the unit is W/m2; φ stands for clustering coefficient, which was selected as 0.89 in this study. N is the number of people per unit area; Q1 represents the heat dissipation of adult male under light working condition, in unit W. According to the calculation and analysis of this formula, it is found that the heat flux of human body can reach 40.27W/m^{2}.^{[3.4]}

First, lighting equipment. In this paper, the lighting equipment load index of commercial buildings is mainly controlled between 25W/m2 and 35W/m2, which are evenly placed on the wall and top surface according to the form of heat flux density. The actual formula is as follows:^{[5.6]}

In the above formula, A represents the corridor area, and the actual unit is m2. S represents the area of wall and top surface, the actual unit is m2; Represents the unit area design composite index, the actual unit is W/m2. According to the calculation and analysis of this formula, it is found that the heat flux of the corridor wall and the top surface can reach 18:02W/m2.

Third, the moisture content of the canal surface. This content directly affects the distribution of water vapor mass concentration and temperature field during the overall numerical simulation. Therefore, in order to obtain safe and effective data information, the following formula should be used for comparative analysis:

According to the formula shown below, calculate and analyze the moisture loss of open water:

According to the hVAC design requirements of civil buildings, the calculation is as follows:

The simple calculation formula is:

In the above formula, W represents the surface moisture volume of open water, and the actual unit is Pa; β represents evaporation coefficient, the actual unit is kg/ (N•s), which should be clarified according to the formula ^{−5}; Pqb represents the saturated air vapor pressure at the surface temperature of the canal, and the actual unit is Pa. Pq represents the actual water vapor pressure in the air, the actual unit is Pa; F stands for water surface area, the actual unit is m^{2}, which is set as 10250m2 in this paper. B is the standard atmospheric pressure, the actual value is 10325Pa; B ’is the local atmospheric pressure, the actual unit is Pa; G represents evaporation per unit area, mainly analyzing the evaporation per unit area of open water, which is actually set as 0.0968kg/ (m2•h); α represents the diffusivity under different water temperatures when the ambient air temperature is controlled between 15 and 30 degrees Celsius. The actual unit is kg/ (N•s), and the specific value range is shown in the following table. V represents the velocity of the air around the water surface, in actual units of m/s. Combined with the above calculation methods, the calculation results obtained according to the hVAC design code of civil buildings are the largest, which is regarded as the main basis for practical research. Specific values are shown in the following table2:

Diffusion coefficients at different water temperatures

The water temperature°C | <30 | 40 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 80 | 90 | 100 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{−1} |
0.0043 | 0.0058 | 0.0069 | 0.0077 | 0.0088 | 0.0096 | 0.0106 | 0.0125 |

First, human body moisture volume. Inside the building, human body loses to the air through respiration or perspiration, and the actual calculation formula is as follows:

In the above formula, φ represents the clustering coefficient, which is 0.89 in actual research. N ’represents the total number of people in the mall; W represents the amount of dehumidification per person per hour under light labor, and the actual unit is g/h. Specific values are shown in the following table3:

Moisture volume of human body under different conditions

Indoor temperature°C | Static | Mild labor | Moderate Labour | Heavy labor |
---|---|---|---|---|

18 | 40 | 68 | 131 | 223 |

20 | 40 | 80 | 145 | 245 |

22 | 44 | 92 | 163 | 267 |

24 | 48 | 106 | 190 | 300 |

26 | 56 | 122 | 199 | 311 |

28 | 65 | 136 | 216 | 333 |

30 | 77 | 152 | 233 | 357 |

Combined with the above calculation and analysis, it is found that the loss of human body can reach 0.018 in summer and 0.012 in winter.

Finally, boundary conditions should be studied, which can clarify the variation rules of variables. According to the model analysis in this paper, the boundary conditions can be divided into four categories: air inlet, any water surface, maintenance structure and air outlet. It should be noted that the initial state of numerical simulation refers to the spatial distribution of various variables at the initial moment of heat value exchange, but the case studied in this paper has the problem of steady flow of incompressible fluid, so the initial conditions of simulation do not need to be studied.

With the rapid development of computer software and hardware, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software has been widely used, and the practical application tools have gradually got rid of the traditional manual operation mode, prompting researchers to focus on numerical simulation. Therefore, this paper mainly used FLUENT14.0 software to conduct indoor analysis of a comprehensive commercial shopping center in a certain area, combined with boundary conditions and numerical values obtained in the above research to conduct numerical simulation, select appropriate gas solution and relaxation factors, and finally divide the model into three individuals for grid division.

