Journal & Issues

Volume 29 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 29 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 29 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 29 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 28 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 28 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 28 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 28 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 27 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 27 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 27 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 27 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 26 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 26 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 26 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 26 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 25 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 25 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 25 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 25 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 24 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 24 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 24 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 24 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 23 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 23 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 23 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 23 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 22 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 22 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 22 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 22 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 21 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 21 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 21 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 21 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 20 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 20 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 20 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 20 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 19 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 19 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 19 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 19 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 18 (2011): Issue 4 (December 2011)

Volume 18 (2011): Issue 3 (September 2011)

Volume 18 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 18 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2082-8799
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 27 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2082-8799
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Changes in Physical Performance of Amateur Mountain Bikers in the Preparatory Period

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 3 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the research was to assess the changes in the main physical performance indicators, i.e. maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), the threshold of anaerobic changes (AT) and “exercise efficiency” (oxygen consumption/power; VO2/ WR) in amateur mountain bikers in the preparatory period. In addition, diagnostic usefulness was made of selected respiratory, circulatory and metabolic parameters to assess the training progress in cycling.

Materials and methods. Thirty-six men training in amateur mountain biking took part in the research. Each of them underwent three ergospirometry tests at the beginning, in the middle (after 7 weeks) and at the end of the preparatory period (after 14 weeks). The results obtained at the AT threshold and at maximum effort were analysed to check how physical training in the preparatory period affected selected exercise parameters.

Results. No significant changes in the VO2max value were observed during the preparatory period, but a significant increase in this indicator (in absolute terms and in terms of body weight) was found at the AT level. An increase was noted in power as well as in measured metabolic, ventilation and circulatory parameters with the exception of heart rate and ventilation equivalent oxygen. VO2/WR decreased, which indicates an improvement in the effectiveness of the effort.

Conclusions. For Polish amateur cyclists with extensive training experience, the most diagnostic indicators in the preparatory period include improving the AT threshold (shift towards higher % VO2max and higher generated power) and increasing exercise efficiency.

Keywords

  • amateur mountain bikers
  • ergospirometry test
  • training cycle
Open Access

The Effect of External Attentional Focus and Self-Controlled Feedback on Motor Learning in Older Adults

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 9 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. External focus instruction and self-controlled feedback have beneficial effects on motor learning. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the benefits of combined effects of external focus instruction and self-controlled feedback on balance performance in older adults.

Material and Methods. Forty older adults (mean age: 63.21 ± 3.6 years; all female) were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: self-controlled feedback, external attention, external attention/self-controlled feedback and control group. The task of standing on the platform of the stabilometer device and trying to keep the platform horizontally as much as possible was performed in each 30-sec. trial. The participants of self-controlled group received feedback on the timing of balance after the trials. In the external focus of attention, participants noticed the signs that were located horizontally ahead of their feet. The test was conducted in two sessions. In the acquisition phase, 10 trials of 30 seconds were performed and the retention test was completed 24 hours later as 5 trials of 30 seconds.

Results. The results of mixed ANOVA on time data as an indicator of balance in the acquisition phase showed that the mixed group of external focus of attention and self-controlled feedback had better performance than the other groups (p = 0.004). In the retention test, the results of mixed ANOVA showed that the participants in the combined group of external focus and self-controlled feedback had better performance than the other groups (p = 0.006). The external focus of attention and self-controlled feedback performed similarly, and both were superior to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. The results of this study, supporting the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning in the elderly, showed that the combination of two factors of external focus and self-controlled feedback has a double advantage over the presence of each of the factors. Therefore, it is suggested that the combinations of external focus instructions and self-controlled feedback should be used to improve performance and motor learning in the classes of practical and clinical rehabilitation fields.

Keywords

  • focus of attention
  • self-controlled feedback
  • motor performance
  • dynamic balance
  • elderly
  • OPTIMAL theory of motor learning
Open Access

Effect of Eccentric Cycling and Plyometric Training on Physiological and Performance Related Parameters of Trained Junior Track Cyclists

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 14 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Some certain well-established training protocols exist for developing physical and physiological demands of a track cyclist. But still there is controversy on the effectiveness of combined training protocols. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of 4-week concurrent eccentric cycling and plyometric training on cycling performance of male cyclists at the pre-competitive phase.

Material and methods. A paired study design was applied to 15 young (15.04 ± 1.01 yrs) Indian male track cyclists to assess the effects of proposed concurrent training protocol on body composition and various physical fitness parameters.

