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Volume 119 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 118 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 117 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 12 (December 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 11 (November 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 10 (October 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 9 (September 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 8 (August 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 7 (July 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 6 (June 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 5 (May 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 4 (April 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 3 (March 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 2 (February 2019)

Volume 116 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 12 (December 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 11 (November 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 10 (October 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 9 (September 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 8 (August 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 7 (July 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 6 (June 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 5 (May 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 4 (April 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 3 (March 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 2 (February 2018)

Volume 115 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 11 (November 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 10 (October 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 9 (September 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 8 (August 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 7 (July 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 6 (June 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 5 (May 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 4 (April 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 3 (March 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 2 (February 2017)

Volume 114 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-737X
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 119 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-737X
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

11 Articles
Open Access

Optimisation of a mobile device frame structure – practical aspects

Published Online: 20 Feb 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a strength analysis of a steel container frame fastened to a Jelcz 8x8 chassis with four ISO 1161 corners. As part of the work, optimisation of the structure was performed using the numerical finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests with the use of strain gauges. The results of simulations and tests are summarised in appropriate tables and in the form of the distribution of stress contour lines using the Huber-Mises hypothesis.

Keywords

  • support frame
  • optimisation
  • strength calculations
  • strength tests
Open Access

The application of neural networks for the life-cycle analysis of road and rail rolling stock during the operational phase

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to assess the possibility of using neural networks to analyse the life cycle of rolling stock in the operational phase by selecting the number of rolling stock sets and rail using the example of public transport in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research was conducted in September 2019 and June 2020. It included the number of tram and bus rolling stock sets on individual public transport lines based on data from the Central Public Transport Management System in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research, which was based on comparative analyses of individual types of rolling stock and their technical and economic data, took into account the life-cycle assessment criteria associated with the operation of vehicles in relation to the number of rolling stock sets. The use of neural networks on the example of the city of Szczecin for the purpose of life-cycle analysis, can make a significant contribution to creating a decision model for the improvement of public transport in cities with various types of public transport vehicles.

Keywords

  • neural networks
  • life cycle
  • road rolling stock
  • rail rolling stock
  • operation
Open Access

Architecture as a set of instruments for shaping a friendly and safe living environment

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

One of the basic human needs is the need for security. As a primary objective, it has both a direct and an indirect impact on architecture. The elimination of threats and protection against them is the basis for shaping contemporary architecture.

Since the beginning of history, man has sought refuge from animals and nature. This covers everything from the basic feats of providing warmth and shelter from rain and animals to creating an environment in which one can develop their personal needs and preferences. This article presents aspects of security in architecture. It is related to human needs. The classification of stress factors in urbanised space is also presented. In addition, the analysis of spatial systems in architecture and the ways of marking the space are described. Based on the conducted analyses, conclusions are drawn concerning the methods of ensuring human safety in the built environment.

Keywords

  • safety
  • environmental stress
  • threats
  • built-up area
  • security
Open Access

Virtual Museum. Museum of the Future?

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The following article discusses examples of museums that implement virtual reality in presentations of exhibits and museum objects. Trends that shape contemporary museums are discussed. The aim of the article is to familiarise the reader with the possibilities of modern applications in museum exhibition presentations.

Keywords

  • virtual museum
  • new museology
  • virtual reconstruction
  • virtual reality
  • VR applications
  • VR goggles
Open Access

Energy audit of refrigerated shelving

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This article describes how an energy audit of equipment and the resulting design changes can have a major impact on reducing the electricity consumption of refrigeration equipment. The legal basis introduced by legislation forcing work on the improvement of refrigeration unit is provided. Eight points detail and describe the changes applied to the construction of cooling units. Additionally, a list of the refrigerants which are used is presented, along with the essential parameters of their work. The following analysis includes a description of the research performed along with the measured and calculated results for individual optimisations. The basic parameters that were used for comparison are: daily electricity consumption [kWh/24 h] and the temperature of the packages placed in the device [°C]. Finally, the percentage differences in energy consumption for each modernisation are summarised in a tabular form. The device used for the tests was the VARNA refrigerated rack, model 900, manufactured by P.P.H.U. JUKA Sp. z o.o. sp. k.

Keywords

  • energy audit
  • refrigeration
  • refrigerated shelving
Open Access

Portals and doors of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century – first third of the twentieth century: typology, decorative features, manufacturers

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the findings obtained from field studies, the portals and doors in the structure of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia (the part of former Galicia and Lodomeria) in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were analysed. The doors were classified according to principles of location, decorative solution and placement of artistic decoration. Leading manufacturers whose products decorated the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were identified. The relationship between the artistic design of the entry doors and other kinds of art in the decor of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century was established. Modern restored samples in residential buildings of the specified period in the indicated area were found.