The data model is constructed for the indoor environment of the comprehensive commercial shopping center, and the field test is carried out under the condition that the conditions support, including the water surface temperature, air supply port, top air supply port, relative humidity and so on. The selected instruments and equipment include glass rod thermometer, quality measuring instrument, etc., and the corresponding performance parameters are designed as shown in the following table 4:^{[5.6]}

Performance parameters of the device

Category | The name of the instrument | Model | Range | Measuring the degree of | Error range |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

The temperature | Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) | HYGRO-PALMI | −20°C~70°C | 0.1°C | 0~40°C Precision±0.5°C |

Relative humidity | Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) | HYGRO-PALMI | 0~100% | 0.1% | RH±3% Readings of ± |

Air volume | Cap type air volume hood (FIG. 3-2) | 8375 | 42~4250m^{3}/hr |
Im^{3}/hr |
3% or±12m^{3}/hr |

The temperature | Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) | 7565 | 0~60°C | 0.1°C | ±0.6°C |

The wind speed | Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) | 7565 | 0~40m/s | 0.01m/s | 3% or ± 0.02m/s |

The temperature | Glass thermometer (FIG. 3-4) | / | 0~60°C | 0.1°C | ±0.2°C |

First, the air volume and temperature of the air supply port should be studied. In this paper, the cap type air volume hood is mainly used to detect the amount of air at the air supply port, the TST detector is selected to understand the actual wind speed, and the formula shown below is used to study the average wind speed of the tuyere:

In the above formula, Q represents the air volume of the tuyere, and the actual unit is m3/s. A and B represent the length and width of tuyere, and the actual unit is M. F represents the area of tuyere, the actual unit is m2; Represents the average wind speed of the tuyere, the actual unit is m/s.

Second, study the temperature and wind speed at a given location. In order to verify the effectiveness of the mathematical model, it is necessary to comprehensively understand the velocity, humidity and temperature inside the water street. In this paper, 16 measuring points were selected, and temperature and humidity instruments were placed in advance for independent measurement and recording.

Finally, study the temperature and humidity of the water surface. In this paper, the canal designed in the indoor environment of the comprehensive commercial shopping center is located in the center of water Street. During the measurement period, the segmented measurement method is used and the corresponding average value is calculated, so as to provide effective basis for practical analysis.^{[7.8]}

First, test results of the air supply port are shown in the following table 5:

Test results of air supply port

Tuyere number | Supply air velocity/°C | Wet bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content of air supply/(gkg^{−1}) |
Air volume/(mh^{−1}) |
The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 16.7 | 10.4 | 5.21 | 2379.6 | 3.51 |

2 | 16.5 | 10.2 | 5.16 | 2271.6 | 4.24 |

3 | / | / | / | / | / |

4 | 16.9 | 10.3 | 5.20 | 2790.9 | 5.53 |

5 | 17.3 | 10.8 | 5.25 | 2531.7 | 5.82 |

6 | 17.1 | 10.7 | 5.26 | 2408.4 | 5.17 |

7 | 17.4 | 10.9 | 5.33 | 2127.6 | 4.81 |

8 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.15 | 1557.9 | 5.43 |

9 | 16.3 | 10.1 | 5.14 | 1766.7 | 4.52 |

10 | 16.9 | 10.8 | 5.32 | 1377.0 | 3.74 |

11 | 17.1 | 11.2 | 5.21 | 1572.3 | 4.01 |

12 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.11 | 2553.3 | 4.62 |

13 | 16.9 | 10.6 | 5.23 | 2041.2 | 5.23 |

14 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.15 | 2.41.2 | 4.91 |

Combined with the above table, it is found that there is a large deviation between the design value and the actual air volume of the indoor air conditioning system of the shopping center studied.