Results. Hydration status [TBW (~1%) and ICW (~1%)], glycogen content (~3%), muscular strength (~6-11%), trunk flexibility (~5%), anaerobic power output (~9%), endurance capacity (~5%), acceleration (~7%), leg explosive strength (~7%) and agility (~2%) were found to be improved significantly after the 4-week concurrent training protocol.

Conclusions. The concurrent intervening physical training protocol was intended to increase muscular hypertrophy, peripheral factor gradient, glycolytic and oxidative enzyme capacity with proper neuromuscular coordination which may ultimately help the cyclists to pedal at a faster rate with higher muscular power output even for longer time.

Keywords

  • concurrent training
  • muscular strength
  • anaerobic power output
  • VO
Open Access

Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Physical Activity Among Students from Universities in Biala Podlaska

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Body composition as well as physical fitness and physical activity are determined by a variety of factors affecting an individual, a social group or population.

Material and methods. The research included 1st- and 2nd-year students from universities located in Biala Podlaska (University of Physical Education – UPE and State School of Higher Education – SSHE). Students were divided into 3 groups. The first group included physical education (PE) students from the UPE, the second group consisted of physiotherapy students from the UPE, while the third group included students from the SSHE. In general, 1107 individuals were examined, including 563 females and 544 males. Body height, body mass, waist circumference, hip circumference and six skinfolds were measured, fat tissue distribution indices such as WHR, TSS, ESS, TER were calculated and body composition was assessed with the use of IOI 353 body composition analyser. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Physical fitness was evaluated by performing EUROFIT tests. Statistical analysis was made on the basis of Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results. PE students manifested the highest values of body height, muscle mass and lean body mass as well as the highest level of physical activity and physical fitness. Physiotherapy students had the highest body mass and the highest level of body fat. Students from the SSHE were characterised by the lowest body height and weight, muscle mass and lean body mass. They also manifested the lowest level of total body water. Participants from this university achieved the lowest results in such physical fitness tests as standing broad jump, 10 x 5 m shuttle run and sit-and-reach. Females from the SSHE also manifested the lowest level of total physical activity.

Conclusion. It was concluded that somatic build, physical fitness and physical activity of the participants differ depending on their field of study.

Keywords

  • somatic features
  • motor abilities
  • physical activity
  • students
Open Access

Football Clubs Drowned by Players

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 28 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The insolvency in football was explained by the underperformance of a football club, either in terms of its ability to achieve playing results which depends on the quality of players on the staff, or in terms of its ability to generate a level of revenue consistent with performance in the league. Hence, two questions were addressed in the study: how deep will the European football crisis be after 2020 and are payrolls the most sensitive factor of football business performance?

Material and Methods. The study was based on the European football clubs data derived from the annual financial statement. A descriptive statistics analysis was performed in order to find out how significant salary indicators are in comparison to other football clubs’ performance measures. In order to establish the scale of changes in football finance in 2020, a basic stress test analysis was implemented.

Results. The study established that salary to revenue indicator is one of the most significant for football clubs’ performance. Thus, as the first step, the analysis of revenue reduction was elaborated and in the second step, the analysis of the reduction of salaries was performed. The presented stress test scenario implied that the situation of European football would change dramatically under the assumption of 50% reduction of the annual revenue.

Conclusions. The study established that the football clubs’situation is too serious not to be carefully managed due to cost and revenue performance.

Keywords

  • bankruptcy
  • football
  • finance
  • crisis
Open Access

Diversification of Factors Influencing Qualitative Evaluation of a Historical and Cultural Destination

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Perceived quality combined with tourist motivation, tourist experience and other variables were identified as important antecedents of tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. However, few studies have examined factors influencing a tourist’s perception of the service quality in a destination, especially in specific destinations. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether tourist motivation and tourist experience influence how tourists perceive quality and to analyse complex relationships between the constructs of perceived quality, tourist experience, tourist motivation and tourist satisfaction in the context of historical and cultural destinations.

Material and methods. A survey of 1,389 tourists who visited an ancient town in the center part of China served as the basis for analysis. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Results. The empirical results showed that tourist motivation and tourist experience exerted a significant positive influence on perceived quality. These three variables had a simultaneous significant positive impact on tourist satisfaction. The results also revealed the mediating effects of tourist experience and perceived quality in the proposed model.

Conclusions. The article verified a model regarding the relationships between tourist motivation, tourist experience, perceived quality and tourist satisfaction. According to the results, a historical and cultural destination could improve a tourist’s perceived quality and satisfaction by enhancing tourist experience and providing tourist stimuli.