Keywords

  • portal
  • entry doors
  • vestibule and apartment doors
  • residential architecture
  • art synthesis
Open Access

Model parameter on-line identification with nonlinear parametrization – manipulator model

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an example of solving the parameter identification problem in the case of a robot with two degrees of freedom. In this study, a weighted recursive least squares algorithm was generalised to a case of nonlinear parameterisation in which the identified parameters did not satisfy the linear model. The generalisation involved linearising the model in the neighbourhood of current values of the parameter estimates. It was assumed that the estimates were updated every N steps of signal sampling. This method of identification can be applied whenever the parameters concerning a model need to be determined at the time of measurement. This is particularly useful in adaptive control when the plant parameters vary over time.

Keywords

  • on-line identification
  • nonlinear model identification
  • recursive LS algorithm
Open Access

Metal expansion joints manufacturing by a mechanically assisted laser forming hybrid method – concept

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the concept of metal expansion joints manufacturing using a mechanically assisted laserforming hybrid method. The metal expansion joints are made of a metal tube of an appropriate diameter and wall thickness with a combined bellow-lens shape. The concept assumes using a CO2 laser to implement such expansion joints. The laser beam heats the selected area of the rotating tube, mounted on a swivel handle on one side and the actuator handle on the other end. After reaching the plasticising temperature, the actuator compresses the element. As a result, a bellow-lens shape is formed at the plasticization area. Initial experimental studies confirmed the validity of the concept. The bellow-lens metal expansion joint (type DN20) was obtained as a final result. The presented idea and the element manufacturing method were submitted to The Patent Office of RP.

Keywords

  • laser forming
  • metal expansion joints
  • pipe treatment
Open Access

Features of irregularity in examples of Polish multi-family architecture constructed in 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award

Published Online: 27 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This article is devoted to the analysis of contemporary Polish multi-family architecture in the context of aesthetic irregularity. The research was limited to constructions from 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award as the objects with the greatest potential impact on shaping further trends. In  their research, the authors focused on searching for the features of irregularities, which, in their opinion, have become a distinguishing feature of  contemporary architectural aesthetics. The analyses in this study refer to three planes of the aesthetic dimension of architecture, namely the form, facade composition and material.

Keywords

  • Mies van der Rohe
  • multi-family architecture
  • irregularity
  • aesthetics
  • contemporary architecture
  • Polish architecture
Open Access

A review of methods for the isolation of microplastics in municipal wastewater treatment

Published Online: 18 Jul 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Wastewater treatment plants are considered to be one of the largest sources of microplastics in the natural environment. The problem of microplastics has been widely studied in many environments. It remains a subject of the growing interest for researchers. By definition, microplastic is plastic that does not exceed 5 mm in size. There are three stages in the study of microplastics in wastewater: sampling, treatment, and the identification of microplastics. This paper aims to review the strategies for sampling microplastics in wastewater treatment plants and their laboratory treatment to isolate microplastics. The collection of samples from the wastewater treatment plant is based on two mechanisms, namely a continuous filtering and pumping system and instantaneous sampling (steel bucket, glass jar, telescopic sampling). The removal of organic and inorganic matter is carried out with the use of physical and chemical analyses. The subject of this article is the compilation of the generally available research methods on microplastics. Based on the literature analysis, conclusions were drawn regarding the recommended methods of microplastic detection.

Keywords

  • microplastics
  • wastewater treatment plant
  • wastewater
  • sewage sludge
Open Access

How many neurons are needed to make a short-term prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate?

Published Online: 23 Aug 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of our work was to select a neural network architecture that would give the best prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate using historical data. Our work fits into the very important topic of predicting the value of the cryptocurrency exchange rate, and makes use of recent data which, as a result of the high Bitcoin exchange rate dynamics of the last year, differs significantly from those of previous years. We propose and test a number of neural network-based architectures and conduct a discussion of the results. Unlike previous state-of-the-art works, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of three different neural network-based models: MLP (multilayer perceptron), LSTM (long short-term memory) and CNN (convolutional neural network). We tested them for a wide range of parameters. The results we present are, to the best of our knowledge, the most up to date when it comes to the application of artificial intelligence methods for the prediction of cryptocurrency exchange rates. The best-performing architectures were used for a website that gives real-time predictions of the Bitcoin exchange rate. The website is available at http://stpbtc-ii.up.krakow.pl/. Source codes of our research are available to download in order to make our experiment reproducible.