Second, the test results of the top air supply port are shown in the following table 6:

Test results of the top air supply port

Tuyere number | Supply air velocity/°C | Wet bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content of air supply/(gkg^{−1}) |
Air volume/(mh^{−1}) |
The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.11 | 1299.5 | 2.31 |

2 | 16.4 | 10.2 | 5.05 | 1267.2 | 2.24 |

3 | 16.3 | 10.2 | 5.07 | 1209.6 | 2.13 |

4 | 16.5 | 10.4 | 5.19 | 1100.7 | 1.92 |

5 | 16.9 | 10.5 | 5.15 | 774.1 | 1.32 |

6 | 17.1 | 10.6 | 5.14 | 684.9 | 1.21 |

7 | 16.7 | 10.5 | 5.18 | 736.1 | 1.34 |

8 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.13 | 646.3 | 1.13 |

9 | / | / | / | / | / |

10 | / | / | / | / | / |

11 | 16.1 | 10.1 | 5.12 | 1414.7 | 2.52 |

12 | 16.5 | 10.3 | 5.09 | 1337.5 | 2.31 |

13 | 16.4 | 10.2 | 5.09 | 1401.4 | 2.42 |

14 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.11 | 1350.1 | 2.34 |

15 | 17.1 | 10.5 | 5.08 | 1260.9 | 2.21 |

16 | 16.9 | 10.5 | 5.10 | 1203.3 | 2.12 |

Combined with the analysis of the above table, it is found that the overall air supply quantity is not balanced, and there are two seals on the northeast side without continuous air supply.

Third, the test results of the specified area, recorded values as shown in the following table 7:

Test junction for the specified area

Measuring point | The test wind speed/(m.s^{−1}) |
Dry bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content(g.kg^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.82 | 18.7 | 5.70 |

2 | 0.57 | 18.2 | 6.13 |

3 | 0.45 | 18.4 | 5.94 |

4 | 0.42 | 18.4 | 5.48 |

5 | 0.49 | 18.6 | 5.26 |

6 | 0.44 | 19.3 | 6.08 |

7 | 0.51 | 19.4 | 6.54 |

8 | 0.76 | 19.4 | 6.40 |

9 | 0.88 | 18.6 | 5.76 |

10 | 0.56 | 18.3 | 5.47 |

11 | 0.52 | 17.6 | 5.30 |

12 | 0.43 | 17.9 | 5.40 |

13 | 0.54 | 18.0 | 5.53 |

14 | 0.57 | 18.1 | 5.71 |

15 | 0.67 | 18.1 | 5.64 |

16 | 0.54 | 18.2 | 5.53 |

Combined with the above table, it is found that due to the small number of participants in actual studies, only the relevant values of instantaneous temperature and relative humidity are recorded. This proves that the temperature and relative humidity inside the building are stable.

Fourth, water surface test results, as shown in the following table 8 :

Water surface test results

Number of surface survey points | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

The water temperature/°C | 18.1 | 18.0 | 17.8 | 17.7 | 17.9 |

Temperature at 0.1m height/°C | 18.2 | 18.1 | 17.9 | 17.8 | 18.0 |

Temperature at 0.5m height/°C | 18.5 | 18.5 | 18.2 | 18.2 | 18.2 |

Temperature at 1.5m height/°C | 18.8 | 18.9 | 18.7 | 18.7 | 18.8 |

Relative humidity at 0.1m height/°C | 66.2 | 67.0 | 65.4 | 66.9 | 65.0 |

Relative humidity at 0.5m height/°C | 54.3 | 57.1 | 54.7 | 56.2 | 55.6 |

Relative humidity at 1.5m height/°C | 49.6 | 51.5 | 50.1 | 50.8 | 50.5 |

Water surface wind speed/(m.s^{−1}) |
0.12 | 0.11 | 0.14 | 0.15 | 0.14 |

Combined with the results obtained from the above tests, CFD numerical simulation is used to analyze the indoor environment of comprehensive commercial shopping center, which is embodied in the following points: The first is the speed field. According to the actual results, the air supply track of all the measured air supply ports is not balanced with the actual speed. The actual wind speed of Nanfu side is larger, which can reach 3.10m/s. The second is the temperature field. According to the actual results, the air supply temperature of the tuyere in winter is not balanced. When the height reaches 1.5 meters, the average temperature of the indoor personnel stay area can reach 19.08°C, the overall temperature is low, and the design of the actual air supply outlet is not balanced, there is a significant temperature of 7 °C. Finally, it refers to the mass concentration field of water vapor. According to the actual research results, when the height of the personnel activity area reaches 1.5 meters, the mass concentration field of water vapor in the cross section is not balanced. The moisture content is higher at the top, lower at the east air outlet, and higher at the corridor and west side. The reason for this phenomenon is that the air supply port design of the internal air conditioning system is not balanced, resulting in the average humidity of the section reached 48.2%, which is higher than the relative humidity of the air conditioning room in winter. In essence, the interior design of water surface in a comprehensive commercial shopping center is to equip the interior with large humidifiers. Therefore, it is necessary to choose an appropriate air distribution scheme to ensure the balance of internal temperature, humidity and wind speed fields, so as to meet the comfort requirements of indoor personnel.

At the same time, the validity of the mathematic model is established in order to further research institute, according to the above set of 16 points and C F D simulation results contrast analysis, numerical simulation of the temperature measurement value higher than it actually is, the relative error is 2.22%, the reasons for this phenomenon is that during the simulation of load are mainly distributed in areas such as wall, ground, top, In actual measurement, the actual load at the measurement point may be lower than the average load. In the moisture content test analysis, the simulated average quality is higher, and the relative error can reach 10.67%. The reason for this is that the closure and setting values during the actual operation are not ideal. Therefore, in the range of allowable error, comprehensive commercial shopping center by means of numerical simulation analysis of indoor environment design has the rationality, by using the FLUENT software to simulate software analysis of indoor thermal environmental conditions with accuracy, the grid of the building is very ideal, the mathematical model and numerical simulation can be obtained can be convergence.^{[9]
}

To sum up, in view of the practical comprehensive commercial shopping center of the quality of indoor environment to build the corresponding model, and the running state of the measured under different conditions, can not only build accuracy of the models, can also according to the way of CFD numerical simulation have more actual simulation results, in order to provide effective basis for practical engineering construction innovation.

#### Diffusion coefficients at different water temperatures

The water temperature°C | <30 | 40 | 50 | 60 | 70 | 80 | 90 | 100 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

^{−1} |
0.0043 | 0.0058 | 0.0069 | 0.0077 | 0.0088 | 0.0096 | 0.0106 | 0.0125 |

#### Test results of air supply port

Tuyere number | Supply air velocity/°C | Wet bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content of air supply/(gkg^{−1}) |
Air volume/(mh^{−1}) |
The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 16.7 | 10.4 | 5.21 | 2379.6 | 3.51 |

2 | 16.5 | 10.2 | 5.16 | 2271.6 | 4.24 |

3 | / | / | / | / | / |

4 | 16.9 | 10.3 | 5.20 | 2790.9 | 5.53 |

5 | 17.3 | 10.8 | 5.25 | 2531.7 | 5.82 |

6 | 17.1 | 10.7 | 5.26 | 2408.4 | 5.17 |

7 | 17.4 | 10.9 | 5.33 | 2127.6 | 4.81 |

8 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.15 | 1557.9 | 5.43 |

9 | 16.3 | 10.1 | 5.14 | 1766.7 | 4.52 |

10 | 16.9 | 10.8 | 5.32 | 1377.0 | 3.74 |

11 | 17.1 | 11.2 | 5.21 | 1572.3 | 4.01 |

12 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.11 | 2553.3 | 4.62 |

13 | 16.9 | 10.6 | 5.23 | 2041.2 | 5.23 |

14 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.15 | 2.41.2 | 4.91 |

#### Water surface test results

Number of surface survey points | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

The water temperature/°C | 18.1 | 18.0 | 17.8 | 17.7 | 17.9 |

Temperature at 0.1m height/°C | 18.2 | 18.1 | 17.9 | 17.8 | 18.0 |

Temperature at 0.5m height/°C | 18.5 | 18.5 | 18.2 | 18.2 | 18.2 |

Temperature at 1.5m height/°C | 18.8 | 18.9 | 18.7 | 18.7 | 18.8 |

Relative humidity at 0.1m height/°C | 66.2 | 67.0 | 65.4 | 66.9 | 65.0 |

Relative humidity at 0.5m height/°C | 54.3 | 57.1 | 54.7 | 56.2 | 55.6 |

Relative humidity at 1.5m height/°C | 49.6 | 51.5 | 50.1 | 50.8 | 50.5 |

Water surface wind speed/(m.s^{−1}) |
0.12 | 0.11 | 0.14 | 0.15 | 0.14 |

#### Design parameters of indoor environment

The temperature°C | Relative humidity% | The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
The water temperature°C | |
---|---|---|---|---|

In the summer | 26 | 60 | <0.3 | 23 |

In the winter | 22 | 45 | <0.3 | 18 |

#### Test junction for the specified area

Measuring point | The test wind speed/(m.s^{−1}) |
Dry bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content(g.kg^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|