Keywords

  • historical and cultural destination
  • tourist experience
  • perceived quality
  • tourist motivation
  • tourist satisfaction
6 Articles
Open Access

Changes in Physical Performance of Amateur Mountain Bikers in the Preparatory Period

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 3 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the research was to assess the changes in the main physical performance indicators, i.e. maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), the threshold of anaerobic changes (AT) and “exercise efficiency” (oxygen consumption/power; VO2/ WR) in amateur mountain bikers in the preparatory period. In addition, diagnostic usefulness was made of selected respiratory, circulatory and metabolic parameters to assess the training progress in cycling.

Materials and methods. Thirty-six men training in amateur mountain biking took part in the research. Each of them underwent three ergospirometry tests at the beginning, in the middle (after 7 weeks) and at the end of the preparatory period (after 14 weeks). The results obtained at the AT threshold and at maximum effort were analysed to check how physical training in the preparatory period affected selected exercise parameters.

Results. No significant changes in the VO2max value were observed during the preparatory period, but a significant increase in this indicator (in absolute terms and in terms of body weight) was found at the AT level. An increase was noted in power as well as in measured metabolic, ventilation and circulatory parameters with the exception of heart rate and ventilation equivalent oxygen. VO2/WR decreased, which indicates an improvement in the effectiveness of the effort.

Conclusions. For Polish amateur cyclists with extensive training experience, the most diagnostic indicators in the preparatory period include improving the AT threshold (shift towards higher % VO2max and higher generated power) and increasing exercise efficiency.

Keywords

  • amateur mountain bikers
  • ergospirometry test
  • training cycle
Open Access

The Effect of External Attentional Focus and Self-Controlled Feedback on Motor Learning in Older Adults

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 9 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. External focus instruction and self-controlled feedback have beneficial effects on motor learning. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the benefits of combined effects of external focus instruction and self-controlled feedback on balance performance in older adults.

Material and Methods. Forty older adults (mean age: 63.21 ± 3.6 years; all female) were selected and randomly divided into 4 groups: self-controlled feedback, external attention, external attention/self-controlled feedback and control group. The task of standing on the platform of the stabilometer device and trying to keep the platform horizontally as much as possible was performed in each 30-sec. trial. The participants of self-controlled group received feedback on the timing of balance after the trials. In the external focus of attention, participants noticed the signs that were located horizontally ahead of their feet. The test was conducted in two sessions. In the acquisition phase, 10 trials of 30 seconds were performed and the retention test was completed 24 hours later as 5 trials of 30 seconds.

Results. The results of mixed ANOVA on time data as an indicator of balance in the acquisition phase showed that the mixed group of external focus of attention and self-controlled feedback had better performance than the other groups (p = 0.004). In the retention test, the results of mixed ANOVA showed that the participants in the combined group of external focus and self-controlled feedback had better performance than the other groups (p = 0.006). The external focus of attention and self-controlled feedback performed similarly, and both were superior to the control group (p < 0.05).

Conclusions. The results of this study, supporting the OPTIMAL theory of motor learning in the elderly, showed that the combination of two factors of external focus and self-controlled feedback has a double advantage over the presence of each of the factors. Therefore, it is suggested that the combinations of external focus instructions and self-controlled feedback should be used to improve performance and motor learning in the classes of practical and clinical rehabilitation fields.

Keywords

  • focus of attention
  • self-controlled feedback
  • motor performance
  • dynamic balance
  • elderly
  • OPTIMAL theory of motor learning
Open Access

Effect of Eccentric Cycling and Plyometric Training on Physiological and Performance Related Parameters of Trained Junior Track Cyclists

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 14 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Some certain well-established training protocols exist for developing physical and physiological demands of a track cyclist. But still there is controversy on the effectiveness of combined training protocols. The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of 4-week concurrent eccentric cycling and plyometric training on cycling performance of male cyclists at the pre-competitive phase.

Material and methods. A paired study design was applied to 15 young (15.04 ± 1.01 yrs) Indian male track cyclists to assess the effects of proposed concurrent training protocol on body composition and various physical fitness parameters.

Results. Hydration status [TBW (~1%) and ICW (~1%)], glycogen content (~3%), muscular strength (~6-11%), trunk flexibility (~5%), anaerobic power output (~9%), endurance capacity (~5%), acceleration (~7%), leg explosive strength (~7%) and agility (~2%) were found to be improved significantly after the 4-week concurrent training protocol.