Keywords

  • neural network
  • multiline perceptron
  • convolutional neural network
  • long short-term memory
  • Bitcoin
11 Articles
Open Access

Optimisation of a mobile device frame structure – practical aspects

Published Online: 20 Feb 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents a strength analysis of a steel container frame fastened to a Jelcz 8x8 chassis with four ISO 1161 corners. As part of the work, optimisation of the structure was performed using the numerical finite element method (FEM) and experimental tests with the use of strain gauges. The results of simulations and tests are summarised in appropriate tables and in the form of the distribution of stress contour lines using the Huber-Mises hypothesis.

Keywords

  • support frame
  • optimisation
  • strength calculations
  • strength tests
Open Access

The application of neural networks for the life-cycle analysis of road and rail rolling stock during the operational phase

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this article is to assess the possibility of using neural networks to analyse the life cycle of rolling stock in the operational phase by selecting the number of rolling stock sets and rail using the example of public transport in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research was conducted in September 2019 and June 2020. It included the number of tram and bus rolling stock sets on individual public transport lines based on data from the Central Public Transport Management System in the Szczecin agglomeration. The research, which was based on comparative analyses of individual types of rolling stock and their technical and economic data, took into account the life-cycle assessment criteria associated with the operation of vehicles in relation to the number of rolling stock sets. The use of neural networks on the example of the city of Szczecin for the purpose of life-cycle analysis, can make a significant contribution to creating a decision model for the improvement of public transport in cities with various types of public transport vehicles.

Keywords

  • neural networks
  • life cycle
  • road rolling stock
  • rail rolling stock
  • operation
Open Access

Architecture as a set of instruments for shaping a friendly and safe living environment

Published Online: 07 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

One of the basic human needs is the need for security. As a primary objective, it has both a direct and an indirect impact on architecture. The elimination of threats and protection against them is the basis for shaping contemporary architecture.

Since the beginning of history, man has sought refuge from animals and nature. This covers everything from the basic feats of providing warmth and shelter from rain and animals to creating an environment in which one can develop their personal needs and preferences. This article presents aspects of security in architecture. It is related to human needs. The classification of stress factors in urbanised space is also presented. In addition, the analysis of spatial systems in architecture and the ways of marking the space are described. Based on the conducted analyses, conclusions are drawn concerning the methods of ensuring human safety in the built environment.

Keywords

  • safety
  • environmental stress
  • threats
  • built-up area
  • security
Open Access

Virtual Museum. Museum of the Future?

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The following article discusses examples of museums that implement virtual reality in presentations of exhibits and museum objects. Trends that shape contemporary museums are discussed. The aim of the article is to familiarise the reader with the possibilities of modern applications in museum exhibition presentations.

Keywords

  • virtual museum
  • new museology
  • virtual reconstruction
  • virtual reality
  • VR applications
  • VR goggles
Open Access

Energy audit of refrigerated shelving

Published Online: 29 Mar 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This article describes how an energy audit of equipment and the resulting design changes can have a major impact on reducing the electricity consumption of refrigeration equipment. The legal basis introduced by legislation forcing work on the improvement of refrigeration unit is provided. Eight points detail and describe the changes applied to the construction of cooling units. Additionally, a list of the refrigerants which are used is presented, along with the essential parameters of their work. The following analysis includes a description of the research performed along with the measured and calculated results for individual optimisations. The basic parameters that were used for comparison are: daily electricity consumption [kWh/24 h] and the temperature of the packages placed in the device [°C]. Finally, the percentage differences in energy consumption for each modernisation are summarised in a tabular form. The device used for the tests was the VARNA refrigerated rack, model 900, manufactured by P.P.H.U. JUKA Sp. z o.o. sp. k.

Keywords

  • energy audit
  • refrigeration
  • refrigerated shelving
Open Access

Portals and doors of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century – first third of the twentieth century: typology, decorative features, manufacturers

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

In accordance with the findings obtained from field studies, the portals and doors in the structure of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia (the part of former Galicia and Lodomeria) in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were analysed. The doors were classified according to principles of location, decorative solution and placement of artistic decoration. Leading manufacturers whose products decorated the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century were identified. The relationship between the artistic design of the entry doors and other kinds of art in the decor of the entrance spaces of residential buildings in Eastern Galicia in the late nineteenth century to the first third of the twentieth century was established. Modern restored samples in residential buildings of the specified period in the indicated area were found.

Keywords

  • portal
  • entry doors
  • vestibule and apartment doors
  • residential architecture
  • art synthesis
Open Access

Model parameter on-line identification with nonlinear parametrization – manipulator model

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents an example of solving the parameter identification problem in the case of a robot with two degrees of freedom. In this study, a weighted recursive least squares algorithm was generalised to a case of nonlinear parameterisation in which the identified parameters did not satisfy the linear model. The generalisation involved linearising the model in the neighbourhood of current values of the parameter estimates. It was assumed that the estimates were updated every N steps of signal sampling. This method of identification can be applied whenever the parameters concerning a model need to be determined at the time of measurement. This is particularly useful in adaptive control when the plant parameters vary over time.

Keywords

  • on-line identification
  • nonlinear model identification
  • recursive LS algorithm
Open Access

Metal expansion joints manufacturing by a mechanically assisted laser forming hybrid method – concept

Published Online: 06 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This paper presents the concept of metal expansion joints manufacturing using a mechanically assisted laserforming hybrid method. The metal expansion joints are made of a metal tube of an appropriate diameter and wall thickness with a combined bellow-lens shape. The concept assumes using a CO2 laser to implement such expansion joints. The laser beam heats the selected area of the rotating tube, mounted on a swivel handle on one side and the actuator handle on the other end. After reaching the plasticising temperature, the actuator compresses the element. As a result, a bellow-lens shape is formed at the plasticization area. Initial experimental studies confirmed the validity of the concept. The bellow-lens metal expansion joint (type DN20) was obtained as a final result. The presented idea and the element manufacturing method were submitted to The Patent Office of RP.

Keywords

  • laser forming
  • metal expansion joints
  • pipe treatment
Open Access

Features of irregularity in examples of Polish multi-family architecture constructed in 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award

Published Online: 27 Jun 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

This article is devoted to the analysis of contemporary Polish multi-family architecture in the context of aesthetic irregularity. The research was limited to constructions from 2011–2021 and nominated for the Mies van der Rohe award as the objects with the greatest potential impact on shaping further trends. In  their research, the authors focused on searching for the features of irregularities, which, in their opinion, have become a distinguishing feature of  contemporary architectural aesthetics. The analyses in this study refer to three planes of the aesthetic dimension of architecture, namely the form, facade composition and material.

Keywords

  • Mies van der Rohe
  • multi-family architecture
  • irregularity
  • aesthetics
  • contemporary architecture
  • Polish architecture
Open Access

A review of methods for the isolation of microplastics in municipal wastewater treatment

Published Online: 18 Jul 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

Wastewater treatment plants are considered to be one of the largest sources of microplastics in the natural environment. The problem of microplastics has been widely studied in many environments. It remains a subject of the growing interest for researchers. By definition, microplastic is plastic that does not exceed 5 mm in size. There are three stages in the study of microplastics in wastewater: sampling, treatment, and the identification of microplastics. This paper aims to review the strategies for sampling microplastics in wastewater treatment plants and their laboratory treatment to isolate microplastics. The collection of samples from the wastewater treatment plant is based on two mechanisms, namely a continuous filtering and pumping system and instantaneous sampling (steel bucket, glass jar, telescopic sampling). The removal of organic and inorganic matter is carried out with the use of physical and chemical analyses. The subject of this article is the compilation of the generally available research methods on microplastics. Based on the literature analysis, conclusions were drawn regarding the recommended methods of microplastic detection.

Keywords

  • microplastics
  • wastewater treatment plant
  • wastewater
  • sewage sludge
Open Access

How many neurons are needed to make a short-term prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate?

Published Online: 23 Aug 2022
Page range: -

Abstract

Abstract

The goal of our work was to select a neural network architecture that would give the best prediction of the Bitcoin exchange rate using historical data. Our work fits into the very important topic of predicting the value of the cryptocurrency exchange rate, and makes use of recent data which, as a result of the high Bitcoin exchange rate dynamics of the last year, differs significantly from those of previous years. We propose and test a number of neural network-based architectures and conduct a discussion of the results. Unlike previous state-of-the-art works, we conducted a comprehensive comparison of three different neural network-based models: MLP (multilayer perceptron), LSTM (long short-term memory) and CNN (convolutional neural network). We tested them for a wide range of parameters. The results we present are, to the best of our knowledge, the most up to date when it comes to the application of artificial intelligence methods for the prediction of cryptocurrency exchange rates. The best-performing architectures were used for a website that gives real-time predictions of the Bitcoin exchange rate. The website is available at http://stpbtc-ii.up.krakow.pl/. Source codes of our research are available to download in order to make our experiment reproducible.

Keywords

  • neural network
  • multiline perceptron
  • convolutional neural network
  • long short-term memory
  • Bitcoin

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