1 | 0.82 | 18.7 | 5.70 |

2 | 0.57 | 18.2 | 6.13 |

3 | 0.45 | 18.4 | 5.94 |

4 | 0.42 | 18.4 | 5.48 |

5 | 0.49 | 18.6 | 5.26 |

6 | 0.44 | 19.3 | 6.08 |

7 | 0.51 | 19.4 | 6.54 |

8 | 0.76 | 19.4 | 6.40 |

9 | 0.88 | 18.6 | 5.76 |

10 | 0.56 | 18.3 | 5.47 |

11 | 0.52 | 17.6 | 5.30 |

12 | 0.43 | 17.9 | 5.40 |

13 | 0.54 | 18.0 | 5.53 |

14 | 0.57 | 18.1 | 5.71 |

15 | 0.67 | 18.1 | 5.64 |

16 | 0.54 | 18.2 | 5.53 |

#### Test results of the top air supply port

Tuyere number | Supply air velocity/°C | Wet bulb temperature/°C | Moisture content of air supply/(gkg^{−1}) |
Air volume/(mh^{−1}) |
The wind speed/(ms^{−1}) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.11 | 1299.5 | 2.31 |

2 | 16.4 | 10.2 | 5.05 | 1267.2 | 2.24 |

3 | 16.3 | 10.2 | 5.07 | 1209.6 | 2.13 |

4 | 16.5 | 10.4 | 5.19 | 1100.7 | 1.92 |

5 | 16.9 | 10.5 | 5.15 | 774.1 | 1.32 |

6 | 17.1 | 10.6 | 5.14 | 684.9 | 1.21 |

7 | 16.7 | 10.5 | 5.18 | 736.1 | 1.34 |

8 | 16.2 | 10.2 | 5.13 | 646.3 | 1.13 |

9 | / | / | / | / | / |

10 | / | / | / | / | / |

11 | 16.1 | 10.1 | 5.12 | 1414.7 | 2.52 |

12 | 16.5 | 10.3 | 5.09 | 1337.5 | 2.31 |

13 | 16.4 | 10.2 | 5.09 | 1401.4 | 2.42 |

14 | 16.8 | 10.4 | 5.11 | 1350.1 | 2.34 |

15 | 17.1 | 10.5 | 5.08 | 1260.9 | 2.21 |

16 | 16.9 | 10.5 | 5.10 | 1203.3 | 2.12 |

#### Moisture volume of human body under different conditions

Indoor temperature°C | Static | Mild labor | Moderate Labour | Heavy labor |
---|---|---|---|---|

18 | 40 | 68 | 131 | 223 |

20 | 40 | 80 | 145 | 245 |

22 | 44 | 92 | 163 | 267 |

24 | 48 | 106 | 190 | 300 |

26 | 56 | 122 | 199 | 311 |

28 | 65 | 136 | 216 | 333 |

30 | 77 | 152 | 233 | 357 |

#### Performance parameters of the device

Category | The name of the instrument | Model | Range | Measuring the degree of | Error range |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

The temperature | Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) | HYGRO-PALMI | −20°C~70°C | 0.1°C | 0~40°C Precision±0.5°C |

Relative humidity | Temperature and humidity recorder (Figure 3-1) | HYGRO-PALMI | 0~100% | 0.1% | RH±3% Readings of ± |

Air volume | Cap type air volume hood (FIG. 3-2) | 8375 | 42~4250m^{3}/hr |
Im^{3}/hr |
3% or±12m^{3}/hr |

The temperature | Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) | 7565 | 0~60°C | 0.1°C | ±0.6°C |

The wind speed | Tsiq-trank Indoor Air Quality Tester (Figure 3-3) | 7565 | 0~40m/s | 0.01m/s | 3% or ± 0.02m/s |

The temperature | Glass thermometer (FIG. 3-4) | / | 0~60°C | 0.1°C | ±0.2°C |

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company social responsibility report and company performance Research on multi-dimensional optimisation design of user interface under Rhino/GH platform Mathematical analysis of China's birth rate and research on the urgency of deepening the reform of art education First-principles calculations of magnetic and mechanical properties of Fe-based nanocrystalline alloy Fe _{80}Si_{10}Nb_{6}B_{2}Cu_{2}Has the belt and road initiative boosted the resident consumption in cities along the domestic route? – evidence from credit card consumption Attitude control for the rigid spacecraft with the improved extended state observer A long command subsequence algorithm for manufacturing industry recommendation systems with similarity connection technology Application of Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equation Model in Financial Investment Stock Price Forecast Informatisation of educational reform based on fractional differential equations Application research on piano teaching in colleges and universities based on remote wireless network communication Research on the control of quantitative economic management variables under the numerical method based on stochastic ordinary differential equations Network monitoring and processing accuracy of big data acquisition based on mathematical model of fractional differential equation System dynamics model of output of ball mill Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel Design of Morlet wavelet neural network to solve the non-linear influenza disease system Motion about equilibrium points in the Jupiter-Europa system with oblateness Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Ultra-short-term power forecast of photovoltaic power station based on VMD–LSTM model optimised by SSA Optimal preview repetitive control for impulse-free continuous-time descriptor systems Development of main functional modules for MVB and its application in rail transit Analysis of agricultural economic development and optimisation measures under the strategy of rural revitalisation Study on the impact of forest fire prevention policy on the health of forest resources Value Creation of Real Estate Company Spin-off Property Service Company Listing Selection by differential mortality rates Digital model creation and image meticulous processing based on variational partial differential equation The modelling and implementation of the virtual 3D animation scene based on the geometric centre-of-mass algorithm The policy efficiency evaluation of the Beijing–Tianjin–Hebei regional government guidance fund based on the entropy method The transfer of stylised artistic images in eye movement experiments based on fuzzy differential equations Research on behavioural differences in the processing of tenant listing information: An eye-movement experiment Innovation of Economic Management Risk Control in Retailer Supply Chain Based on Differential Equation Model A review of the treatment techniques of VOC Some classes of complete permutation polynomials in the form of ( x ^{pm}−x +δ )^{s}+ax ^{pm}+bx overF _{p2m}The consistency method of linguistic information and other four preference information in group decision-making Statistical Model of College Ideological and Political Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on the driving principle and guiding strategy of the public's collaborative supervision of the sharing economy in my country Research on the willingness of Forest Land’s Management Rights transfer under the Beijing Forestry Development Nonlinear Differential Equation in Anti-aging Test of Polymer Nanomaterials A mathematical model of the fractional differential method for structural design dynamics simulation of lower limb force movement step structure based on Sanda movement Fractal structure of magnetic island in tokamak plasma Mechanics of Building Structural Materials Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Analysis Numerical calculation and study of differential equations of muscle movement velocity based on martial articulation body ligament tension Study on the maximum value of flight distance based on the fractional differential equation for calculating the best path of shot put The Mental Health Education Management of Higher Vocational Students Based on Fractional Differential Equations Sports intensity and energy consumption based on fractional linear regression equation Application of regression function model based on panel data in financial risk management of bank resource allocation University Ideological and Political Learning Model Based on Statistical Memory Curve Mathematical Equation Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Research on Resonance Properties of Semantic Wave Fractal Fractals Based on Quantitative Analysis of English Corpus Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Modeling of fractional differential equation in cloud computing image fusion algorithm Study on Establishment and Improvement Strategy of Aviation Equipment Research on Financial Risk Early Warning of Listed Companies Based on Stochastic Effect Mode Nonlinear strategic human resource management based on organisational mathematical model Conventional Algorithms in Sports Training Based on Fractional Differential Equations Dynamic Nonlinear System Based on Complex System Theory in the Development of Vocational Education The Algorithm Accuracy of Mathematical Model to Improve the Transmission Speed of E-commerce Platform The Security of Database Network Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Electric Vehicle Mechanical Transmission System Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Practice System of Physics and Electronics Courses in Higher Vocational Colleges Based on Fractional Differential Equations The Economic Model of Rural Supply and Demand Under the Data Analysis Function Based on Ordered Probit 3D Modeling System of Indoor Environment Art Landscape Design under Statistical Equation Electronic Information Security Model of Nonlinear Differential Equations The Optimization Model of College Students' Physical Exercise Motivation and Self-control Ability Based on the Mathematical Model of Probability Theory A new variety from Sichuan, China— Paris polyphylla var.nullopetalina (Trilliaceae)Impact of ASEAN-China free trade area on fishery value chain based on difference-in-difference method Spatial–temporal graph neural network based on node attention A contrastive study on the production of double vowels in Mandarin Mathematical analysis of civil litigation and empirical research of corporate governance Health monitoring of Bridges based on multifractal theory Health status diagnosis of the bridges based on multi-fractal de-trend fluctuation analysis Application and risk assessment of the energy performance contracting model in energy conservation of public buildings Sensitivity analysis of design parameters of envelope enclosure performance in the dry-hot and dry-cold areas TOPSIS missile target selection method supported by the posterior probability of target recognition The incentive contract of subject librarians in university library under the non-linear task importance Research on indoor environment design of comprehensive commercial shopping center based on numerical simulation Empirical analysis of the economic absolute income hypothesis based on mathematical statistics Realization of Book Collaborative Filtering Personalized Recommendation System Based on Linear Regression Equation Study on Interactive Relations between Enterprise Social Media and Decision Style Based on a vector Autoregressive Model Research on Dynamics of Flexible Multibody System with Deployable Antenna Based on Static Lagrangian Function The Optimization of Mathematics Teaching Models in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Differential Equations Study on spatial planning and design of learning commons in university libraries based on fuzzy matrix model The Stability Model of Piano Tone Tuning Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Construction and application of automobile user portrait based on k-mean clustering model The Homework Model of Screening English Teaching Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Research on a method of completeness index based on complex model Fake online review recognition algorithm and optimisation research based on deep learning Research on the sustainable development and renewal of Macao inner harbour under the background of digitisation Support design of main retracement passage in fully mechanised coal mining face based on numerical simulation Study on the crushing mechanism and parameters of the two-flow crusher Interaction design of financial insurance products under the Era of AIoT Modeling the pathway of breast cancer in the Middle East ARMA analysis of the green innovation technology of core enterprises under the ecosystem – Time series data Image design and interaction technology based on Fourier inverse transform Calculus Logic Function in Integrated Manufacturing Automation of Single Chip Microcomputer Football Offense Training Strategy Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Modeling Research on China interregional industrial transformation slowdown and influencing factors of industrial transformation based on numerical simulation The medical health venture capital network community structure, information dissemination and the cognitive proximity The Mathematical Analysis Model of Educational System in Music Courses in Colleges and Universities Continuing Education Network Data Center Model Based on Fractional Differential Mathematical Equations A generative design method of building layout generated by path Analysis of the causes of the influence of the industrial economy on the social 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on the effect of generative adversarial network based on wavelet transform hidden Markov model on face creation and classification Research on Lightweight Injection Molding (CAE) and Numerical Simulation Calculate of New Energy Vehicle Power Flow Calculation in Smart Distribution Network Based on Power Machine Learning Based on Fractional Differential Equations Demonstration of application program of logistics public information management platform based on fuzzy constrained programming mathematical model Basketball Shooting Rate Based on Multiple Regression Logical-Mathematical Algorithm The Optimal Application of Lagrangian Mathematical Equations in Computer Data Analysis Similarity Solutions of the Surface Waves Equation in (2+1) Dimensions and Bifurcation Research on predictive control of students’ performance in PE classes based on the mathematical model of multiple linear regression equation Beam control method for multi-array antennas based on improved genetic algorithm The 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of B-theory for numerical method of functional differential equations in the analysis of fair value in financial accounting Research on the influence of fuzzy mathematics simulation model in the development of Wushu market Study on audio-visual family restoration of children with mental disorders based on the mathematical model of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation of differential equation Difference-in-differences test for micro effect of technological finance cooperation pilot in China Application of multi-attribute decision-making methods based on normal random variables in supply chain risk management Exploration on the collaborative relationship between government, industry, and university from the perspective of collaborative innovation The impact of financial repression on manufacturing upgrade based on fractional Fourier transform and probability AtanK-A New SVM Kernel for Classification Validity and reliability analysis of the Chinese version of planned happenstance career inventory based on mathematical statistics Visual positioning system for marine industrial robot assembly based on complex variable function Mechanical behaviour of continuous girder bridge with corrugated steel webs constructed by RW Study of a linear-physical-programming-based approach for web service selection under uncertain service quality The Relationship Between College Students’ Taekwondo Courses and College Health Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations A mathematical model of plasmid-carried antibiotic resistance transmission in two types of cells Fractional Differential Equations in the Exploration of Geological and Mineral Construction AdaBoost Algorithm in Trustworthy Network for Anomaly Intrusion Detection Burnout of front-line city administrative law-enforcing personnel in new urban development areas: An empirical research in China Enterprise Financial Risk Early Warning System Based on Structural Equation Model A Study on the Application of Quantile Regression Equation in Forecasting Financial Value at Risk in Financial Markets Fractional Differential Equations in the Model of Vocational Education and Teaching Practice Environment Information transmission simulation of Internet of things communication nodes under collision free probability equation Image denoising model based on improved fractional calculus mathematical equation Random Fourier Approximation of the Kernel Function in Programmable Networks The Complexity of Virtual Reality Technology in the Simulation and Modeling of Civil Mathematical Models University Library Lending System Model Based on Fractional Differential Equations Calculation and Performance Evaluation of Text Similarity Based on Strong Classification Features Intelligent Matching System of Clauses in International Investment Arbitration Cases Based on Big Data Statistical Model Evaluation and Verification of Patent Value Based on Combination Forecasting Model Financial Institution Prevention Financial Risk Monitoring System Under the Fusion of Partial Differential Equations Prediction and Analysis of ChiNext Stock Price Based on Linear and Non-linear Composite Model Calculus Logic Function in Tax Risk Avoidance in Different Stages of Enterprises The Psychological Memory Forgetting Model Based on the Analysis of Linear Differential Equations Optimization Simulation System of University Science Education Based on Finite Differential Equations The Law of Large Numbers in Children's Education Optimization System of Strength and Flexibility Training in Aerobics Course Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Equation Data structure simulation for the reform of the teaching process of university computer courses Calculating university education model based on finite element fractional differential equations and macro-control analysis Educational research on mathematics differential equation to simulate the model of children's mental health prevention and control system Analysis of enterprise management technology and innovation based on multilinear regression model Verifying the validity of the whole person model of mental health education activities in colleges based on differential equation RETRACTION NOTE Research on the mining of ideological and political knowledge elements in college courses based on the combination of LDA model and Apriori algorithm Research on non-linear visual matching model under inherent constraints of images Good congruences on weakly U-abundant semigroups Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? 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Multiple Effects Analysis of Hangzhou Issuing Digital Consumer Coupons Based on Simultaneous Equations of CDM Model Response Model of Teachers’ Psychological Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Equations A Hybrid Computational Intelligence Method of Newton's Method and Genetic Algorithm for Solving Compatible Nonlinear Equations Pressure Image Recognition of Lying Positions Based on Multi-feature value Regularized Extreme Learning Algorithm English Intelligent Question Answering System Based on elliptic fitting equation Precision Machining Technology of Jewelry on CNC Machine Tool Based on Mathematical Modeling Application Research of Mathematica Software in Calculus Teaching Computer Vision Communication Technology in Mathematical Modeling Skills of Music Creation Based on Homogeneous First-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations Mathematical Statistics Technology in the Educational Grading System of Preschool Students Music Recommendation Index Evaluation Based on Logistic Distribution Fitting Transition Probability Function Children's Educational Curriculum Evaluation Management System in Mathematical Equation Model Query Translation Optimization and Mathematical Modeling for English-Chinese Cross-Language Information Retrieval The Effect of Children’s Innovative Education Courses Based on Fractional Differential Equations Fractional Differential Equations in the Standard Construction Model of the Educational Application of the Internet of Things Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling Optimization in Mathematics Modeling and Processing of New Type Silicate Glass Ceramics Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation MCM of Student’s Physical Health Based on Mathematical Cone Sports health quantification method and system implementation based on multiple thermal physiology simulation Research on visual optimization design of machine–machine interface for mechanical industrial equipment based on nonlinear partial equations Research on identifying psychological health problems of college students by logistic regression model based on data mining Abnormal Behavior of Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Optimisation of Modelling of Finite Element Differential Equations with Modern Art Design Theory Mathematical function data model analysis and synthesis system based on short-term human movement Human gait modelling and tracking based on motion functionalisation The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Financial Accounting Measurement Model Based on Numerical Analysis of Rigid Normal Differential Equation and Rigid Functional Equation Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate Differential equation model of financial market stability based on Internet big data 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Children’s cognitive function and mental health based on finite element nonlinear mathematical model Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp -groupsThe internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Research on threat assessment problems of island air defence system based on the leader-follower model Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks Evaluation of ecosystem health in Futian mangrove wetland based on the PSR-AHP model A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Towards more efficient control of the ironmaking blast furnace: modelling gaseous reduction of iron ores in H _{2}-N_{2}atmosphereAlgorithm of overfitting avoidance in CNN based on maximum pooled and weight decay Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model