Conclusions. The concurrent intervening physical training protocol was intended to increase muscular hypertrophy, peripheral factor gradient, glycolytic and oxidative enzyme capacity with proper neuromuscular coordination which may ultimately help the cyclists to pedal at a faster rate with higher muscular power output even for longer time.

Keywords

  • concurrent training
  • muscular strength
  • anaerobic power output
  • VO
Open Access

Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Physical Activity Among Students from Universities in Biala Podlaska

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 21 - 27

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Body composition as well as physical fitness and physical activity are determined by a variety of factors affecting an individual, a social group or population.

Material and methods. The research included 1st- and 2nd-year students from universities located in Biala Podlaska (University of Physical Education – UPE and State School of Higher Education – SSHE). Students were divided into 3 groups. The first group included physical education (PE) students from the UPE, the second group consisted of physiotherapy students from the UPE, while the third group included students from the SSHE. In general, 1107 individuals were examined, including 563 females and 544 males. Body height, body mass, waist circumference, hip circumference and six skinfolds were measured, fat tissue distribution indices such as WHR, TSS, ESS, TER were calculated and body composition was assessed with the use of IOI 353 body composition analyser. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Physical fitness was evaluated by performing EUROFIT tests. Statistical analysis was made on the basis of Shapiro-Wilk and Kruskal-Wallis tests.

Results. PE students manifested the highest values of body height, muscle mass and lean body mass as well as the highest level of physical activity and physical fitness. Physiotherapy students had the highest body mass and the highest level of body fat. Students from the SSHE were characterised by the lowest body height and weight, muscle mass and lean body mass. They also manifested the lowest level of total body water. Participants from this university achieved the lowest results in such physical fitness tests as standing broad jump, 10 x 5 m shuttle run and sit-and-reach. Females from the SSHE also manifested the lowest level of total physical activity.

Conclusion. It was concluded that somatic build, physical fitness and physical activity of the participants differ depending on their field of study.

Keywords

  • somatic features
  • motor abilities
  • physical activity
  • students
Open Access

Football Clubs Drowned by Players

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 28 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The insolvency in football was explained by the underperformance of a football club, either in terms of its ability to achieve playing results which depends on the quality of players on the staff, or in terms of its ability to generate a level of revenue consistent with performance in the league. Hence, two questions were addressed in the study: how deep will the European football crisis be after 2020 and are payrolls the most sensitive factor of football business performance?

Material and Methods. The study was based on the European football clubs data derived from the annual financial statement. A descriptive statistics analysis was performed in order to find out how significant salary indicators are in comparison to other football clubs’ performance measures. In order to establish the scale of changes in football finance in 2020, a basic stress test analysis was implemented.

Results. The study established that salary to revenue indicator is one of the most significant for football clubs’ performance. Thus, as the first step, the analysis of revenue reduction was elaborated and in the second step, the analysis of the reduction of salaries was performed. The presented stress test scenario implied that the situation of European football would change dramatically under the assumption of 50% reduction of the annual revenue.

Conclusions. The study established that the football clubs’situation is too serious not to be carefully managed due to cost and revenue performance.

Keywords

  • bankruptcy
  • football
  • finance
  • crisis
Open Access

Diversification of Factors Influencing Qualitative Evaluation of a Historical and Cultural Destination

Published Online: 28 Aug 2020
Page range: 33 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Perceived quality combined with tourist motivation, tourist experience and other variables were identified as important antecedents of tourist satisfaction and destination loyalty. However, few studies have examined factors influencing a tourist’s perception of the service quality in a destination, especially in specific destinations. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether tourist motivation and tourist experience influence how tourists perceive quality and to analyse complex relationships between the constructs of perceived quality, tourist experience, tourist motivation and tourist satisfaction in the context of historical and cultural destinations.

Material and methods. A survey of 1,389 tourists who visited an ancient town in the center part of China served as the basis for analysis. Structural equation modelling was employed to test the proposed hypotheses.

Results. The empirical results showed that tourist motivation and tourist experience exerted a significant positive influence on perceived quality. These three variables had a simultaneous significant positive impact on tourist satisfaction. The results also revealed the mediating effects of tourist experience and perceived quality in the proposed model.

Conclusions. The article verified a model regarding the relationships between tourist motivation, tourist experience, perceived quality and tourist satisfaction. According to the results, a historical and cultural destination could improve a tourist’s perceived quality and satisfaction by enhancing tourist experience and providing tourist stimuli.

Keywords

  • historical and cultural destination
  • tourist experience
  • perceived quality
  • tourist motivation
  • tourist satisfaction

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo